Latest version of gnome

Latest version of gnome DEFAULT

Ubuntu GNOME

logo_medium

Introduction

Ubuntu GNOME is an official flavor of Ubuntu, featuring the GNOME desktop environment.

Ubuntu GNOME (formerly Ubuntu GNOME Remix) is a mostly pure GNOME desktop experience built from the Ubuntu repositories. Our first (unofficial) release was (Quantal Quetzal), released in October

The first official release was (Raring Ringtail).

Our final Long Term Support release is Ubuntu GNOME .

Our final stable non-LTS release was Ubuntu GNOME . The release is no longer supported.

Although Ubuntu GNOME is supported until April , we strongly encourage you to install the regular Ubuntu LTS release which features a minimally customized GNOME desktop.

 

  • 1 GHz processor (for example Intel Celeron) or better.
  • GB RAM (system memory).
  • 10 GB of free hard drive space for installation.
  • Either a CD/DVD drive or a USB port for the installer media.
  • Internet access is helpful (for installing updates during the installation process).

If you have an old machine, you may consider other alternatives like Lubuntu or Xubuntu.

  • Please read the release notes before downloading.

  • Please head over to the Get Ubuntu GNOME page for more details.

More Information
For more information about Ubuntu GNOME, please visit our Wiki area.

Sours: https://ubuntugnome.org/

GNOME The next-generation Linux desktop

If you're just a GNOME user, there's a lot to like about the latest version of this popular Linux desktop interface. But, if you're a GNOME developer, there's more to love in it.

Firstly, as for the interface itself, it now boasts a new top utility for discovering and installing applications called Software. OK, so the name isn't anything to write home about, but it seems faster, and it's easy enough to use. 

The type to search function, increasingly important these days, also works well and has some smarts. For instance, if you search for "photo," the graphic editor GIMP will show up.

The new GNOME also has aggressive new power management. You can work these controls yourself or just use the new default power profiles. For example, when your laptop is running on battery power and falls to a certain point, the low power mode goes on automatically. It's handy.

Developers can also build their apps to ask for a given power profile. Thus, when you're playing a game, its software can automatically switch the desktop to performance mode.  

GNOME also recognizes the rise of Desktop-as-a-Service with Connections. You've been able to do this before with GNOME's built-in tools, but this makes it much easier. It supports both Virtual Network Computing (VNC) and Microsoft's Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) connections. This version also enables you to run a remote desktop at full-screen resolution. 

It also comes with a new Multitasking settings panel. This includes window management and workspace options such as disabling the Activities hot corner, configuring a fixed number of workspaces, and showing workspaces on all displays instead of just the primary display.

While these are all nice, one wonky thing about the GNOME interface is you won't find minimize and maximize icons on windows.  You can still add them with GNOME Tweaks. It's always nice to have Tweaks available anyway if you want to get GNOME to work just the way you want. 

But what I really like about this edition of GNOME is the new streamlined GNOME programmer documentation site. At long last -- and for better or worse, GNOME's Human Interface Guidelines (HIG), which uses GNOME Toolkit (GTK) 4, are now official. According to Allan Day, a Red Hat user experience (UX) designer and GNOME UX designer, the updated HIG provides "a much more comprehensive, integrated, and consistent design system."

Of course, not everyone loves the new HIG. It wouldn't be a Linux desktop if there weren't design disagreements. 

GNOME's built-in Builder IDE now comes with the power to build and run CMake projects. CMake is a newer open-source, cross-platform build, test, and package software, tool family. The older Meson build system is still recommended. GNOME 41 also comes with improved Flatpak Linux application installer support. 

Lastly, but increasingly important as Rust is used more often in Linux, GNOME now has better support for Rust. Rust now comes ready to code in GNOME, thanks to GTK4.  

If you want to try the new GNOME out for yourself, you may need to manually replace your old GNOME desktop. For example, the Ubuntu release due out in October doesn't include it as its default desktop. Canonical is sticking to GNOME Some GNOME 41 apps will make it into Ubuntu On the other hand, the next release of Fedora, Red Hat's community distro, which is always right on the cutting edge, will include GNOME

I think this is clearly a better version of GNOME, but Linux Mint's Cinnamon is still my favorite Linux desktop. That said, I'm very curious to see where GNOME goes from here.

