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The Conference Board Review

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The Conference Board's opinion magazine, founded in as Across the Board and shuttered in June

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Vadim Liberman

Vadim Liberman

I may not always know the right answers, but by tackling the right questions, I aim to elevate …

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Matthew Budman

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Latest Articles

Performance Anxiety (Cover Story)

Your people are insecure. Dispirited with their place in an organization, some people fear not losing but keeping their jobs.


The entire Spring issue.

Holy Ship!

Commercial shipping is bigger than ever—literally.

What's the Big Idea? Q&A with Stuart Crainer

For more than two decades, in articles (including for this magazine) and books, U.K. writing team Stuart Crainer and Des Dearlove have chronicled, analyzed, and explained the world of business thinking. They've read every strategy book and interviewed every management guru. From the beginning, Crainer and Dearlove tried to compile the most valuable and relevant ideas for senior executives without the time to sort through an entire bookshelf.

Who's Holding You Accountable? Q&A with Christine Bader

"I don’t believe that idealism and business acumen are mutually exclusive—in fact, I think quite the opposite.” Christine Bader has spent her career at the intersection of the corporate and nonprofit worlds, aiming to instill responsibility in corporate practice while adding value. She worked at BP for nine years, leaving in the wake of the Texas City explosion, as the company’s progressive priorities were starting to shift, and before the Deepwater Horizon disaster. But throughout her tenure there, she writes, “my goal was to align the interests of the company and the community, not to compensate for or distract from wrongdoing.”

Openers: Corporate Unsustainability

To many people outside the business world, sustainability is just corporatespeak for environmental concerns. Inside, its meaning keeps expanding to encompass every point at which an organization interacts with the rest of the world—supply chains, product life cycles, risk. Indeed, for many companies, after years of work reducing emissions and waste, it’s easy being green—it’s everything else that’s a problem.

A Slow Transition: Bart van Ark's economic forecast

"The growth performance in mature economies will improve in , but that doesn't mean we're out of the woods yet." After a disappointing , hampered by corporate hesitancy and political paralysis, the global economy could use clear direction and stability, but that's not happening. Yet things will look somewhat brighter in the mature economies, especially in the United States, projects Bart van Ark, chief economist of The Conference Board.

Who's in Charge Here? (Cover Story)

This article is not about your company, because you have managers, who have managers, who have managers. But do you need them?

Do It Yourself

Reddit founder Alexis Ohanian says that the problem with asking for permission, as you know, is that you may not like the answer.


The entire Fall issue of TCB Review.

The Cost of Economic Success

It’s not what the boy pictured here is doIng that’s so troublesome. It’s more what he’s not doIng. He’s not in school learning geometry, or science, or English, or anything else beyond how to work hard for daily survival.

Stop Texting Under the Table: Q&A with Barbara Pachter

How does one dress for a Skype conversation with an etiquette expert? Barbara Pachter writes: “Make sure your clothing is appropriate. Just because you are not meeting in person does not mean the interviewer or business associate cannot see what you are wearing. And don’t assume only your upper body is showing. Dress professionally from head to toe.” Honestly, “. . . to toe” seemed excessive, and fortunately, Pachter didn’t insist on a full-body scan.

A Higher Consciousness: Q&A with Whole Foods co-CEO John Mackey

“Do you know how most corporations get their mission statement?” John Mackey asks. “They hire consultants who come in and write it for them. So it’s not authentic; it didn’t come out of the essence of what that business is.” Mackey, cofounder and co-CEO of Whole Foods, is severely critical of business as traditionally practiced. Basically, he’d like every company to be run as his own is: highly collaborative, egalitarian, empowering, green, and closely integrated with the community—in other words, conscious.

Good Leaders, Bad Leaders: Q&A with Bob Lutz

Bob Lutz has spent close to half a century working for and alongside the men running much of the auto industry—and he’s kept track of what strategies work and which don’t, which leadership strategies are effective and which aren’t, which CEO foibles are irritating and which are fatal. For him, there’s nothing theoretical about leadership—it’s embodied by real-life people tasked with getting things done and inspiring followers.

Of Ill Repute: Q&A with Jon Macey of Yale

What do your customers and business partners think of you? Reputation is integral to how companies decide whether and how to do business with each other, and how consumers choose between firms. But according to Jonathan R. Macey, Sam Harris Professor of Corporate Law, Corporate Finance, and Securities Law at Yale University, reputation means a lot less these days, particularly in the world of finance.

