Rbt exam passing score

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Examination Scoring

When in-person testing was restricted due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the BACB sought approval from its accrediting body to participate in an exception program that offered flexibility for RBT candidates by permitting remote testing, with the understanding that additional data collection and security measures would be required. Remote testing became available for the RBT certification program on April 15, 2020.

On March 1, 2021, in response to typical examination-security concerns associated with remote testing, the BACB will begin restricting remote testing in select geographic regions as needed. If remote testing does not appear as an option at the time of examination-appointment scheduling, it is due to these restrictions, and in-person testing will still be available. Candidates who have an existing OnVUE appointment scheduled after March 1, 2021, and who are located in restricted regions will receive an email within the first two weeks of March with guidance on how to reschedule their examination appointment at a testing center.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why is remote testing being restricted?

Remote testing was approved by the NCCA late last year in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Because this examination-delivery method is new, additional security measures, including restrictions when necessary, are needed to meet the security requirements for administration of high-stakes examinations.


Why is my area restricted?

The BACB continually monitors data from all of our examinations. When suspicious scores in any geographic region reach a particular threshold, we restrict access to remote testing in that region for an undetermined period of time to prevent lapses in examination security.


How do I know which areas are restricted?

Only the RBT candidate will be aware of the restriction at the time of scheduling their examination. Due to COVID-19, testing-center availability and remote-testing security must be constantly monitored, so restricted areas are updated regularly.


How do I know if individuals under my supervision are in a restricted area?

As an RBT Supervisor, you will need the help of the RBT candidates under your supervision to determine whether they are in a restricted area. Because restricted areas are updated regularly, the BACB is not able to provide additional information about geographic regions to supervisors or RBT candidates.

Please visit the Pearson VUE website and our BACB COVID-19 Updates web page for further details and scheduling.

BACB examinations are offered to individuals seeking BACB certification. Before taking a BACB examination, you must first apply to the BACB and provide the requested documentation showing that you have met all eligibility requirements. After receiving authorization for the examination, you may register and pay for your examination through Pearson VUE’s website.

BACB examinations are only available at authorized Pearson VUE testing sites worldwide that meet the security requirements necessary for administration of high-stakes examinations (i.e., Pearson Professional Centers). The BACB currently has authorized the availability of testing sites in 37 countries and evaluates the addition of new sites routinely and by requests made via our contact us form.

The examinations are administered using a computer-based testing (CBT) format by Pearson VUE. Pearson VUE’s website offers:

  • a tutorial to become familiar with the CBT format
  • information about what to expect at a Pearson VUE testing center
  • examination locations, testing centers, and languages offered

RBT


Please refer to the Examination section of the RBT Handbook for comprehensive information about our certification examination, including preparation for the examination, policies and rules, and what to expect after passing the examination.

Rescheduling and Cancellation Fees

Rescheduling Policy:

If you must reschedule your appointment with Pearson VUE, you must do so a minimum of 48 hours prior to the scheduled examination date. To reschedule your examination, please contact Pearson VUE by visiting Pearson VUE’s BACB examination webpage and signing into your account, or contacting Pearson VUE’s customer service directly.

Cancellation Policy:

If you must cancel your appointment with Pearson VUE, you must do so a minimum of 48 hours prior to the scheduled examination date. To cancel your exam please contact Pearson VUE by visiting Pearson VUE’s BACB examination webpage and signing into your account, or contacting Pearson VUE’s customer service directly

Pearson VUE Customer Servicer

The contact informations and hours of operation for Pearson VUE can be found on the Contact Us webpage of Pearson VUE’s BACB examination webpage. For questions about BACB examinations in general, please use the Contact Us form.

Associated Fees

Fees
30 to 5 days before the examination appointment$27
5 days to 48 hours before the examination appointment$32

Note: If you are within 48 hours of your appointment, you will be unable to cancel or reschedule your appointment, and a refund will not be issued.


Historical RBT Examination Results

2016201720182019*2020**
Number of Candidates Tested
First Time9,42020,44522,60930,57828,794
Retakes9563,2083,8675,6056,634
Percentage of Candidates Passing
First Time88%86%87%87%84%
Retakes51%49%54%52%52%

*Due to anomalous RBT-related activity in one geographic region, its testing data have been removed from this column. The RBT data for all regions are as follows for first-time test takers: # tested = 37,615, pass rate = 80%; and for retakes: # tested = 15,981, pass rate = 28%.
**Due to anomalous RBT-related activity in one geographic region, its testing data have been removed from this column. The RBT data for all regions are as follows for first-time test takers: # tested = 41,662, pass rate = 80%; and for retakes: # tested = 15,241, pass rate = 46%

You will be notified of your results at the testing site as soon as you complete the examination. The BACB will confirm your results via email, and they will appear in your BACB account within approximately one week of completing the examination.

BCaBA


Please refer to the Examination section of the BCaBA Handbook for comprehensive information about our certification examination, including preparation for the examination, policies and rules, and what to expect after passing the examination.

Rescheduling and Cancellation Fees

Any appointment canceled or rescheduled within 30 days of the examination date will be subject to a fee. Appointments canceled or rescheduled 30 or more days prior to an examination appointment will not incur a fee.

Fees
30 to 5 days before the examination appointment$59
5 days to 48 hours before the examination appointment$69

Note: If you are within 48 hours of your appointment, you will be unable to cancel or reschedule your appointment, and a refund will not be issued.


Historical BCaBA Examination Results

  20162017201820192020
Number of Candidates Tested
 First Time8121,0121,2531,4501,042
 Retakes341493751989667
Percentage of Candidates Passing
 First Time65%65%61%62%66%
 Retakes37%35% 32%36%41%

BCBA

Please refer to the Examination section of the BCBA Handbook for comprehensive information about our certification examination, including preparation for the examination, policies and rules, and what to expect after passing the examination.

Rescheduling and Cancellation Fees

Any appointment canceled or rescheduled within 30 days of the examination date will be subject to a fee. Appointments canceled or rescheduled 30 or more days prior to an examination appointment will not incur a fee.

Fees
30 to 5 days before the examination appointment$59
5 days to 48 hours before the examination appointment$69

Note: If you are within 48 hours of your appointment, you will be unable to cancel or reschedule your appointment, and a refund will not be issued.


Historical BCBA Examination Results

  20162017201820192020
Number of Candidates Tested
First Time4,0964,7856,1246,8846,583
Retakes3,2513,2974,4546,3276,166
Percentage of Candidates Passing
First Time66%65%65%63%66%
Retakes28%31% 28%27%31%

Method to Examination Scores

The BACB uses the modified Angoff method for establishing the passing score for each base examination form. New base examination forms are created approximately every five years or whenever there is a significant change to the examination content, such as the introduction of a new task list. The BACB maintains a large pool of questions that can be used to generate many different forms of the examination that are equated to the base examination.

The modified Angoff method is criterion referenced, meaning that the passing score for each base examination is established by a panel of BACB-certified subject matter experts and then approved by the BACB Board of Directors. Your performance on the examination is not dependent on the performance of those taking the examination with you.

The BACB is committed to reporting uncompromised and valid examination scores. On rare occasions, circumstances may invalidate examination scores. The BACB reserves the right to cancel or withhold examination scores due to suspected or documented misconduct during testing at a Pearson VUE site or violation of the BACB Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts. Invalidation may also occur due to situations beyond your control—or that of the BACB’s—at the testing site. Should this occur, you are encouraged to submit an administrative appeal.


FAQs About Scoring

DOES EVERYONE TAKE THE SAME EXAMINATION?

The BACB maintains a large pool of questions that can be used to generate many different forms of each examination. For security reasons, the examination forms are updated on a regular basis. Furthermore, multiple forms of the examinations are in use during each testing period, and candidates are randomly assigned to these forms.


IS ONE EXAMINATION FORM EASIER THAN ANOTHER?

The BACB uses statistical data on how each question performs to evaluate the difficulty of each examination form. The examinations are carefully constructed in order to minimize variations in difficulty from one form to another. However, it is possible to have slight variations in difficulty based on the particular combination of questions that are selected for each examination form. This is taken into account when the passing scores are set, so it does not matter which examination form each candidate takes.

Every BACB examination undergoes psychometric statistical equating to assure that scores on different forms are adjusted for any difference in the levels of difficulty. Therefore, the actual number of correct answers required to pass each examination may vary depending on the form and level of difficulty of that examination. Thus, because the passing score may vary from one examination to another, the raw number of questions answered correctly is not reported.

Passing candidates only receive notice that they have passed the examination; no additional report is provided. Failing candidates are provided with reports regarding their performance. For the BCBA and BCaBA examinations, the report includes the percentage of questions answered correctly and total number of questions within each of the primary examination content areas. For RBT examinations, the report provides a list of the RBT tasks for which the candidate answered items incorrectly. This information is provided solely for the purpose of guiding future study efforts.


HOW IS THE PASSING SCORE DETERMINED?

Please see the Examination Scoring section, which describes the method used for setting passing scores.


WHAT IS A SCALED SCORE?

Scaled scores are created when the number of questions that candidates answer correctly are mathematically transformed so that the passing score equals a certain point on a scale starting at 0 and ending at a number that equals the highest possible score. This is similar to converting inches to centimeters. For example, a 10-inch ribbon will be 25.4 centimeters long. The length of the ribbon has not changed—only the units of measurement that were used to describe it.


WHY SCALE THE SCORES?

The use of scaled scores allows us to directly compare scores from one examination form to another because the passing standard will always be the same. In the long run, this process will make the scoring of the examination easier to understand for all concerned.


WHY DOESN'T THE SCALE SHOW THE NUMBER OF QUESTIONS ON EACH EXAMINATION?

The scales used on the BCBA, BCaBA, and RBT examinations are similar to scales used by other large testing programs, such as the SAT, ACT, or GRE. The scales have more points than there are questions on the examination.


DOES SCALING THE SCORES AFFECT WHO PASSES OR FAILS THE EXAMINATION?