Related Stories:

Related Topics:

Linux Cloud Big Data Analytics Innovation Tech and Work Collaboration Sours: https://www.zdnet.com/article/gnomethe-next-generation-linux-desktop/
  1. Des moines new skyscrapers
  2. Replace ps3 analog stick
  3. Hp chromebook 14
  4. Sprint galaxy s7 root xda

GNOME

This article is about the desktop environment. For other uses, see Gnome (disambiguation).

Desktop environment for Linux and Unix-like systems

Gnomelogo.svg
GNOME Shell 41 with GNOME Web (released in ).png

GNOME Shell with GNOME Web (version 41, released in September )

Original author(s)Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena
Developer(s)The GNOME Project
Initial release3&#;March ; 22 years ago&#;()[1]
Stable release
[2]&#;Edit this on Wikidata/ 22 September ; 19 days ago&#;(22 September )
Preview release
rc[3]&#;Edit this on Wikidata/ 8 September ; 33 days ago&#;(8 September )
Repository
Written inC, XML, C++, C#, HTML, Vala, Python, JavaScript, CSS, and more[4]
Operating systemBSD, Linux, Unix
PlatformWayland and X11
Available in34[5] languages
TypeDesktop environment
LicenseGPLor-later[6]
Websitewww.gnome.org&#;Edit this on Wikidata

GNOME ()[7][8] is a free and open-sourcedesktop environment for Unix-like[9]operating systems. GNOME was originally an acronym for GNU Network Object Model Environment, but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project.[10][better&#;source&#;needed]

GNOME is developed by The GNOME Project, which is composed of both volunteers and paid contributors, the largest corporate contributor being Red Hat.[11][12] It is an international project that aims to develop software frameworks for the development of software, to program end-user applications based on these frameworks, and to coordinate efforts for internationalization and localization and accessibility of that software.

GNOME 3 is the default desktop environment on many major Linux distributions including Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, SUSE Linux Enterprise, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Pop!_OS, Oracle Linux, Endless OS, and Tails; as well as Solaris, a Unix operating system. The continued fork of the last GNOME 2 release, called MATE, is default on many Linux distros that target low usage of system resources.

History[edit]

See also: History of free and open-source software §&#;Desktop (–present)

GNOME 1[edit]

GNOME was started on 15 August [13] by Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena&#;[es] as a free software project to develop a desktop environment and applications for it.[14] It was founded in part because K Desktop Environment, which was growing in popularity, relied on the Qtwidget toolkit which used a proprietary software license until version (June ).[15][16] In place of Qt, GTK (GNOME Toolkit, at that time called GIMP Toolkit) was chosen as the base of GNOME. GTK uses the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a free software license that allows software linking to it to use a much wider set of licenses, including proprietary software licenses.[17] GNOME itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, and the GNU General Public License (GPL) for its applications.[18]

GNOME has historically been part of the GNU Project.[14][19][20][21] However, that is no longer the case. In , GNOME Executive Director, Neil McGovern, publicly twitted that GNOME wasn't a GNU project and the he had been asking GNU to remove GNOME from their list of packages since ;[22][23] in GNOME was removed from the list.[24] And GNOME proceeded to remove mentions of any link to GNU from their code and documentation.[25] The name "GNOME" was initially an acronym of GNU Network Object Model Environment, referring to the original intention of creating a distributed object framework similar to Microsoft's OLE,[26] but the acronym was eventually dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project.[10]

The California startup Eazel developed the Nautilus file manager from to De Icaza and Nat Friedman founded Helix Code (later Ximian) in in Massachusetts; this company developed GNOME's infrastructure and applications, and in was purchased by Novell.

During the transition to GNOME 2 and shortly thereafter, there were brief talks about creating a GNOME Office suite.[27][28] On 15 September GNOME-Office , consisting of AbiWord , GNOME-DB and Gnumeric was released.[29][30][31] Although some release planning for GNOME Office was happening on gnome-office mailing list,[32][33][34] and Gnumeric was announced as a part of it,[35] the release of the suite itself never materialized. As of 4&#;May&#;[update] GNOME wiki only mentions "GNOME/Gtk applications that are useful in an office environment".[36]

GNOME 2[edit]

GNOME 2 was very similar to a conventional desktop interface, featuring a simple desktop in which users could interact with virtual objects, such as windows, icons, and files. GNOME 2 started out with Sawfish, but later switched to Metacity as its default window manager. The handling of windows, applications, and files in GNOME 2 is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In the default configuration of GNOME 2, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations; open windows may be accessed by a taskbar along the bottom of the screen, and the top-right corner features a notification area for programs to display notices while running in the background. However, these features can be moved to almost any position or orientation the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether.