Openers: Forced Leisure

What’s the point of machines? More than anything, of course, it’s to replace work, and people have long envisioned a world in which labor-saving devices save more than just a little bit of labor. Novelists have often waxed utopian—consider Edward Bellamy’s socialist bestseller "Looking Backward: ," which imagined an age of post-scarcity leisure, with short working hours and universal retirement at age

Worth Noting: "Clash!", "Stiletto Network," "Circle of Friends"

Capsule reviews of Hazel Rose Markus and Alana Conner's "Clash!", Pamela Ryckman's "Stiletto Network," and Charles Gasparino's "Circle of Friends."


The entire Summer issue.

Turning an Old Leaf

The war on drugs is going up in smoke. Each year, the Mexican government burns tons of seized marijuana, sometimes creating public ceremonies around bonfires to reassure the public that authorities are making progress to fight the nation’s rampant illegal-drug trade.

Performance Mismanagement (Cover Story)

To get results, stop measuring people by them.

"Just Say No" (Cover Story)

If only fighting bribery were that simple. Besides, if odds are that more people get away with it than don't, isn’t bribery just good business?

Surprise! Chinese Consumer Are Not Americans.

Consultant Savio Chan takes a close look at buying behaviors in the far east.


The entire Spring issue of TCB Review.

The Dark Side of Growth

What would a planet with no electricity look like? NBC’s drama Revolution answers this question. With no power, a sense of powerlessness grips society—you know, like how you feel when your cell-phone battery dies. Sort of.

Openers: Grease Is the Word

It goes without saying that bribery is wrong and bad and hurts business in both the long and short terms. It hurts companies that participate in corruption; it hurts economies that tolerate it. But as senior editor Vadim Liberman writes in this issue’s cover story, eradicating bribery requires more than HR posting a policy on the intranet.

Nature Conservancy head Mark Tercek aims to turn business green

>In a way, you’re aiming to redefine how we see nature. I’m arguing that people—environmentalists, businesspeople, everyone—shouldn’t just love nature. It’s more important to *value* nature, understanding that nature is the infrastructure that produces clean air to breathe, good food and fish to eat, clean water to drink, atmosphere that provides stable living conditions. Everybody is in favor of those things, but we’ve all taken them for granted for a very long time.

Who's Winning the Hunger Games?: Q&A with Michael Moss

For years, New York Times reporter Michael Moss has been delivering the inside story on what we eat, and the result hasn’t always made readers hungry—in , he won a Pulitzer Prize for “relentless reporting on contaminated hamburger and other food safety issues.” Two words: pink slime. In his new book, "Salt Sugar Fat: How the Food Giants Hooked Us" (Random House), Moss writes about far more appealing grocery items: Lay’s Potato Chips and Dr Pepper and Snickers and Hot Pockets and Chips Ahoy! and Pop-Tarts and Capri Sun and Frosted Mini-Wheats.

A Rebuilding Year: Bart van Ark's economic forecast

Bart van Ark, chief economist of The Conference Board, would love to be optimistic about the direction of the global economy. But he’d rather be right. When he looks at Europe (recession-weary and facing potential shocks to come), China, India, and Brazil (dramatically slowing), and the United States (still in political stalemate), he sees a world having trouble getting back on track.

Will Your People Be Ready? (Cover Story)

How do you develop a five-year plan when the next five days seem hazy? Top executives reveal how they are addressing today's pace of change.

Why Be Happy?

Instead of attaching smiley emoticons to every moment of our lives, journalist Oliver Burkeman suggests, we should welcome more negativity.


Nairobi, 12 October - The Innovate4Cities (I4C) international conference is underway with calls for action from leading voices from across the world, emphasizing climate justice and equity, positive transformation and innovation. The virtual I4C Conference covering Science and Innovation partnerships driving inclusive, resilient, and climate-neutral cities runs until 15 October and is co-hosted by  UN-Habitat and the Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy (GCoM).

A wide array of stakeholders gathering for the global virtual gathering co-sponsored by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are showcasing climate action for cities and sharing progress ahead of COP So far more than 5, city leaders, scientists, researchers, innovators, academics, youth and business leaders have registered to attend.