The use of scaled scores does not affect whether an individual candidate passes or fails the examination. The pass/fail decision is always made by comparing the number of questions answered correctly to the passing score that was established using the criterion-referenced process. The passing score is then mathematically transformed to a scaled score for each examination form. All candidates who correctly answer more items than are required to pass the examination form that they took will obtain scaled scores that are between the scaled passing score and the top of the scale . Candidates who did not answer enough items to pass will obtain scaled scores between 0 and just under the scaled passing score. Scaled scores will be detailed on individual score reports. Scaling does not affect the rank ordering of candidates. A candidate who answers more questions correctly than another candidate taking the same examination form will always obtain a higher scaled score.


CAN I FIND OUT HOW MANY QUESTIONS I ANSWERED CORRECTLY?

Unfortunately, no. The BACB will not report the number of questions answered correctly or the overall percentage of questions answered correctly. However, failing candidates will be provided with examination reports as described above. This information is provided to assist failing candidates with targeting areas for further study. Visit the RBT, BCaBA, and BCBA sample score reports for examples.


SHOULD I ONLY STUDY THE AREAS OR TASKS ON WHICH I PERFORMED POORLY?

Information on your performance is provided to assist you in identifying areas for additional study. However, you should use caution when interpreting this information. The number of items asked about each task is relatively small and therefore may not be predictive of your understanding of the task. When you prepare to take the examination again, you should study all of the content. If you study only the areas for which you answered items incorrectly, you might perform better on those areas but worse on others.

To request examination accommodations:

After the BACB receives your request and supporting documentation, it will conduct a review of the requested accommodation. This review is typically completed within 10–14 days. If the BACB requests additional documentation, however, the review of your request may take longer.

The BACB is dedicated to complying with all accommodation requirements, including the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended. While the BACB does not offer an official accommodations handbook or guide, we encourage you to refer to the following sources for examples of appropriate supporting documentation for your request:

ADA Revised Title III Regulations
Request Behavior Analytic Terms Translation for Examination Support
United States Medical Licensing Exam Guidelines for Test Accommodations
ADA National Network Guidelines

Translated documents are available on the Translated Documents web page.

General Examination Information

Examination Content and Structure

Examination Forms


Sours: https://www.bacb.com/examination-information/

When will cps do a hair follicle test

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PYDT Hair Follicle Drug Testing FAQ. Since hair growth is fed by the bloodstream, the ingestion of drugs of abuse is revealed by analyzing a small sample of hair. Testing method measures the drug molecules embedded inside the hair shaft, eliminating external contamination as a source of a positive test result. |Oct 15, 2020 · There are three major tests involved in drug testing. The tests are a hair follicle test, urine analysis, and alcohol test. Let’s know a little about them. Hair Follicle Drug Test Hair Follicle Test: A parent can go under this test if they are accused of using drugs before. This process starts with taking a hair sample from the head of the ... | A hair follicle drug test results are pretty much similar to any other type of test (saliva, urine, and blood). The subsequent steps to follow depending on the results don't vary so much too. Following ELISA screening, the results may be negative, positive, or inconclusive.|1912.2 Drug Test and Time Frame. CPS October 2020. A drug test is a test that has undergone preliminary screening and a secondary confirmation test to validate the findings. Drug tests are lab-confirmed, admissible in court, and verified by a medical review officer (MRO).|If hair follicle how far back does the test go? Asked February 15, 2019. Hair ,urine 6 mos. Answered February 15, 2019. Answer See 2 answers. What drug test do they do. Asked November 26, 2018. Hair snd urine. Answered November 26, 2018. Answer See 2 answers. Do Knight Transportation in gulf port do hair follicle or urine.| Hair follicle tests have provided positive drug test results as far back as six months. So, that Valium you took four months ago (that you forgot about), may show up as a positive on a test. Hair follicle test do not give a "used on" date, they only give a "positive" or "negative" for "some time in the past several months."| Hair samples can come from the armpit or face, so people who do not have hair on their heads can still take a hair follicle drug test. However, a person's hair must be at least 0.5-1.5 inches ...| A hair drug test uses a hair sample, typically from the hair’s root, to screen for drug use. When someone uses drugs, the substance is absorbed into the bloodstream. Because each hair follicle has a blood vessel to feed the hair growth cells, the drugs are carried from the blood into the hair follicle. |Some people get different results. So if you intend to pass a drug test, the best thing to do is not to use it. On the other hand, if you are curious about how to pass a hair follicle test for cps, what you can do is to use vinegar on your scalp for detoxification. You can do this three times a day before the drug test. | Oct 15, 2020 · There are three major tests involved in drug testing. The tests are a hair follicle test, urine analysis, and alcohol test. Let’s know a little about them. Hair Follicle Drug Test Hair Follicle Test: A parent can go under this test if they are accused of using drugs before. This process starts with taking a hair sample from the head of the ... | May 17, 2012 · false positive on drug test for cocaine on a hair follicle i took a hair follicle and it came up positive for cocaine..I haven't used in over a year. but I did take a pill fro... 13 replies Albuterol sulfate inhaler and false positive for methamphetamine on hair follicle test I did a hair follicle test and it showed up positive for methamphetamine. Many hoping to trick a hair follicle test turn to abrasive detergents, some even as abrasive as laundry detergents. These detergents are in no way good for the hair or the body, so avoiding them if at all possible is recommended. However, here's what people do in an attempt to pass a hair follicle test. Materials include:|Im a good mom my ex is trying to get my child so he called cps on me saying that i did drugs while pregnant . the worker came to my home for a interview she ask for a hair follicle test then after she left she called me back and said her super thought it was a retaliation report show it I could just do a urine test I did not do any drugs or ...|Ways to pass hair folic drug testing. If you are aware of when your drug test will be taken, then you can take precautionary measures. Let's check the areas about how to pass a hair follicle test for cps.If you know that you have to pass a hair folic drug test in a short period then you should not take weed.|Jun 21, 2017 · They don't always do a hair follicle test unless it is after a court hearing. Usually it's random UAs on none court settings unless they receive a tip. This advice does not create an attorney client relationship. |Article Overview. If you're wondering how to beat a hair follicle test, know that it is highly difficult to do. A hair follicle test is commonly selected because it gives testers (employers, probation officers, investigators, etc.) the ability to see if you have used any substances in the past 90 days.|Aside from abstinence, beating or passing hair drug testing can be quite hard, and as with any drug test, there can be false positive test results. Bleaching or dying one's hair is rumored to work, but it really doesn't. Shaving the head doesn't work either, because the testing agency will simply use hair on other parts of the body.|Officers argued the City could substitute the hair-follicle test with a random urinalysis testing for a period of 90 days for officers who fail the initial hair-follicle test. The 90-day urinalysis would cover the same detection period as the hair-follicle testing. The Court ruled that a jury could find this alternative reasonable since the ...|Main; ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Missed A Drug Test For Cps; Missed A Drug Test For Cps

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  • Officers argued the City could substitute the hair-follicle test with a random urinalysis testing for a period of 90 days for officers who fail the initial hair-follicle test. The 90-day urinalysis would cover the same detection period as the hair-follicle testing. The Court ruled that a jury could find this alternative reasonable since the ...
  • The New Scientist has an excellent story on student drug testing which reveals, among other things, that the stupid tests don't even work:. What's more, such tests can flag kids who are "clean" and miss genuine users. A study led by [director of the Adolescent Substance Abuse Program at Children's Hospital Boston, Sharon] Levy and published this month in Pediatrics (DOI: 01.1542/peds.2006-2278 ...
  • May 17, 2012 · false positive on drug test for cocaine on a hair follicle i took a hair follicle and it came up positive for cocaine..I haven't used in over a year. but I did take a pill fro... 13 replies Albuterol sulfate inhaler and false positive for methamphetamine on hair follicle test I did a hair follicle test and it showed up positive for methamphetamine.
  • A hair follicle test is a type of screening that uses a small sample of hair to identify the presence of THC metabolites and other drugs. It is one of the most popular methods of testing for companies because of its high level of accuracy. This means it's pretty hard for you to pass a marijuana drug test.
  • Feb 15, 2021 · February 15, 2021 • Uritox. The hair follicle Drug test's popularity has been rising due to its ability to detect drugs for up to 90 days (three months). If you are involved in a CPS case, CPS will subject you to a drug test. Further, if CPS suspects child abuse or neglect, the investigator may demand a drug test.
  • A hair follicle drug test can be used to detect drugs used over the past 90 days. So you can refuse to submit to the test but CPS will probably take your children away if you do. Im licensed to practice law only in Indiana and weve never met so I cant give you legal advice.
  • A hair follicle drug test results are pretty much similar to any other type of test (saliva, urine, and blood). The subsequent steps to follow depending on the results don't vary so much too. Following ELISA screening, the results may be negative, positive, or inconclusive.
  • The results of this will tell you if your follicles are truly dead or not. If your doctor is hesitant to do a scalp biopsy, a second option is a hair pull test. This second test is much less invasive; however, it is also less accurate. Simply put, a hair pull test involves pulling several strands of hair from your scalp.
  • CPS wants me to do a hair follicle drug test with an anonymous tip, am I required to do this? It's not court ordered. A neighbor filed an anonymous type over a year ago. Saying I was using drugs in my home. The CPS worker wants me to do a hair analysis and I have very long hair. I'm a recovering addict.
  • To a large extent it depends on the state where you live. First of all in most states CPS cannot order you to do anything. However if the court ordered it CPS will be the ones that will tell you to get it done and they will be the ones that will g...
  • If hair follicle how far back does the test go? Asked February 15, 2019. Hair ,urine 6 mos. Answered February 15, 2019. Answer See 2 answers. What drug test do they do. Asked November 26, 2018. Hair snd urine. Answered November 26, 2018. Answer See 2 answers. Do Knight Transportation in gulf port do hair follicle or urine.
  • Yes, the hair follicle drug test works regardless of how often one uses drugs. The frequency of drug use does not impact test results. It is the period in which the user used drugs that determines the outcome of the hair follicle drug test. Whether a person used once or 50 times in a three month period, the hair follicle drug test will indicate ...
  • Description: Drug Test - 12 Panel Hair Follicle. The 12 Panel Hair Follicle test provides testing for common drugs of abuse.Hair drug testing can typically detect drug use up to 90 days in the past.Most drugs will be detectable in hair starting at 7-10 days after use.Because hair follicle testing looks for drug metabolites, external or second hand exposure should not cause a false positive result.
  • I took adderall for two days in march during finals. will it show up on a hair drug test at the end of may. No: It should not be detectable anymore. Ask U.S. doctors your own question and get educational, text answers — it's anonymous and free! Doctors typically provide answers within 24 hours.
  • “We note that a hair follicle drug test will remain positive until approximately ninety days after the individual stops using cocaine. Thus, even if the mother wanted to comply with the order immediately, she might be unable to do so, and both she and the child would be punished unnecessarily by the deprivation of supervised visitation during ...
  • Main; ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Missed A Drug Test For Cps; Missed A Drug Test For Cps
  • David Bell explains what a hair follicle drug test is, it's strengths and weaknesses, myths people believe about it, and how it *really* works. Learn more at...
  • I showed up to test, and my paperwork was never sent in. The same thing happened the next 4 days. When they came to do a home check the 4th day they told me the problem was the location no longer did hair testing. I said I was never told about hair and the worker said "the department" is the one requesting it.
  • The most used drug test types are urine, saliva, blood, and hair. We know everything about urine, saliva, and blood drug testing because those tests are fairly easy to pass. But how to pass a hair follicle drug test? Well, hair strand tests are the most advanced type of drug test and are very difficult to beat. Passing a hair follicle test is much harder than any other drug test.
  • Answer (1 of 3): The answer is no, because you used the term "legally demand". But they can use your refusal in so many derogatory contexts, making snide but subtle "what are you hiding?" inferences, or getting you to comply by dangling the child like a carrot in front of you. What I did was to...
  • May 29, 2007 · 10. #1343 HDL53, Jul 18, 2011. Last edited by a moderator: Jul 18, 2011. Black Male 5'8 227lbs havent smoked in about a month and only once or twice in the month before that. Hair is only about a 1/2 inch long. Used the gman method twice the day before the test and then used zydot the morning of.
  • How To Pass A Hair Follicle Test For CPS/Child Protective . Drugs (2 days ago) The hair follicle Drug test's popularity has been rising due to its ability to detect drugs for up to 90 days (three months). If you are involved in a CPS case, CPS will subject you to a drug test.
  • Similarly, a drug test on a newborn at birth does not determine whether the mother's use or the extent of the mother's use has - See speed test results from other users. Jun 08, 2019 · There are some drug tests that are easy to pass, but unfortunately, a hair follicle drug test is not one of them. Do not believe them.
  • tag archives: fake hair follicle test results fight cps and win seminar. located in pasadena, california click on the picture to find out more and to register! ... not cps! child "protective" services is not in the best interests of the child. foster care is a dangerous place and far far too many children bear extraordinary conditions in foster ...
  • Dec 05, 2018 · Answered December 5, 2018 - CPS Investigator II (Former Employee) - Houston, TX. No, no drug tests were given to workers. Answered August 13, 2018 - Administrative Assistant (Former Employee) - San Antonio, TX. Yes they do.
  • Proven Tricks to Pass a Hair Follicle Drug Test. CPS test also. Drugs (Just Now) Perhaps the biggest risk of all is that unlike a urinalysis that detects drug use in 1-4 days, a hair drug test effectively tracks drug-use as far back as 3 months (90 days).