As of , GNOME 2 was the default desktop for OpenSolaris.[37] The MATE desktop environment is a fork of the GNOME 2 codebase (see Criticism, below.)

GNOME (released in March )

GNOME (released in March )

GNOME 3[edit]

GNOME 3 has a modern approach to user interface designand naming the applications. This screenshot shows GNOME Weather running on GNOME Shell, both in version (September )

In , an increasing discontent among community and developers about the lack of project direction and technical progress prompted the announcement of GNOME Originally, the plan was to make only incremental changes and avoid disruption for users.[38] This changed when efforts led to the creation of the GNOME Shell.[39]

GNOME 3 was released in While GNOME 1 and 2 interfaces followed the traditional desktop metaphor, the GNOME Shell adopted a more abstract metaphor with streamlined window management workflow (where switching between different tasks and virtual desktops took place in a separate area called the&#;overview),[39] unified header bar (replacing menu bar, taskbar, and toolbar),[citation needed], and minimize and maximize buttons hidden by default (via Client-side decoration mechanism).[citation needed]

GNOME 3 brought many enhancements to core software.[39] Many GNOME Core Applications also went through redesigns to provide a more consistent user experience.[citation needed]Mutter replaced Metacity as the default window manager.[citation needed]Adwaita replaced Clearlooks as the default theme.[40]

Criticism[edit]

The release of GNOME 3 caused considerable controversy in the GNU and Linux communities.[citation needed] Aiming to provide an easy-to-use and uncluttered user experience has led to some criticized design decisions, like removal of minimize and maximize buttons, simplification of configuration options, and visual clues which could lead to confusion.[39]

A few projects have been initiated to continue development of GNOME 2.x or to modify GNOME 3.x to be more like the 2.x releases. The MATE desktop environment was forked from the GNOME 2 code-base with the intent of retaining the traditional GNOME 2 interface whilst keeping compatibility with modern Linux technology, such as GTK 3.[41][42] The Linux Mint team addressed the issue by developing "Mint GNOME Shell Extensions" that ran on top of GNOME Shell and allowed it to be used via the traditional desktop metaphor. This eventually led to the creation of the Cinnamon user interface, which was forked from the GNOME 3 codebase.[citation needed]. The LXDE Project, which was experimenting with a Qt port at the time,[43] joined the Razor-qt Team and became LXQt.[44]

Among those critical of the early releases of GNOME 3 is Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux kernel. Torvalds abandoned GNOME for a while after the release of GNOME , saying, "The developers have apparently decided that it's 'too complicated' to actually do real work on your desktop, and have decided to make it really annoying to do".[45]

Over time, critical reception has grown more positive. In , Torvalds resumed using GNOME, noting that "they have extensions now that are still much too hard to find; but with extensions you can make your desktop look almost as good as it used to look two years ago".[46][47]Debian, a Linux distribution that had historically used GNOME 2, switched to Xfce when GNOME 3 was released, but re-adopted GNOME 3 in time for the release of Debian 8 "Jessie".[48]

GNOME 40[edit]

GNOME 40 was released on 24 March [49][50] It is a major new version, the first to adopt a new versioning scheme. From now on, the conclusion of a development cycle (of approximately 6 months) adds one integer to the version number (41, 42, ); and the release of stable updates adds a decimal to the version number (, , ).[51]

GNOME 40 organizes workspaces and the dash in a horizontal fashion, instead of using a vertical design in its activities overview like its predecessors.[49] The release also brings new touchpad gestures.[52]

GNOME 40

GNOME 41

Releases[edit]

Release cycle[edit]

Each of the component software products in the GNOME project has its own version number and release schedule. However, individual module maintainers coordinate their efforts to create a full GNOME stable release on an approximately six-month schedule, alongside its underlying libraries such as GTK and GLib. Some experimental projects are excluded from these releases.