Speaking during the opening plenary, “Cities and Climate Change Science and Innovation”, former Mayor of New York and Co-chair of GCoM, Michael Bloomberg said: “Research and innovation have always been central to finding and implementing solutions to our biggest problems. And we know where that usually happens - in cities - because cities have always been hubs for testing new ideas and technologies. So it’s up to all of us to support cities as they help lead the fight against climate change. With COP26 just a month away, our hope is that governments around the world will answer the call.”

UN-Habitat Executive Director Maimunah Mohd Sharif underlined the importance of the meeting saying it has a crucial duty to harness the goodwill at the local and regional level, to develop an action plan where all cities and communities can support, invest and commit to implement.

“The Innovate for Cities Conference comes at a critical time. The critical report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warns that human-induced climate change is already causing extreme weather across the globe. At the same time, the COVID health pandemic continues to ravage economies, resulting in social and political crisis.  Globally, exclusion and injustice within countries and within cities could be widely seen. The health and economic impacts of COVID, climate change and inequality are all linked. Cities are at the centre of these interconnected crises,” she said.

South African Climate researcher at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR),Professor Francois Engelbrecht said: “While ambitious mitigation action will allow us to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees, it is more likely than not that we will exceed C degrees of global warming.  Given the challenging future we face - and the level of ambition required it is clear to respond to it - the changes that are needed are transformative rather than incremental. The regional aspects of these challenges are important if we are to understand the impacts for human and natural communities.”

The Director of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Centre for Entrepreneurship, Small and Medium Enterprises, Regions and Cities, Lamia Kamal-Chaoui, said: “The pandemic has put climate change at centre stage, especially at the local level. As a result, local leaders are investing in green recovery, using the pandemic to do what could not be done before. There has been a sea change since Copenhagen as cities and regions is now widely recognised as important actors. But that there is still a real need to keep bridging across the different levels of government to enable the potential of cities to be fully realised through a shared level of responsibility.”

The Conference sessions and outcomes are knowledge-generating; prioritising exchange between practitioners and researchers and helping to strengthen the innovation mindset of climate change.

The first international Cities and Climate Change Science Conference was held in Edmonton, Canada, from March , and was sponsored by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and co-sponsored by the IPCC. During the Conference 10 partners, including UN-Habitat, brought together over climate scientists, urban academics, policy makers and practitioners to inspire local climate action through science and practice. More information is here.

Conference participant registration is still open – please visit to find out more and reserve your virtual seat.

For more details on the conference contact [email protected]

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The Conference Board

For the Conference Board's Canadian counterpart, see Conference Board of Canada.

Third Avenue, Manhattan

The Conference Board, Inc. is a (c)(3)non-profit business membership and research group organization. It counts over 1, public and private corporations and other organizations as members, encompassing 60 countries. The Conference Board convenes conferences and peer-learning groups, conducts economic and business management research, and publishes several widely tracked economic indicators.


The organization was founded in as the National Industrial Conference Board (NICB). At the time, tensions between labor and management in the United States were seen as potentially explosive in the wake of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in and the Ludlow Massacre in In presidents of twelve major corporations in the United States and six leading industry associations met in Yama, New York to formulate the business community's response to continued labor unrest and growing public criticism.[1]

After additional crisis meetings, the National Industrial Conference Board was officially founded May 5, , at the Hotel Gramatan in Bronxville, New York.[2] Although many of the organizations’ founders—including former AT&T president Frederick P. Fish and General Electric executive Magnus W. Alexander, its first president—had supported the open-shop movement, by they regarded national unions such as the American Federation of Labor as permanent fixtures of the American economy, and urged negotiation and concord.[3]

When the United States entered World War&#;I in , the National War Labor Board formed by President Woodrow Wilson asked the NICB to formulate plans that would keep war industries running and strife-free. Its recommendations—based on cooperation between representatives of employers, employees, and government—were adopted in full.[2] During and after the war, the NCIB conducted pioneering research into workers' compensation laws and the eight-hour workday, and established the U.S. Cost of Living Index. Though often mistrusted in its early years as an “employers union” funding studies against the labor movement,[4] the non-profit NICB was also seen “as a spokesman for the so-called progressive wing of the business community [and] produced hundreds of research reports on economic and social issues facing the United States.”[3]

The organization today remains funded by the contributions of members, often Fortune&#; companies. By the s, however, it had already lost most of its character as an industry lobby. Virgil Jordan, a writer and economist who replaced Alexander as president on the latter's death in , established a Bureau of Economic Audit and Control to offer members and the public an independent source of studies on unemployment, pensions, healthcare, and related issues in the midst of the Great Depression, when many questioned the credibility of the government's economic statistics.[2] Unions soon joined the NICB alongside corporations for access to its research, conferences, and executive network.