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  • I frequently get the call from potential clients when they have come under the radar of CPS after someone has placed an anonymous call to the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services.If the caller stated you were using illegal drugs or that you were arrested for a drug-related offense, then there is a good chance a caseworker will show up at your door asking that you take a drug test.
  • A hair follicle drug test can be used to detect drugs used over the past 90 days. A second screen is used to confirm positive test results. Some medications may result in a false positive, so be ...

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Are You Ready to Take the BCBA Exam?

In January 2020, theBACB® announcedthat the BCBA certification exam will now be administered on a continual basis, rather than having four designated testing months per year.  Now that you have the flexibility to take the BCBA certification exam in any month that you choose, many of you will be asking yourselves, “How will I know when I’m ready to take the BCBA exam?” 

This is a very good question.  You have spent years studying and working within the field of applied behavior analysis and you have met all of the BACB’s requirements to sit for the exam.  You want to pass this exam.  Maybe you even need to pass this exam.  And you feel the weight of the world telling you that you need to take the BCBA exam as soon as possible.  Since the BACB itself does not offer mock exams, you find yourself wishing there was a way to know whether or not you were ready to sit for the BCBA certification exam.  Fortunately, StudyABA provides a solution to this dilemma with ourBCBA mock exams.

The Solution

At StudyABA, we believe that ourmock examsare the most reliable indicator for how well you will perform on the real BCBA certification exam and the data supports our claim.  Over the years, we have administered over 19,000 mock exams to people in 45 different countries around the world!  Over 99% of the people who pass our mock exams go on to pass the real certification exam.  We rigorously analyze the data of thousands of test-takers worldwide to ensure that our mock exams match the difficulty of the real BCBA certification exam.  Because StudyABA mock exams are the closest simulation to the real BCBA certification exam, universities and large ABA organizations choose StudyABA mock exams to analyze how well-prepared their students/employees are for the real BCBA certification exam.

The StudyABA Advantage

StudyABA mock exams are not only an accurate assessment for how well you will perform on the real BCBA exam, they also help you improve your exam score.  The key to increasing your test scores is in our answer explanations.  After you take a StudyABA mock exam through our online testing portal, you will immediately receive an email with your scores and answer explanations for every question.  We methodically break each question down to explain why the correct answer is correct and why the other answer options are incorrect.  Learning how to break a question down to find the correct answer is a complex skill that should be mastered prior to taking the real BCBA exam.  With ourPlatinum Exam Package, users increase their overall exam scores by an average of 9%.  Since most people who fail the exam do so by only a handful of questions, this package gives you the extra bump you need to get your scores within the passing range.  Because we are so confident in ourBCBA mock exams, you will receive your money back if you fail the real BCBA certification exam after passing our mock exams.

So, the next time you find yourself wondering whether or not you are ready to sit for the BCBA exam, remember that StudyABA mock exams hold the answer.


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Join StudyABA’s Global Mission

StudyABA gives back to the global ABA community.  When you purchase our mock exams, you allow us to continue donating free mock exams to people in underserved countries around the world.  Thank you for helping us fulfill our mission of making ABA services more accessible worldwide!

For additional exam prep tips and strategies, check out ourBCBA Exam Advicepage.

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For BCBA and BCaBA examinations, the scale starts and 0 and ends at 500, with the passing score equal to 400. For RBT examinations, the scale is 0 to 250, with the passing score equal to 200.


Click to see full answer


Consequently, how many questions can you miss on the BCBA exam?

Each question has four possible answers. You will have four hours to complete the examination. Examination content is based on the BCBA/BCaBA Task List (4th ed.).

Content Areas.

Content AreaNumber of Questions
Total Number of Questions130

Similarly, how long should I study for the BCBA exam? It will be essential for you to practice your pacing during these practice exams to ensure you do not run out of time when taking the certification exam. You will have 4 hours to complete the real certification exam, which equates to 90 seconds per question.

Also, what is a passing score for the BCBA exam?

the passing score for the BCBA base exam be 76% (114 out of 150 correct). Note: exam forms that are more or less difficult than the base-exam forms have comparably adjusted passing scores. After reviewing the results of the passing-score study, the BACB's Board of Directors voted to accept the panel's recommendations.

How do I prepare for the BCBA exam?

How to Prepare: Focus on Your Weakest Areas

  1. If you are still struggling with particular content areas of the BACB's Task List, we recommend taking our Content Quizzes.
  2. Finally, we recommend taking a full-length BCBA® Mock Exam a week or two before the actual exam.
Sours: https://findanyanswer.com/what-do-you-need-to-pass-the-bcba-exam

Passing score exam rbt

What score do you need to pass RBT exam?

For RBT examinations, the scale is 0 to 250, with the passing score equal to 200.

Click to see full answer.


Similarly one may ask, how many questions can you miss on the RBT exam?

The RBT exam is 2 hours long, and there will be 75 total questions. ** Please note, your exam may include "Trial questions" which are questions the BACB is evaluating for future tests - missing these questions won't count against you. They are not marked as trial questions on the actual exam.

Secondly, how do I pass the BCaBA exam? Tips for Passing the BCBA Exam

  1. Choose an Applied Behavior Analysis Degree With a High BCBA Pass Rate. The national average pass rate on the first try for the BCBA certification exam is 65 percent.
  2. Choose Academic Substance Over Name.
  3. Team Up With Your Coworkers and Classmates.
  4. Graduate in a Timely Manner.
  5. Join Online Groups for BCBA Test Takers.

is the RBT exam hard?

Taking the Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) exam can be a daunting thought. There is a lot of content to cover in the task list. The language used in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is technical and can take some time to fully understand.

How long should I study for the BCBA exam?

It will be essential for you to practice your pacing during these practice exams to ensure you do not run out of time when taking the certification exam. You will have 4 hours to complete the real certification exam, which equates to 90 seconds per question.

Sours: https://askinglot.com/what-score-do-you-need-to-pass-rbt-exam
Study for the Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) exam for FREE AND PASS!

Does everyone take the same examination?

No. BACB maintains a large pool of questions, which can be used to generate many different forms of each examination. For security reasons, the examination forms are updated on a regular basis. Furthermore, multiple forms of the examinations are in use during each testing window and candidates are randomly assigned to these forms.

Is one examination form easier than another?

No. BACB uses statistical data on how each question performs to evaluate the difficulty of each examination form. The examinations are carefully constructed in order to minimize variations in difficulty from one form to another. However, it is possible to have slight variations in difficulty based on the particular combination of questions that are selected for each examination form. This is taken into account when the passing scores are set so it does not matter which examination form each candidate takes.

Every BACB examination undergoes psychometric statistical equating to assure that scores on different forms are adjusted for any difference in the levels of difficulty. Therefore, the actual number of correct answers required to pass each exam may vary depending on the form and level of difficulty of that examination. Thus, because the passing score may vary from one examination to another, the raw number of questions answered correctly is not reported.

Passing candidates receive only notice that they have passed the examination and no additional report is provided. Failing candidates are provided with reports regarding their performance. For the BCBA and BCaBA examinations, the report includes the percentage of questions answered correctly and total number of questions within each of the primary examination content areas. For RBT examinations, the report provides a list of the RBT Tasks for which the candidate answered items incorrectly. This information is provided solely for the purpose of guiding future study efforts.