Before GNOME 40, GNOME version numbers followed the scheme v.xx.yy. Here, v is a major version, which can include large changes such as ABI breakage; these have no regular schedule and occur in response to requirements for large-scale changes. xx is a minor version, released on the above schedule of approximately every 6 months, in which the 1- or 2-digit number's parity indicates the type of release: if xx is even (e.g. ) the release is considered stable, whereas if xx is odd, it represents a current development snapshot (e.g. ) that will eventually evolve into the next stable release. yy indicates a point release, e.g. ; these are made on a frequency of weeks in order to fix issues, add non-breaking enhancements, etc.

GNOME 40 started a new versioning scheme in which a single number is incremented each biannual release. The number is followed by a dot and then "alpha", "beta", or "rc" for a development release or a decimal for minor stable releases (much like the yy mentioned previously).[51]

GNOME releases are made to the main FTP server in the form of source code with configure scripts, which are compiled by operating system vendors and integrated with the rest of their systems before distribution. Most vendors only use stable and tested versions of GNOME, and provide it in the form of easily installed, pre-compiled packages. The source code of every stable and development version of GNOME is stored in the GNOME gitsource code repository. Interested users can obtain a snapshot of a git branch and build a cutting-edge version for their own use.

A number of build scripts (such as JHBuild or formerly GARNOME) are available to help automate the process of compiling the source code.

Release history[edit]