The organization is now considered an unbiased “trusted source for statistics and trends, second only to perhaps the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics”.[5] After World War&#;II, The Conference Board—the shortened name adopted in —expanded to non-U.S. members for the first time. Today, it has offices in Brussels, Beijing, Mumbai, Hong Kong, and Singapore. The Conference Board of Canada was spun off as an independent non-profit in

In , the US Department of Commerce selected The Conference Board to produce and distribute the US leading economic indicator series. This was the first time a US Government agency entrusts a major economic series to a private organization. Today, The Conference Board produces indicators for the US, Euro Area and eleven other countries. The composite economic indexes are designed to signal peaks and troughs in the business cycle.[6]

In , after an epidemic of business scandals, The Conference Board Commission on Public Trust and Private Enterprise is convened. Composed of a blue-ribbon panel of respected leaders from both the private and the public sectors, many of the Commission's recommendations were voluntarily adopted by leading companies and continue as best practices in corporate governance.[6]

In , The Conference Board established its China Center for Economic and Business in Beijing as a resource for senior executives with a significant strategic interest in China's fast-evolving economy through events, publications, indicators, and peer-group CEO Council sessions. In , The Conference Board likewise opened its first Indian office, in Mumbai.

In , The Conference Board took over publication of the Total Economy Database and two years later began release an annual Global Economic Outlook series that now encompasses annual growth projections for over 65 economies.[6]

The Conference Board assumed control of the International Labor Comparisons (ILC) program, formerly a division of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, in due to across-the-board federal spending cuts. ILC produces internationally comparative datasets on labor conditions, productivity, income, and more using the same concepts and methodology as those previously used by BLS.

In January , the Committee for Economic Development (CED) merged with The Conference Board as its US public-policy center headquartered in Washington, DC. The Conference Board celebrated years of operation in , followed by CED's 75th anniversary in In , The Conference Board expanded its global footprint further by launching the Gulf Center for Economics and Business Research, based in Kuwait.

In , amid the ongoing COVID pandemic, The Conference Board launched a dedicated online hub and resource center for helping businesses navigate its unprecedented economic, human capital, ESG, public policy and communications challenges.

The Conference Board has likewise emerged as a national voice on the role of American business in advancing U.S. racial, social, and economic equity. Since March , its Building a More Civil and Just Society series has convened panels, personal interviews, and a three-day virtual conference on the intertwined challenges of racism, economic opportunity, early childhood education, healthcare access, corporate governance, and equality in the workplace. The series has featured dozens of Fortune CEOs and other executives, including Ken Chenault, Ron Williams, Julie Sweet, Dan Schulman, Michael J. Dowling, Marc Morial, Jo Kirchner, and Steve Odland.

In The Conference Board launched CEO Perspectives,[7] a twice-monthly podcast hosted by its President & CEO, Steve Odland. The conversations feature thought leaders discussing an array of topics relevant to business executives.

Membership and professional development[edit]

The Conference Board's membership network encompasses the majority of the Fortune

Each year, nearly 2, senior executives participate in The Conference Board Councils—small peer-learning groups that bring together professionals to exchange ideas, discuss challenges, and advance their fields in intimate, confidential meetings held around the world. These range from networks organized for particular C-suite titles—including multiple councils for chief financial officers, chief human resources officers, chief information officers, chief legal officers, and corporate treasurers—to those focused on narrower areas of expertise or specific business challenges, from business continuity and responsible sourcing to advancing women in leadership and social media. The councils align with the focus areas of the organization's five centers.