How is the passing score determined?

Please see our passing scores information which describes the method used for setting passing scores.

What is a scaled score?

Scaled scores are created when the number of questions that candidates answer correctly is mathematically transformed so that the passing score equals a certain point on a scale starting at 0 and ending at a number that equals the highest possible score. For BCBA and BCaBA examinations, the scale starts and 0 and ends at 500, with the passing score equal to 400. For RBT examinations, the scale is 0 to 250, with the passing score equal to 200.

This transformation is very similar to converting inches to centimeters; for example, a 10-inch ribbon will be 25.4 centimeters long. The length of the ribbon has not changed, only the units of measurement that were used to describe it.

Why scale the scores?

The use of scaled scores allows us to directly compare scores from one examination form to another because the passing standard will always be the same (i.e., a scaled score of 200 for an RBT examination, or 400 for a BCBA or BCaBA examination). In the long run, this process will make the scoring of the examination easier to understand for all concerned. No matter which form of an examination a candidate takes, the scaled passing score will remain constant.

Why does the scale not reflect the number of questions on the examinations?

The scales used on the BCBA, BCaBA and RBT examinations are similar to scales used by other large testing programs, such as the SAT, ACT, or GRE. The scales have more points than there are questions on the examination.

Does scaling the scores affect who passes or fails the examination?

The use of scaled scores does not affect whether or not an individual candidate passes or fails the examination. The pass/fail decision is always made by comparing the number of questions answered correctly to the passing score that was established using the criterion referenced process. All candidates who correctly answer more items than are required to pass the examination form that they took will obtain scaled scores that are between the scaled passing score and the top of the scale (i.e., between 200 and 250 for RBT, or between 400 and 500 for BCBA and BCaBA). Candidates who did not answer enough items to pass will obtain scaled scores between 0 and just under the passing score (i.e., between 0 and 199 for RBT, or between 0 and 399 for BCBA and BCaBA). Scaling also does not affect the rank ordering of candidates. A candidate who answers more questions correctly than another candidate taking the same examination form will always obtain a higher scaled score.

Can I find out how many questions I answered correctly?

No, the BACB will not report the number of questions answered correctly or the overall percentage of questions answered correctly. However, failing candidates will be provided with examination reports as described above. This information is provided to assist failing candidates with targeting areas for further study.

View RBT, BCaBA, and BCBA sample score reports.

Should I only study the areas or tasks on which I performed poorly?

Information on your performance is provided to assist you in identifying areas for additional study. However, you should use caution when interpreting this information. The number of items asked about each task is relatively small and therefore may not be predictive of your understanding of the task. When you prepare to take the exam again, you should study all of the content. If you study only the areas for which you answered items incorrectly, you might perform better on those areas but worse on others.

Sours: https://www.bacb.com/examination-information/information-about-scoring/

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We thoroughly check each answer to a question to provide you with the most correct answers. Found a mistake? Let us know about it through the REPORT button at the bottom of the page.

The actual RBT exam has 85 questions, 10 of which are “under review” and do not count towards your score (the board is assessing the difficulty of those questions to ensure they are appropriate for the exam). You would have one hour to complete this exam – however, this quiz is untimed!

How many questions can you miss on the RBT exam?

You have to answer at least 60/75 questions correctly. There are also 10 pilot questions in the exam that do not count toward your score, so the exam ends up being a total of 85 questions. You will not know which questions are the pilot questions and which are the graded questions, so don’t freak out if you read a question that totally throws you off guard as it may just be a pilot question that the BACB is testing to consider adding to the exam.

RBT Practice Quiz

Your answer:

Correct answer:

You got {{SCORE_CORRECT}} out of {{SCORE_TOTAL}}

RBT Mock Exam Questions and Answers

1. What is a multiple relationship?

  • Working with two clients at the same time
  • Working with two different clients
  • Having two different relationships with one client
  • Working with a client in the community and clinic settings

2. Which of the following is part of the RBT ethical code?

  • Be compassionate for the less fortunate
  • Be truthful and honest
  • Resolve all issues formally
  • If there is an issue, file a formal complaint immediately

3. A client gives you a bottle opener from their birthday party. What does the ethical code say you should do?

  • Refuse the gift and send a letter home that forbids future gifting.
  • Accept and use in front of them to make them feel good.
  • Politely decline and explain to them/ their parents the nature of your professional relationship.
  • Throw it away immediately.

4. What should you do if you are arrested for a minor marijuana charge?

  • Report to BACB within 24 hours
  • Do not report; this is not a fireable offense and your credential with remain in tact
  • Provide 2 weeks notice to employer
  • Report to BACB within 30 days

5. Which is considered confidential information per the BACB ethical code?

  • Information about a client that can be found online
  • Information about the people that RBT works with
  • Written records
  • Electronic records
  • All of the above

6. If you are not providing direct ABA services and are having a fun Friday, what should you do?

  • Do not make reference to, display, or otherwise use your RBT
  • Explain to parents that ABA was being performed under their RBT credential
  • Display your RBT certificate when requested
  • Bill since you have the RBT credetial

7. Your supervisor requests that you work with a new client who has behaviors you have never encountered. What should you do?

  • Refuse as you lack experience in this type of behavior
  • Request more training from supervising BCBA
  • Accept since you are contractually obligated
  • Politely decline

8. Which antecedent increases or decreases the value of a consequence?

  • Abolishing Operation
  • Establishing Operation
  • Motivating Operation
  • SD

9. You are recording the time it takes from the presentation of the demand (Sd) to the first instance of behavior. What are you measuring?

  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Latency
  • Inter-response time

10. How long the behavior occurs refers to what measurement dimension?

  • Duration
  • Momentary time sampling
  • Latency
  • Tally/ Count

11. John is recording data on aggression by counting the number of scratches left on his body after a session. What kind of measurement is this?

  • Duration
  • Time sampling
  • Continuous measurement
  • Permanent product

12. Escape, attention, tangible, sensory

  • Functions of behavior
  • Teaching strategies
  • Types of prompts
  • Dimensions of ABA

13. Determined by ABC Data

  • Prompt level
  • Duration
  • Function
  • Inter-response time

14. The breakdown of a task into its individual components and steps.

  • Discrete trial
  • Forward chaining
  • Stimulus control
  • Task analysis

15. Signals that reinforcement is available.

16. Examples are food, water, sex, sleep.

  • Secondary reinforcement
  • Primary reinforcement
  • Sd
  • Consequence of behavior

17. Examples are money and tokens.

  • Primary reinforcement
  • Secondary reinforcement
  • Economic reinforcement
  • Fiscal considerations

18. Increases the future likelihood of behavior.

  • Punishment
  • Motivation
  • Rewards
  • Reinforcement

19. Adding a stimulus which increases the future likelihood of behavior.

  • Positive reinforcement
  • Positive punishment
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Negative punishment

20. Verbal behavior with point-to-point correspondence.

  • Mand
  • Tact
  • Intraverbal
  • Echoic

21. Removing a stimulus which decreases the future likelihood of behavior.

  • Positive reinforcement
  • Positive punishment
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Negative punishment

22. Reinforcement is delivered on the average of every 2 minutes in which the behaviors occur.

23. What are the four functions of behavior?

  • Toys, Edibles, Praise, and Aversion
  • Sensory, Escape, Attention, and Tangibles
  • Sensory Overload, Non-Compliance, Aggression, and Compliance
  • Automatic Sensory, Automatic Positive, and Social Negative

24. Verbal behavior of requesting

  • Mand
  • Tact
  • Echoic
  • Intraverbal

25. Removing a stimulus which decreases the future likelihood of behavior.

  • Positive reinforcement
  • Positive punishment
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Negative punishment

26. Tilda finished her session after being supervised by her BCBA. During the session, she recorded data on a paper data collection sheet. While she was cleaning up, she spilled a cup of coffee all over her data sheet, making it completely illegible.

What should Tilda do? Her company has strict policies regarding staff who fail to properly enter data at the end of a shift!

  • Tilda should not record any data for that session – that would be unethical. No further action (such as contacting her supervisor) is necessary – if a supervisor sees no data collected, they automatically know that coffee was spilled on the paper data sheet due to their experience with coffee and paper in the past.
  • Tilda should try her best to estimate the client’s performance on each skill target. After all, it wasn’t that long ago – she can probably remember everything alright.
  • Tilda should notify her supervisor of the mishap and try to prevent such a fiasco in the future – perhaps by using mechanical or digital data collection systems.
  • Tilda should submit the coffee-stained paper data sheet to her supervisor during the next supervision session and resign.

27. What occurs before the behavior?

  • Antecedent
  • Response
  • Behavior
  • Consequence

28. Example, “do this.”

29. What occurs after the behavior?

  • Antecedent
  • Behavior
  • Response
  • Consequence

30. Tammy is a BCBA working at a behavior analysis clinic. She is creating a flyer for an exciting workshop event at her clinic, and wants to share it with all the families currently receiving behavior analysis services, so she mass emails (cc – carbon copy) the entire roster of active patients at her facilty.

What, if anything, is wrong with this situation?

  • This is fine and permitted by the BACB, within reason
  • CC (carbon copy) reveals the names of people who are receiving behavior analysis services without getting their consent first, which violates HIPPA, as revealing the name of someone receiving mental health services is protected healthcare information.
  • Generally speaking, behavior analysis is not a “medical” field and therefore not required to respect privacy as federally mandated by the HIPAA act. However, this type of behavior is considered somewhat “unclassy.”
  • Sam should avoid sending out mass emails, as it’s very tacky

31. Tim, a BCBA, always writes his procedures in clear and concise terms so that his staff (and families, too!) can easily understand what is meant by his procedures. He provides complete and full definitions, and avoids using overly specific jargon when the person(s) who will be reading or implementing his procedures are laypersons.
Of the 7 Dimensions of ABA (as originally described by Baer, D., Wolf, M., & Risley, R., 1968), which of the following does the above most closely describe?

  • Applied
  • Behavioral
  • Technological
  • Conceptually Systematic

32. Start with most intrusive prompt.

  • Forward chaining
  • Backwards chaining
  • Most to least prompting
  • Least to most prompting

33. Reinforcing gradual changes in behavior.

  • Chaining
  • Shaping
  • Prompting
  • Reinforcing

34. Teaching a task analysis by teaching the first step first.

  • Forward chaining
  • Prompting
  • Backwards chaining
  • Fading

35. Start with least intrusive prompt.

  • Forward chaining
  • Backwards chaining
  • Least to most prompting
  • Most to least prompting

36. Teaching the entire task analysis at once

  • Total task presentation
  • Single task presentation
  • Discriminative stimulus
  • Forward chaining

37. Reinforcement provided on the average of every 5 correct responses

38. Reinforcement provided every 2 minutes in which behavior occurred.

39. Reinforcement provided every 10 minutes that behavior occurs.

40. MSWO

  • Multiple stimulus with replacement
  • Multiple stimulus without replacement
  • Multiple stimulus with operates
  • Multiple settings with replacement

41. FBA

  • free behavior assessment
  • functional behavior assessment
  • function of behavior analysis
  • Freudian behavior assessment

42. You provide reinforcement to your client for clapping, and ignore him when he hits.

  • Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
  • Differential reinforcement for lower rats of behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of other behavior

43. Reinforcing progressively lower response rates.

  • Differential reinforcement of higher rates of behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of other behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior

44. Reinforcing progressively increasing rates of behavior.

  • Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of other behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of higher rates of behavior

45. Which of the following examples below is an example of a VARIABLE RATIO schedule of reinforcement?

  • Grandma loves the slots in Vegas! On average, every 30th pull of the slot machine results in a small cash payout. Sometimes the payout occurs on the 15th pull… sometimes on the 45th… but, on average, payout occurs every 30 pulls on the slot machine. Grandma can’t wait to hit the jackpot someday!
  • Every time Billy screams, his mother punishes him by taking away his toys for the night
  • Tim gives his students a treat from the candy jar every time they get a 100% on their tests
  • Individuals who pass the RBT exam are given a $50 bonus on their next pay check at ACME ABA company.

46. Withholding reinforcement for a target response

  • Variable reinforcement
  • Extinction
  • Punishment
  • Reinforcement schedule

47. Sometimes, behavior analysts will break down a complex chain of behaviors into smaller discrete steps to facilitate teaching.

The learner will then be taught to complete the steps in their logical order, with the completion of the previous step serving as the reinforcer for that step and the discriminative stimulus (SD) for the next step. Finally, the last step in the chain (terminal step) serves as the reinforcer for the whole chain.

What is this called?

  • Task Analysis
  • Task Step
  • Task Endurance
  • Task Sequence
  • A Recipe

48. An experienced RBT supervises other RBTs at work, due to a shortage of board certified assistant (BCaBA) and board-certified behavior analysts (BCBAs).

What, if any, ethical consideration exists here?

  • As long as the RBT is being supervised by a behavior analyst, there is no ethical concern here.
  • There is no ethical concern here – this is standard practice, as mandated by the BACB.
  • The RBT needs to be supervised directly by a certified behavior analyst (BCaBA, BCBA, BCBA-D). The type of supervision and quantity are directly specified by the board.
  • As long as the RBT practices lots of the free quizzes on this awesome website, they should be fine.

49. You’re about to start a session with a client. What do you need to do to be sure you’re ready to have a successful session (at the very minimum)?

  • You can probably just wing it. You’re pretty good at this, after all, and your memory is amazing.
  • A cup of coffee is all anyone really needs – if anyone tells you elsewise, they’re a liar or a tea-drinker.
  • You should know the responses and their response definitions that you will be measuring during your session. In addition, make sure you’re prepared to take data – clickers, notepaper and a pencil, whatever you need, make sure you have it!
  • Before the session, conduct a functional behavioral assessment and an informal preference assessment. Following that, draft a treatment plan while the client plays with an iPad.

50. What happens before/ immediately precedes behavior in data collection is known as the…

  • Antecedent
  • Motivation Operation
  • Preceding Stimulus
  • Setting event

51. How long a tantrum behavior occurs, how long it takes a client to do homework; what type of data collection is this?

  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Interresponse time
  • Latency

52. Time between two successive responses.

  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Intensity
  • Inter-response time

53. Record a + if behavior occurred at any point during the interval.

  • Momentary Time Sampling
  • Duration per Occurrence
  • Partial Interval Recording
  • Partial Interview Recording

54. When attempting to assess the function of a client’s behavior, what is often considered the “gold standard” for experimentally identifying function?

  • Ask yourself, “What are the A-B-C’s for this behavior?” Sketch it out, and write a functional response definition for the behavior and proceed with treatment. Trust your intuition!
  • Watch the behavior of interest occur in the natural environment; that should be sufficient.
  • Free operant or multiple stimulus assessment
  • Conducting an analog or naturalistic functional analysis is usually considered the best way to identify function

55. Select the best definition for differential reinforcement, from the choices below:

  • A stimulus that, when presented following a behavior, causes an overall INCREASE in that behavior over time.
  • Providing greater reinforcement for better approximations of a target behavior, and placing other behaviors on extinction or on a less desirable reinforcement schedule.
  • A stimulus that signals the availability of a reinforcer.
  • A stimulus that, when presented following a behavior, causes an overall DECREASE in that behavior over time.

56. A little boy is playing with his toys in his room. Holding one of his stuffed animal dolls, he looks at it and says “Zebra!”

Which elementary verbal operant does this scenario most likely describe?

  • Intraverbal
  • Echoic
  • Autoclitic
  • Tact

57. Teaching communication to replace problem behaviors.

  • Functional communication training
  • FIT
  • Differential reinforcement of other behaviors
  • FR-3 schedule of reinforcement

58. What occurs when reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior is no longer provided, resulting in the decrease of frequency of the behavior in the future?

  • Endangerment
  • Extinction
  • Pivotal Response Training
  • Negative reinforcement

59. For a child who is always picked up when they cry, not picking them up in the future would be an example of…?

  • Escape
  • Elopement
  • Extinction
  • Negative reinforcement

60. Which type of extinction procedure has the individual simply giving no outward signs or response to a behavior, such as eye contact, verbal/ physical responses?

  • Planned ignoring
  • Escape extinction
  • Functional communication training
  • Positive reinforcement

61. A child is taught to raise their hand as an alternative to yelling out in class. Which type of differential reinforcement does this example represent?

  • Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors
  • Differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors
  • Differential reinforcement of other behaviors

62. Classical conditioning is also commonly referred to as…

  • Reflex Reaction
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Learning
  • Pavolovian Conditioning

63. For a child who is scratching his skin, extinction can be used by the child wearing a glove, preventing the contact of the sensory stimulation that comes from scratching the skin. Which type of extinction does this represent?

  • Sensory extinction
  • Escape extinction
  • Attention extinction
  • Functional communication training

64. A neutral stimulus can become conditioned by pairing this stimulus with an unconditioned or previously conditioned stimulus. True or false?

65. The sign being illuminated at your favorite restaurnt says “open.” The open sign signals he availability of stopping, as it indicates that the behavior of going into the restaurant will be reinforced by the delivery of food. What type of stimulus is this an example of?

66. This follows a response and increases the probability of that response occurring again in the future.

  • Punishment
  • Reinforcement
  • Consequence
  • Stimulus

67. Adding something that will motivate a person to increase the likelihood that they will engage in the target behavior again. What type of reinforcement is this?

  • Positive
  • Negative
  • Continuous
  • Discontinuous

68. Food is an example of what type of reinforcer?

  • Unconditioned
  • Conditioned
  • Negative
  • Positive

69. Money is an example of what type of reinforcement?

  • Negative
  • Unconditioned
  • Secondary
  • Primary

70. Extremely bright lights, freezing temperature, electric shock are all examples of which punisher?

  • Conditioned
  • Unknown
  • Unconditioned
  • Secondary

71. Satiation is a term that refers to what?

  • An abolishing operation (value decrease) of a reinforcer due to an organism being over-exposed to that stimulus
  • An establishing operation (value increase) of a reinforcer due to it’s scarcity
  • A stimulus that is aversive or non-preferred
  • To be at capacity or over-supplied

72. Which of the following is true about cumulative records?

  • Trends in a cumulative record can include a positive (increasing) and negative (decreasing) slope
  • A combination of all frequency scores into a single “master score index” used in statistical analysis to compare frequency charts for different types of radical behaviors
  • Data never decreases in a cumulative record; an increasing slope indicates occurrence of the target behavior, while a flat slope indicates periods of no occurrences of the target behavior
  • Data is recorded once per session; downward slopes indicate a decreasing trend

73. Removing something that increases the future likelihood of behavior is called…

  • Negative punishment
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Positive punishment
  • Positive reinforcement

74. Present 5 easy/ mastered tasks in quick succession immediately before presenting an acquisition target.

  • Behavior modification
  • Behavior momentum
  • Behavior inertia
  • Functional community training.

75. Is exaggerating covered by the RBT ethical code?

76. How much time needs to pass before entering a relationship with a client or supervisor?

  • 2 years after the working relationship ends
  • 6 months after the working relationship ends
  • 1 month, as long as a personal relationship is established
  • Never

77. What should you do if you are arrested for a minor marijuana charge?

  • Report to BACB within 24 hours
  • Do not report; this is not a fireable offense and your credential with remain in tact
  • Provide 2 weeks notice to employer
  • Report to BACB within 30 days

78. When working with a client, whose preferences should take priority?

  • Parent
  • Teacher
  • BCBA
  • Client

79. If you become aware that a client’s legal rights are being violated, which of the following actions should you take?

  • Contact relevant authorities
  • Follow organization’s policies
  • Document efforts to address the matter
  • Consult with your supervisor
  • All of the above

80. Sally is an RBT working with a client named Jim. Jim tends to scream and bite his arm forcefully when presented with his token board, and sometimes when Sally opens up her laptop. Sally almost never opens up her laptop unless she’s about to ask Jim to do some of his table work activities.

What do you think the most likely function of Jim’s behavior is?