The Conference Board hosts more than 50 public conferences each year across Europe, Asia, and North America. These include some of the longest standing annual events dedicated to employee healthcare, succession management, diversity, women's leadership, and leadership development. In addition to live events, The Conference Board produces dozens of interactive webcasts and public podcasts each month featuring influential executives, thought leaders, and emerging trends alongside its own team of researchers.[8]

The Conference Board's professional development programming is recognized by a number of independent accreditation organizations, which award continuing education credits to qualifying participants of its conferences, councils, webcasts, and virtual events. These include the HR Certification Institute, the Society For Human Resource Management, the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy, the International Association of Privacy Professionals, the International Coaching Federation, the Compliance Certification Board, and continuing legal education bodies.[9]

Focus Areas and Regional Centers[edit]

The Conference Board produces original research, convenes conferences, and organizes executive peer-learning councils through topical Centers based in business hubs around the globe. In the United States, it currently operates five Centers from New York City and Washington, DC:

  • Economy, Strategy & Finance - including global economy, innovation and digital transformation, labor markets, consumer dynamics
  • Marketing & Communications - corporate communications, consumer dynamics, marketing
  • Environmental, Social & Governance - corporate governance, sustainability, corporate citizenship and philanthropy
  • Human Capital - leadership, learning and development, talent acquisition, employee engagement and experience, diversity and inclusion, HR technology, human capital analytics, labor markets, coaching and mentoring
  • Committee for Economic Development[10] (Public Policy) - regulation, healthcare policy, education, infrastructure, tax reform, fiscal health, immigration

In Europe, The Conference Board also hosts five Centers from is regional headquarters in Brussels:

In the Asia-Pacific region, the organization currently features three Centers:

Additionally, The Conference Board operates a dedicated China Center in Beijing, and was one of the first US business think tanks to establish an on-the-ground presence to understanding the rapid transformation of the Chinese economy.

Founded in and based in Kuwait City, The Conference Board Gulf Center likewise serves the business community across the Gulf region.

Economic Indicators[edit]

The Conference Board publishes a number of regular indicators for United States and international economies that are widely tracked by investors and policy makers. They include:

  • U.S. Consumer Confidence Index – Begun by The Conference Board in , this monthly survey of 5, households is widely established as the leading measure of American consumer confidence.[11] Results from the household survey are tabulated to provide a barometer of the U.S. economy (currently indexed to the year = ).
  • Global Consumer Confidence Index – In , The Conference Board expanded its consumer-data footprint worldwide, with a new quarterly index encompassing 68 global economies
  • CEO Confidence Survey – The quarterly Measure of CEO Confidence gauges the outlook of chief executives in their own industries and the economy as a whole.[12]
  • Leading Economic Indexes – In the s, the U.S.&#;Department of Commerce began researching and releasing business cycle indicators, which use composite data points (including manufacturing, construction, and stock market indicators) to time economic expansions, recessions, and recoveries. In December , The Conference Board took over the business indicator program from the government and continues to publish leading, coincident, and lagging indexes for the U.S.&#;economy each month.[13] The program was also expanded to other economies; beyond the U.S., The Conference Board currently publishes leading, coincident, and trailing indexes for the Australia, Brazil, China, the Euro Area, France, Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Spain, and the U.K.
  • Employment Trends Index – Created in , the Employment Trends Index aggregates eight separate indicators and “offers a short-term, forward look at employment [that] gives economists and investors a new forecasting tool. It also helps business executives sharpen their short- to medium-term hiring and compensation planning.”[14]
  • Help Wanted OnLine – The Help Wanted OnLine program uses crawler technology to survey job openings posted on approximately 1, online job boards. The monthly data series compares labor supply (job vacancies) against demand (unemployed workers) to determine the tightness of the job market for individual metro areas and occupation categories. The online program is the successor of the Help Wanted Advertising Index, which surveyed print newspaper ads.

The organization also releases regular global and regional growth outlooks and commentaries on economic news.

Notable research[edit]

The Conference Board's research reports and experts are often featured in a wide range of global business media—from specialist trade publications to the Financial Times, the Wall Street Journal, CNBC, Bloomberg News, Forbes and Fortune.