  • Sensory Overload
  • Escape from demands presented by others (Socially Mediated Negative Reinforcement)
  • Access to Tangibles, such as preferred Items & activities (Socially Mediated Positive Reinforcement)
  • Escape from a painful stimulus, such as a headache! (Automatically Mediated Negative Reinforcement)

81. You are asked to collect data on aggression. Every time your learner agresses, you click the tally counter. What are you measuring?

  • Duration
  • Duration per occurrence
  • Latency
  • Frequency

82. You are recording the time it takes from the presentation of the demand (Sd) to the first instance of behavior. What are you measuring?

  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Latency
  • Inter-response time

83. For every third correct response, you deliver a preferred edible. What reinforcement schedule is this?

84. Which of the following is the LEAST unethical decision?

  • An RBT working with a family on community skills goals in a shopping mall is offered a gift by the family once they conclude their shopping trip. The RBT accepts the gift.
  • A family is going on vacation and wants to bring their RBT along to help their child work on goals while on vacation. The RBT can’t afford the trip, so the family decides to pay for their trip in order to bring them along. The RBT agrees, as this is a valid business expense.
  • A small child, who is the client of an RBT, offers the RBT a hand-made card, made from construction paper and way too much glitter, as a gift. The RBT readily accepts with a big smile on his face.
  • A mechanic, who is the father of a child receiving behavioral services from an RBT, notices the RBT is having trouble starting her car. He offers to help her fix it at his shop for free. The RBT is grateful, and accepts the gift from the client’s father.

85. Response definitions, sometimes also referred to as operational definitions or behavior definitions, refer to a …

  • Objective, clear, concise, and complete description of a behavior of interest
  • Use laymans terms to explain to parents what type of function the behavior most likely possesses
  • Describe only the function of the behavior of interest
  • Provide a subjective, comfortable description of the behavior of interest

Missed Questions

Gene, A preschooler, is a thumbsucker. The teacher finds it unsanitary and has asked a BCBA working with the preschool to help her decrease the thumb sucking. The BCBA asks you to take baseline data. Which measurement dimension would be most useful to the BCBA when they design an intervention?

Duration, or how much time during the day Gene is sucking her thumb.

RBT’s will often be charged with helping clients increase their current repertoire of skills. Skill acquisition plans are aimed to do just that. Components of a successful plan include: identifying the deficit, create a goal to address the deficit, establish a data measurement system, take baseline data, select and implement an acquisition procedure, then collect data to assess effectiveness of the procedure. The final step would likely be…..

modify existing plan based on assessment data

As an RBT you may come across many variations of Behavior Reduction Plans or Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs). However, all good plans should include: Intro/ Background info, descriptions of behaviors, hypothesized functions, functionally equivalent replacement behaviors, skill acquisition strategies, antecedent prevention strategies, and…..

Reaction strategies, measurement systems, system of reinforcement

A discrimination stimulus is…

something in the environment that either evokes or abates behavior and a signal that reinforcement is available

A good skill acquisition plan will include an objective, criteria for mastery, how to teach the skill and necessary prompts, as well as stating…

specific roles of those working with the client

Which of the following would be the best addition to objective session notes?

Client performed 3 of 5 given tasks with 100% mastery

When generating session notes, RBTs should be aware of…

objectively and lack of personal bias

What is the role of the RBT in the service delivery system?

implement behavior intervention plan

When Behavioral professional speak of ethics they are talking about….

accepted standards of behavior, doing what is right

The measure of a permanent product looks at…

production

The Professional and Ethical Compliance Code of Behavior Analyst devotes an entire section to Behavior Analyst’s Responsibility to clients. All are appropriate except….

talk to parents or caregivers, not the clients

RBT are likely to be the ABA professionals who are implementing skill acquisition plans. In order to prepare and plan for a session, RBTs should always …….. , before collecting their materials, including data tracking forms.

review session notes from the previous session, and decide how to proceed with the current session

RBT Discrimination Practice

Discrimination Definition

When you engage in behavior under certain circumstances and not under other circumstances
Antecedents & Consequences of a behavior help us learn to make discriminations
Behavior occurs in presence of specific situations or contexts in which they were reinforced in the past

Examples of making a discrimination

Ex. Apple, that’s an apple, vs that’s a cat
stop at red light, not at green light
good morning in morning but not at night

Making Discriminations

Ex Julia-borrow car, mom says yes, dad says no, more likely to ask mom
Engaging in a discrimination because of the different consequences that were applied to the same behavior
Julia’s behavior is under stimulus control
Behavior occurs in the presence of specific contexts in which they were reinforced in the past

Discrimination Training

The result of discrimination training is stimulus control
Discrimination training involved reinforcing some responses and not reinforcing other responses in the presence of some antecedent stimulus

To help student learn to make discriminations, you can teach more than one target reponse at a time

Ex. Labeling objects–label multiple items during training
The result of this discrimination training is stimulus control

Discrimination Training-Collecting & Analyzing Data

Collect data on the behvor being taught to make sure the teaching procedure is effective
Record response to each antecedent stimulus
Graph Data Collected
Analyze the Data

Other Questions to Learn (167)

Ethical

Pertaining to right and wrong in conduct. Being in accordance with the rules or standards for right conduct or practice

Feedback and Reflection

Respond appropriately to feedback and maintain or improve performance. Take feedback and be a reflective practitioner.

Communication

Communication with stakeholders as authorized.
Follow protocol of how to communicate.
Communicate effectively with all team members.

Professional Boundaries

Avoid dual relationships, conflicts of interest, social media contacts. Always take notes.

Client Dignity

Be respectful and thoughtful about the client’s needs and wants.
Never do or say anything to cause embarrassment to the client.
Do not do something in front of your client that you would not do if working with a typical developing child.

How to Prepare for Data Collection

1. Read data from last session
2. Prepare material and programs for current session based on data from last session.
3. Determine what programs you plan to work on during the session.
4. Gather materials for those programs.
5. Set up the first set of programs so they are ready for the client when you begin your session.

The Role of the RBT in the Service Delivery System

Implement measurement, assessment, skill acquisition, behavior reduction, documentation and reporting, and maintain professional conduct in the scope of the practice under the direct supervision of a BCBA or BCaBA.

RBT Assisting with Individual Assessment Procedures

The RBT can interview stakeholders, gather baseline data by observing the client’s behaviors in his/her natural environment, or probe client by asking them to perform a task we are unsure they can perform without providing assistance.

Dealing with Stakeholders

The RBT should only communicate with stakeholders as authorized by the supervisor. Any specific questions should be deferred to the BCBA or BCaBA. If you do communicate you must be objective, use behavioral language, avoid speculation, stick to topic appropriate for an RBT.

Assist Training Stakeholders

RBT can assist with training stakeholders by giving them instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback with regard to behavioral skills training.

Report Other Variables

illness, relocation or change in medication.

Components of a Written Behavior Plan

1. Identify, describe, create a goal for a behavior in observable terms.
2. Assess antecedent/consequence that may maintain behavior.
3. Identify hypothesis of function of behavior.
4. Identify possible replacement behaviors.
5. Select and implement antecedent/consequence based interventions.
6. Create crisis intervention plan.
7. Implementation, modification, generalization and maintenance procedures.

Skill Acquisition Plan

7 Components
1. Identify the skill deficit
2. Create a goal to address the deficit
3. Establish a data measurement system
4. Take baseline data (Assess current skill level)
5. Select and implement an acquisition procedure.
6. Collect data to assess effectiveness of the procedure.
7. Modify existing plan based on assessment data. (Modify, if necessary) to maintain/increase effectiveness)

Prepare for Skill Acquisition Plan

1. Determine what occurred last session to decide where to start.
2. Select skill acquisition procedures to complete during session.
3. Prepare materials you will need for the skill acquisition (including data collection protocols).

5 Dimensions we can Shape

1. Topography
2. Frequency
3. Latency
4. Duration
5. Amplitude/Intensity

Applied Behavior Analysis

The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied systematically to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behavior change.
The scientific study of principles of learning and behavior.

Behavior

An activity of living organisms.
What an individual does (how they respond in the situation).
It is observable and measurable.

Response

Specific instance of behavior.
4 types of Responses:
1. Correct
2. Incorrect
3. Non-Response
4. Prompted

Respondent Behavior

Untaught or unconditioned responses. Reflex.

Respondent Conditioning

New stimuli can acquire the ability to elicit responses.
Occurs through pairing of two stimuli.
Stimulus – Stimulus Pairing (S – S)

Unconditioned Stimulus

A stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response.
i.e. Food is an unconditioned stimulus for a hungry animal and salivation is the unconditioned response.

Unconditioned Response

A behavior that occurs naturally due to a given stimulus.
i.e. Dogs salivating in the presence of food; yelping upon being bitten by an insect.

Conditioned Stimulus

A previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, elicits the response produced by the unconditioned stimulus itself.

Conditioned Response

A behavior that does not come naturally, but must be learned by the individual by pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.

Unconditioned Reinforcers

(AKA primary reinforcers) Stimuli that do not require learning. (i.e. food, water, warmth, sleep, sexual stimulation)

Conditioned Reinforcers

(AKA secondary reinforcers) Neutral stimuli that have been paired with unconditioned reinforcers, or other conditioned reinforcers and through repeated pairing become reinforcers themselves. (i.e. stickers, sound, people)

Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers

Stimuli that have been paired with a variety of unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers. (i.e. praise, attention, money, tokens)

Operant Behavior

Behavior that is controlled or influenced by consequences.
Behavior whose future frequency is determined by a history of consequences.

Operant Conditioning

A type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences.
Behavior followed by pleasant consequences tends to be repeated.
Behavior followed by unpleasant consequences tends not to be repeated.

Mand Training

(AKA request training) Training by asking for what you want.

Reinforcers

Pleasant events that follow a behavior that make behavior more likely to occur in the future.
Reinforcers strengthen behavior.

Punishers

Unpleasant events that follow a behavior and decrease the likelihood that a behavior will happen again in the future.

4 – Part Contingency of Operant Learning

1. MO – Motivating Operation
2. Antecedent
3. Behavior
4. Consequence

Motivating Operation

(AKA setting event) Contextual factors or conditions that influence behavior.
Influence how an individual is going to react. (i.e. Being deprived of food and water)

Antecedent

What occurs before a behavior that then influences behavior.
An environment or a stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.

Prompt

Specific antecedent that directly facilitates performance of behavior.
Assistance provided to engage in desired behavior or response.

Consequence

Events that follow behavior and may influence it including increasing or decreasing it in the future.
May be reinforcers or punishers.

7 Dimensions of ABA

1. Applied
2. Behavioral
3. Analytic
4. Technological
5. Conceptual Systems
6. Effective
7. Generality

Frequency Data

(AKA Event Recording) A form of continuous measurement.
Data in which you tally each time the behavior occurs.
Typically used for behaviors with discrete beginning and ending points.
Typically used for behaviors with discrete beginning and ending points. (i.e. throwing items, going to the gym, taking medicine, hitting another person)
Most frequently used type of data collection.

Duration Data

Data that is a calculation of the amount of time a behavior occurs.
The amount of time a response is performed.
Track from onset to offset.
Typically used for behaviors that last too long or too short. (i.e. on task behavior, social interactions, engaging in stereotypy)

Antecedent Behavior Consequence Data

(AKA ABC data) A combination of information about what happens before, during and after a behavior.
A form of continuous measurement.

Interval Recording

A form of discontinuous measurement.
Used for estimating duration of a behavior in which observers periodically look at client at predetermined intervals and record whether or not a behavior is occurring.

Partial Interval Recording

Did the behavior occur at least once during the short observation interval?
Overestimates the behavior.
Example: presence or absence of thumb-sucking within a series of time intervals.

Whole Interval Recording

Did the behavior occur for the whole interval that you are looking for it?
Underestimates the behavior.
Example: the total time devoted to remaining on task.

Momentary Time Sampling

Look up at the client immediately at pre-designated points and record whether the behavior occurred at that precise moment.
Example: presence or absence of client’s stereotypic behavior (stimming).

Response Latency

The amount of time after a specific stimulus has been given before the target behavior occurs.

Permanent Product Recording Procedures

A type of measurement used when the behavior you are assessing results in a lasting product or outcome.
Example: number of written assignments completed;

Anecdotal Data

A method of descriptively recording the behavior emitted by the learner, the response of others, and information about the environment.

Trial by Trial Data

For each trial record target and whether response was:
– Correct
– Incorrect
– Non-Response
– Prompted

Graphing

Graphing is a method of representing data in a visual way so that we can se patterns and direction over time.
– Line Graph (most common) shows patterns, trends
– Bar Graph shows portions of a whole
– Pie Chart shows portions of a whole

Reliability

That the data taken is reliable and people who take the data agree on the occurrence of the behavior.
Individuals who take the data agree on the occurrence of the target behavior.
Looking for 85% agreed upon when doing reliability checks.

Inter-observer Reliability

The extent to which the individuals who observe a target behavior agree on the occurrence of the behavior.

Treatment Fidelity

The extent to which an intervention plan is implemented as planned and prescribed.

Topography

The physical form or shape of a behavior.

Function

The purpose or meaning of a behavior.

Operational Definition

What does the behavior look like, what happens exactly, what does it sound like?

4 Functions of Behavior

SEAT
1. Sensory
2. Escape/Avoidance
3. Attention
4. Tangible

Sensory Function

One of the four functions of behavior in which an individual tries to gain sensory output.
Individuals behave a certain way because it feels good to them.

Automatic Reinforcement

(AKA self-stimming) The behavior itself is reinforcing and is not dependent on social interaction or receiving a tangible item.

Escape/Avoidance Function

A function of behavior to escape or avoid having to do something.

Attention Function

A function of behavior in which the individual is reinforced by receiving attention from others.

Tangible Function

A function of behavior in which the individual wants to obtain a tangible item.
The individual wants a preferred item or activity.

Baseline Data

Data taken before an intervention takes place.
Describes the existing level of performance.

Functional Analysis

Done by an individual with specific training and under very controlled situations.
The qualified practitioner manipulates situations (antecedents/consequences) and takes data on behavior during those situations to test hypotheses about suspected maintaining variables.

Functional Behavior Assessment

(AKA FBA) Putting one or more Functional Analysis together.
Can consist of:
– Direct observation
– Interview
– Functional analysis (experimental)
– File Review
In an FBA behavior plans must include replacement skills.

Replacement Skills

Something appropriate that the client can do instead of the inappropriate behavior, that will serve the same purpose.
Should be included in Behavior Plans.

Teach replacement skills and
Develop an appropriate behavior plan

Name two important reasons for determining function of behavior.

3 Principles of Behavior

1. Reinforcement
2. Punishment
3. Extinction

Reinforcement

Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and INCREASES the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.

Punishment

Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior.

Extinction

Removal of reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior.

Extinction Burst

Prior to the behavior decreasing you will see a temporary increase in behavior.
Immediate increase in frequency in responding.

Spontaneous Recovery

After a period of time the behavior may come back temporarily during extinction.

Rewards

Something that we THINK will might act as a reinforcer.
Rewards are the THING, reinforcement is the ACTION.
(i.e. If giving a child a cooke after they clean their room does not increase the chances of them cleaning their room again in the future then the cookie was just a reward and NOT a reinforcer)

Positive Reinforcement

Pleasant or favorable event that follows a behavior – it is ADDED to the situation and increases the likelihood or probability that the behavior will occur in the future.

Negative Reinforcement

REMOVAl of an aversive event that follows a behavior (“relief”) and increases the likelihood that the behavior will continue in the future.
(i.e. cleaning your room and your mom stops nagging; hitting snooze on an alarm and the beeping stops; putting on your seatbelt and the dinging stops)

Secondary Reinforcement

(AKA Conditioned Reinforcement) Occurs when neutral stimuli have been paired with unconditioned reinforcers or other conditioned reinforcers repeatedly thus making the neutral stimuli become conditioned reinforcers.

Conditioned Punisher

Stimuli or events that function as punishers only after being paired with unconditioned punishers.
Form of positive punishment in which every time an undesired behavior occurs the actor loses a reinforcer.

Unconditioned Punisher

A stimulus change that can decrease the future frequency of any behavior that precedes it without prior pairing with any other form of punishment.
(i.e. shock, physical pain, loud noises, painful stimulation that can cause tissue damage, light, sound, temperature)

Preference Assessment

Aims to identify an individual’s favorite things so that they can be used as rewards or potential “reinforcers” for desired behavior. CSDA
1. Caregiver interview
2. Surveys
3. Direct Observation
4. Assessment Method

Caregiver Interview Preference Assessment

Involves obtaining information from the individual’s parents, friends and teachers about what the individual likes/prefers.

Surveys/Inventories Preference Assessment

Surveys obtain information about potential reinforcers and also rank potential reinforcers in order of preference.

Direct Observation Preference Assessment

Identify what is motivating the individual.
The more time spent with an item, the stronger the presumed preference.

Assessment Method Preference Assessment

Presenting objects and activities systematically to the individual to reveal a hierarchy or ranking of preference.
1. Single item/single stimulus
2. Forced choice
3. Multiple choice
– multiple choice with replacement
– multiple choice without replacement

Single Item Preference Assessment

Single Item/Single Stimulus
Objects and activities are presented to the individual one by one.
Data are recorded on how long the person engages with each item or activity.

Forced Choice Preference Assessment

Simultaneous presentation of two items or activities and individual is asked to choose one.
Most frequently selected item will likely be the most potent reinforcer.

Multiple Stimuli With Replacement

Item chosen by the learner remains in the array and all other items that were not selected are replaced with new ones.

Multiple Stimuli Without Replacement

Chosen item is removed from the array, the order or replacement of the remaining items is rearranged, and the next trial begins with a reduced number of items in the array.

Premack Principle

Make access to a high probability behavior contingent on performing a low probability behavior.
The opportunity to engage in more probable behaviors (or activities) will reinforce less probable behavior.
Grandma’s Rule: If you want to go out to play, you have to eat your vegetables first.

Satiation

Repeatedly presenting a stimulus for the purpose of reducing its attractiveness by reaching a satiation level.

Rule Governed Behavior

Behavior either verbal or nonverbal under the control of verbal antecedents.
(i.e. “If I study 2 hours every day, I will get an A on the exam next month”)

Response Blocking

The source of reinforcement is blocked. A procedure in which the therapist physically intervenes as soon as the learning begins to emit a problem behavior to prevent the completion of the target behavior.

Random Rotation

The random presentation of mastered items, free from pattern (as if flipping a coin repeatedly).

Block Trials

Repeatedly asking for an item for a designated number of trials, and then moving to another item for the same number of trials.

Mass Trials

Repeatedly presenting the same SD (discriminative stimulus) and R (response) pair for several trials in a row.

Continuous Reinforcement Schedule

Providing reinforcement each time the behavior/response occurs.

Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule

Reinforcement is delivered after only SOME of the desired responses occur.

Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule

Reinforcement should be delivered after a constant or “fixed” number of responses.

Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedule

Reinforcement is provided after an unpredictable (variable) number of responses.
This schedule is the most resistant to extinction.

Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule

The first correct response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed.

Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule

Where a response is rewarded after an unpredictable (variable) amount of time has elapsed.

Positive Punishment

Presentation of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus immediately following behavior that results in a decrease of that behavior in the future.

Negative Punishment

The termination or removal of a stimulus immediately following behavior that results in a decrease of that behavior in the future.
(i.e. taking away a toy when a child talks back; time out from positive reinforcement for yelling)

Response Cost

A type of punishment also known as Negative Reinforcement.
Loss of a specific amount of reinforcement.

Time out from Positive Reinforcement

The withdrawal of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement, or the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a specific amount of time.
A form of Negative Punishment

Contingent Exercise

Perform a response that is not topographically related to the problem behavior.
(i.e. touch toes 20 times contingent on biting self)

Overcorrection

Effortful behavior that is directly or logically related to the problem behavior.

Time-Out

Brief removal of all social positive reinforcement.

Positive Behavior Support

A function-based approach to eliminate challenging behaviors and replace them with socially appropriate behaviors.
– Focus on positive behaviors
– Alter the ecology
– Teach new skills
– Reinforce the absence of behavior

Focused Support Strategies

Interventions to reduce or eliminate the need for reactive strategies and gain quicker control over behavior.
– High density of reinforcing events
– Non-contingent delivery of reinforcing events
– Eliminate antecedents that cue challenging behavior

Stimulus Control

Individual behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another in its absence.
A type of Focused Support Strategy

Stimulus Satiation

Repeatedly presenting a stimulus for the purpose of reducing its attractiveness by reaching a satiation level.