Notable examples include:

See also[edit]


  1. ^Tranger, James. The New York Chronology: The Ultimate Compendium of Events, People and Anecdotes from the Dutch to the Present. ISBN&#; p.
  2. ^ abc"Conference Board timeline"(PDF).
  3. ^ ab“History.” National Industrial Conference Board Records. Hagley Museum and Library.
  4. ^Laue, J. Charles. “Labor and Capital to Battle over Unionsm”. New York Times. October 31,
  5. ^Kleiman, Carol. “Conference Board: A Trusted Resource.” Chicago Tribune. March 8,
  6. ^ abc"The Conference Board Timeline | The Conference Board". Retrieved
  7. ^"CEO Perspectives".
  8. ^"Media Room | The Conference Board". Retrieved
  9. ^"Continuing Education Credits". Retrieved
  10. ^"Committee for Economic Development of The Conference Board". Committee for Economic Development of The Conference Board. Retrieved
  11. ^“Consumer Confidence: An Online NewsHour Special Report.” The Newshour with Jim Lehrer. PBS. May
  12. ^Staff, Investopedia (19 June ). "CEO Confidence Survey".
  13. ^"Conference Board: Composite Index Of Leading Indicators". 12 April
  14. ^"Press release"(PDF).
  15. ^Feintzeig, Rachel (). "Recession Rises on List of CEO Fears for ". Wall Street Journal. ISSN&#; Retrieved
  16. ^McGregor, Jena. "Analysis | Fewer companies are forcing CEOs to retire when they hit their golden years". Washington Post. Retrieved
  17. ^Murray, Alan. "After coronavirus, expect a 'new' Delta". Fortune. Retrieved
  18. ^Fuhrmans, Vanessa (). "What's Keeping More Women From Board Seats: Little Turnover". Wall Street Journal. ISSN&#; Retrieved
  19. ^Paine, Lynn S.; Srinivasan, Suraj (). "A Guide to the Big Ideas and Debates in Corporate Governance". Harvard Business Review. ISSN&#; Retrieved
  20. ^Davidson, Paul. "Hey millennials, look out below! Gen Zers may already be catching up in the salary race". USA TODAY. Retrieved
  21. ^Weber, Lauren (). "Younger Workers Report Biggest Gains in Happiness With Pay". Wall Street Journal. ISSN&#; Retrieved
  22. ^"Corporate Communications Practices: Edition". Retrieved
  23. ^Tan, Anjelica (). "Working parents could face lack of child care as the economy restarts". TheHill. Retrieved
  24. ^"Are Millennial Leaders Different?". Fortune. Retrieved
  25. ^"Election Center ". Committee for Economic Development of The Conference Board. Retrieved

External links[edit]


The Conference Board Employee Reviews

Administrative / Coordinator role

Administrative Professional/Coordinator (Former Employee) - New York, NY - May 14,

A typical day included sitting in on meetings and tracking your responsibilities; also learned a lot regarding their research and how the business is run; also, learned a lot of new technology like Skype for business, Qualtrics platform for surveys, SUGAR database navigating; workplace culture is overall autonomously ie you have your responsibilities and run with them no micromanaging occurred; the hardest part of the job was adjusting to the shift in focus to digital marketing company; the most enjoyable part of the job was sitting in different parts of the floor every few weeks; it encouraged meeting and learning about your colleagues and their jobs; also, loved the office environment as it was very bright and modern and exhibited great student art work; I liked all my co-workers too and would say the main asset are the workabees who were a very collaborative and friendly team.


modern office atmosphere; sitting in different seats; snacks provided


some disorganization reference the new focus ie becoming a more digital markeing environment


Reviews board the conference

The interrupted dream brought her to a feeling of cheerfulness, intensifying all the same animal desire that tormented her so much in the morning. Having put. On a summer short and slightly flying dark dress, her curls are incredibly beautifully scattered on her back.

Diane Lim, Principal Economist, The Conference Board reviews the latest US Jobs Report

In response, she only heard wheezing and groans breaking through the sound of the rain, just as she felt the guys pushing fast and stupid like. A struggle for life. His frisky and at the same time doomed movements made him moan in his voice.

From this mutual torture, both the rapist and the victim received a.

Similar news:

The time was deep after midnight, so this amount could be safely multiplied by at least three. Moreover, there were no night shops at that time. And one could count only on free lads-peddlers - taxi drivers. I involuntarily swallowed a lump, figuring out the financial hole in my budget after this trip.

(do not be surprised, salaries and prices in the 80s correlated somewhat differently with each other than today).

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