Token Economies

Reinforcement systems in which tokens are earned for a variety of behaviors and are used to purchase or exchange for a variety of backup reinforcers such as food, activities, trips, toys.

Differential Reinforcement

Reinforcing one response class and withholding reinforcement from another response class.
Behavior receiving reinforcement should increase while the behavior for which reinforcement is being withheld should decrease.

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors

DRO – Providing a reinforcer after a particular time frame without the target behavior.
For example engaging in any other behavior except the target behavior.
(i.e. every 5 minutes without hitting, individual receives a sticker)

Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding

Entails reinforcing for reductions in the frequency of the undesired behavior.
Often used when individual is engaging in a behavior too frequently.

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors

DRA – Focus on increasing a desirable alternative behavior that directly or indirectly interferes with the performance of the undesired target behavior.
(i.e. reinforce knitting or giving a self manicure instead of biting nails; reinforce appropriate language instead of punishing swearing at others)

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors

DRI – Similar to DRA but you choose and alternative behavior to reinforce that, if performed, would be incompatible with the undesired target behavior.
(i.e. playing nicely vs. fighting; on task behavior vs. off task behavior; in seat vs. out of seat; deep breathing vs. yelling)

Discrete Trial Training

DTT – Structured instructional methodology used to teach new behaviors
Designed to maximize a learner’s potential by presenting information in a three-part teaching unit.
Based on Antecedent – Behavior – Consequence format.
A – B – C (Stimulus – Response – Consequence)
Main objective is to teach children how to learn from their natural environment and make learning reinforcing.

Errorless Learning

Teaching procedures that are designed in such a way that the learning does not have to – and does not – make mistakes as she or he learns new information or procedures.
DTT is Errorless Learning.
Skinnner: “Errors are not necessary for learning to occur.”

Discriminative Stimulus (SD)

Used in DTT: Environmental cue or instruction that signals that reinforcement is available for a target behavior.

Response (R)

Used in DTT: The behavior in which an individual engages. 4 types of response:
1. Correct
2. Incorrect
3. Non-Response
4. Prompted

Reinforcing Stimulus (SR)

Used in DTT: The consequence following the individual’s response that changes the future likelihood with which the behavior will recur.
Reinforcement should be given for a correct response.
Should be delivered immediately (0 – 5 seconds is ideal).

Inter-Trial Interval

The time interval between presentation of the consequence for one trial and the presentation of the SD for the next trial.

Prompt Hierarchy

The so called “pyramid” of the various levels of prompting.
We need to establish a hierarchy of prompts from the least to most or most to least intrusive for each instructional task.

Transfer of Stimulus Control

Process by which prompts are removed once the target behavior is occurring in the presence of the SD.

Prompt Fading

The gradual elimination of a stimulus prompt as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the SD.

Stimulus Fading

Exaggerate some physical dimension of the relevant stimulus to help the individual respond correctly.
Prompt is within the stimulus itself.
Can be used for color or size determination.

Discrimination Training

Procedure to teach between two targets.
Trial training using phases.
(i.e. phases 1 – 6 Mass Trials of target, Block Trials, and Random Rotation)

Shaping

A process by which one systematically and differentially reinforces successive approximations to a terminal behavior.

Chaining

A specific sequence of discrete responses, each associated with a particular stimulus condition.
When components are linked together, they form a chain that produces a terminal outcome.

Task Analysis

Involves breaking a complex skill into smaller, teachable units, the product of which is a series of sequentially ordered steps or tasks.

Forward Chaining

Training begins the link with the first behavior in the sequence.
Training only occurs on the steps currently mastered and current step (no training on steps after that).

Backward Chaining

Training begins the link with the last behavior in the sequence.
Trainer performs all but the last step until the learner masters the last step.
Then trainer performs all but the lasts two steps until learner masters the last two steps and so on.

Backward Chaining with Leaps Ahead

Follow same procedure as backward chaining but not every step in the task analysis is trained.

Natural Environment Training (NET)

Is loosely structured, and uses or contrives a leaner’s motivation and activities and not an exclusively teacher-selected set of materials, as the basis for the lesson.
Often used to teach child to mand or request.

Verbal Behavior

Behavior that is reinforced through the mediation of another person’s behavior.
Involves a social interaction between speakers and listeners.
Listener reinforces the speaker.

Mand, Tact, Echoic, Intraverbal, Textual, Transcription

6 Elementary Verbal Operants

Mand

Short for demand, command or reprimand.
A type of verbal operant in which a speaker asks for (or states, demands, implies, etc.) what he needs or wants.
Only type of verbal operant that directly benefits the speaker b/c the mand allows the speaker to receive reinforcers.

Tact

Short for contact.
A type of verbal operant in which speaker names things and actions that the speaker had direct contact with through any of the sense modes.

Echoic

A type of verbal operant that occurs when a speaker repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker.
Occurs in response to other verbal behavior.
Listener is “echoing” what they hear.

Intraverbal

A type of verbal operant in which a speaker differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others.
– Conversation
– Answering questions
– Filling in the blank

Textual

Reading written words.
(i.e. A child says shoe because the word “shoe” is written)

Transcription

Writing and spelling words that are spoken.
(i.e. A child writes “shoe” because they hear the word “shoe”)

Generalization

When the effort of reinforcement is extended beyond the conditions in which the training has taken place or to behaviors other than those included in training.

Stimulus Generalization

Generalization or transfer of a response to situations other than those in which the training takes place.
It has taken place if a response reinforced in one stimulus setting also increases in other stimulus settings.
Across people: The learner’s ability to respond to people other than those involved in the original teaching
Across environments: The learner’s ability to respond in different locations other than the “table and chair”
(i.e. responds to different SD’s for same behavior like “sit here”, “sit down”, “have a seat”)

Response Generalization

The changes in behaviors or responses other than those that have been trained or developed.
(i.e. you teach a child to put away toys following the SD “clean up” and the child also begins to throw away garbage and put books on the shelf)

Maintenance

Refers to maintaining responses over time.
So something leaned at time 1 would also be evident at times 2, 3 and 4.

Implement Generalization and Maintenance Procedures

Start by slowly fading prompts and using natural reinforcement contingencies; use multiple settings, people and stimuli; train loosely and use random rotation; use variable reinforcement schedules; teach self management and reinforce generally when it happens.

Contingency Contract

A document that specifies a contingent relationship between:
– The completion of a specific behavior
– Access to a specific reinforcer
Same as a behavioral contract.
This document should serve to hold both parties accountable (student & teacher).

Token Economy

A behavior change system with the following components:
– Specific behaviors to reinforce
– Tokens or points for emitting those behaviors
– A back-up reinforcer for cash in of tokens/points
Tokens themselves are not desirable…the back-up should be!

Positive Practice

A form of Positive Punishment
Contingent on an occurrence of the target behavior the learner is required to repeat a correct form of the behavior, or a behavior incompatible with the problem, a specified number of times.

Planned Ignoring

Social reinforcers – usually attention, physical contact or verbal interaction – are removed for a brief period.

Validity

Refers to the extent to which target behaviors are appropriate, intervention procedures are acceptable, and important significant changes in target and collateral behaviors are produced.

Rate

Used in calculating data. Frequency with the addition of a time component. Also a form of Event Recording.

Registered Behavior Technician

A paraprofessional who practices under the close, ongoing supervision of a BCBA or a BCaBA.
The RBT is primarily responsible for the direct implementation of skill-acquisition and behavior-reduction plans developed by the supervisor.
The RBT may also collect data and conduct certain types of assessments (i.e. stimulus preference assessments)
The RBT does not design intervention or assessment plans. It is the responsibility of the designated RBT supervisor to determine which tasks an RBT may perform as a function of his or her training, experience, and competence.

Total Task Chaining

The chaining procedure which teaches each step of the chain during each training session.

Professional and Ethical Compliance Code

– Maintaining confidentiality
– Maintaining records
– Documentation of professional work and research
– Records and Data
– Behavior analytic assessment
– Conforming with laws and regulations
– Accuracy and use of data

Documentation and Reporting

Records and data collected by BCBAs and RBTs must be retained for at least _____ years and as otherwise required by law.

Contingency

Refers to and if_____, then_____ relationship between a behavior and a consequence.

Treatment Plan Modifications

RBT’s assist BCBAs in making treatment plan modifications based on:
1. Record
2. Visual analysis of graphed data
3. Science
Parent requests are NOT a major factor in determining the current success of a plan or analyzing data to determine next steps.

1. Be honest
2. Follow through with obligations
3. Disclose your experience in specific areas.

Ways to show integrity?

Incidental Teaching

Involves creating an environment in which students’ interests are easily fostered and nurtured, and one in which students can be most successfully motivated. Also known as Natural Environment Training

1. Vary stimulus conditions over time
2. Make conditions as natural as possible over time.
3. Modify reinforcers

3 General Techniques of Generalization
1. Have multiple teachers and styles / vary the stimuli & environment.
2. In the beginning conditions might be artificial, make conditions as natural as possible over time.
3. Use secondary/conditioned reinforcement. Thin the reinforcement schedule for primary reinforcers.

Drawbacks to Punishment

Mis-used or Over-used: May lead to negative reinforcement of the punisher.
Lack of generalization: May lead to decrease in behavior only in the presence of the punisher.
May increase or escalate the behavior (provoke aggression).
Not always effective in the long term.

Reactive Strategies

Strategies designed to manage the behavior at the time it occurs (in the moment).

These strategies are managed situationally to provide safety and prevent the escalation of the behaviors.
NOT meant to change behavior over time.
– Facilitative Strategies (help solve the problem)
– Redirect to a competing activity (give an instruction or a “help me” instruction
i.e. crisis intervention strategies

Proactive Strategies

Strategies designed to produce changes over time.
Strategies designed to provide a better mesh between client’s needs and the environments in which he/she behaves.
– Token economies (Focused Support Strategy)
– Differential reinforcement (Focused Support Strategy)
– Discrete trial training

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