Version Date Information
August GNOME development announced[53]
March First major GNOME release[1]
May Codename "Bongo"[54]
April Codename "Tranquility"[55][56]
June Major upgrade based on GTK2. Introduction of the Human Interface Guidelines.[57]
February Multimedia and file manager improvements.[58]
September Codename "Temujin": Epiphany, accessibility support.[59]
March Nautilus changes to a spatial file manager, and a new GTK file dialog is introduced. A short-lived fork of GNOME, GoneME, is created as a response to the changes in this version.[60]
September Improved removable device support, adds Evolution.[61]
March Lower memory requirements and performance improvements. Adds: new panel applets (modem control, drive mounter and trashcan); and the Totem and Sound Juicer applications.[62]
September Nautilus improvements; improvements in cut/paste between applications and freedesktop.org integration. Adds: Evince PDF viewer; New default theme: Clearlooks; menu editor; keyring manager and admin tools. Based on GTK with cairo support.[63]
March Performance improvements (over % in some cases); usability improvements in user preferences; GStreamer multimedia framework. Adds: Ekigavideo conferencing application; Deskbar search tool; Pessulus lockdown editor; Fast user switching; Sabayon system administration tool.[64]
September Performance improvements. Adds: Tomboy notetaking application; Baobab disk usage analyser; Orca screen reader; GNOME Power Manager (improving laptop battery life); improvements to Totem, Nautilus; compositing support for Metacity; new icon theme. Based on GTK with new print dialog.[65]
March Performance improvements. Adds: SeahorseGPG security application, allowing encryption of emails and local files; Baobab disk usage analyser improved to support ring chart view; Orca screen reader; improvements to Evince, Epiphany and GNOME Power Manager, Volume control; two new games, GNOME Sudoku and glChess. MP3 and AAC audio encoding.[66]
September Tenth anniversary release. Evolution backup functionality; improvements in Epiphany, EOG, GNOME Power Manager; password keyring management in Seahorse. Adds: PDF forms editing in Evince; integrated search in the file manager dialogs; automatic multimedia codec installer.[67]
March Addition of Cheese, a tool for taking photos from webcams and Remote Desktop Viewer; basic window compositing support in Metacity; introduction of GVfs; improved playback support for DVDs and YouTube, MythTV support in Totem; internationalised clock applet; Google Calendar support and message tagging in Evolution; improvements in Evince, Tomboy, Sound Juicer and Calculator.[68] Deprecate GnomeVFS in favor of GVfs and GIO.[69]
September Addition of the Empathy instant messenger client, Ekiga , tabbed browsing in Nautilus, better multiple screens support and improved digital TV support.[70]
March New optical disc recording application Brasero, simpler file sharing, media player improvements, support for multiple monitors and fingerprint reader support.[71]
September Addition of GNOME Bluetooth module. Improvements to Epiphany web browser, Empathy instant messenger client, Time Tracker, and accessibility. Upgrade to GTK version [72]
March Improvements to Nautilus file manager, Empathy instant messenger client, Tomboy, Evince, Time Tracker, Epiphany, and Vinagre. iPod and iPod Touch devices are now partially supported via GVfs through libimobiledevice. Uses GTK [73]
September Addition of Rygel and GNOME Color Manager. Improvements to Empathy instant messenger client, Evince, Nautilus file manager and others. was intended to be released in September , so a large part of the development effort since went towards [74]
April Introduction of GNOME Shell. A redesigned settings framework with fewer, more focused options. Topic-oriented help based on the Mallard markup language. Side-by-side window tiling. A new visual theme and default font. Adoption of GTK with its improved language bindings, themes, touch, and multiplatform support. Removal of long-deprecated development APIs.[75]
September Online accounts support; Web applications support; contacts manager; documents and files manager; quick preview of files in the File Manager; greater integration; better documentation; enhanced looks and various performance improvements.[76]
March New Look for GNOME 3 Applications: Documents, Epiphany (now called Web), and GNOME Contacts. Search for documents from the Activities overview. Application menus support. Refreshed interface components: New color picker, redesigned scrollbars, easier to use spin buttons, and hideable title bars. Smooth scrolling support. New animated backgrounds. Improved system settings with new Wacom panel. Easier extensions management. Better hardware support. Topic-oriented documentation. Video calling and Live Messenger support in Empathy. Better accessibility: Improved Orca integration, better high contrast mode, and new zoom settings. Plus many other application enhancements and smaller details.[77]
September Refreshed Core components: New applications button and improved layout in the Activities Overview. A new login and lock screen. Redesigned Message Tray. Notifications are now smarter, more noticeable, easier to dismiss. Improved interface and settings for System Settings. The user menu now shows Power Off by default. Integrated Input Methods. Accessibility is always on. New applications: Boxes, that was introduced as a preview version in GNOME , and Clocks, an application to handle world times. Updated looks for Disk Usage Analyzer, Empathy and Font Viewer. Improved braille support in Orca. In Web, the previously blank start page was replaced by a grid that holds your most visited pages, plus better full screen mode and a beta of WebKit2. Evolution renders email using WebKit. Major improvements to Disks. Revamped Files application (also known as Nautilus), with new features like Recent files and search.
March Refreshed Core components: A new applications view with frequently used and all apps. An overhauled window layout. New input methods OSD switcher. The Notifications & Messaging tray now react to the force with which the pointer is pressed against the screen edge. Added Classic mode for those who prefer a more traditional desktop experience. The GNOME Settings application features an updated toolbar design. New Initial Setup assistant. GNOME Online Accounts integrates with more services. Web has been upgraded to use the WebKit2 engine. Web has a new private browsing mode. Documents has gained a new dual page mode & Google Documents integration. Improved user interface of Contacts. GNOME Files, GNOME Boxes and GNOME Disks have received a number of improvements. Integration of ownCloud. New GNOME Core Applications: GNOME Clocks and GNOME Weather.
September A reworked system status area, which gives a more focused overview of the system. A collection of new applications, including GNOME Maps, GNOME Notes, GNOME Music and GNOME Photos. New geolocation features, such as automatic time zones and world clocks. HiDPI support[78] and smart card support. D-Bus activation made possible with GLib [79]
March [80]Improved keyboard navigation and window selection in the Overview. Revamped first set-up utility based on usability tests. Wired networking re-added to the system status area. Customizable application folders in the Applications view. Introduction of new GTK widgets such as popovers in many applications. New tab style in GTK. GNOME Videos, GNOME Terminal and gedit were given a fresh look, more consistent with the HIG. A search provider for the terminal emulator is included in GNOME Shell. Improvements to GNOME Software and high-density display support. A new sound recorder application. New desktop notifications API. Progress in the Wayland port has reached a usable state that can be optionally previewed.[citation needed]
September Improved desktop environment animations. Improved touchscreen support. GNOME Software supports managing installed add-ons. GNOME Photos adds support for Google. Redesigned UI for Evince, Sudoku, Mines and Weather. Hitori is added as part of GNOME Games.[citation needed]
March Major changes include UI color scheme goes from black to charcoal. Overlay scroll bars added. Improvements to notifications including integration with Calendar applet. Tweaks to various apps including Files, Image Viewer, and Maps. New Preview applications: Calendar, Characters, Books. Continued porting from X11 to Wayland.[81]
September Major changes include Google Drive integration in Files. Firmware updates through Software. Automatic screen brightness. Touchpad gestures. Several new applications: GNOME Calendar and GNOME Character Map. Significant improvements to Files, Boxes and Polari. Smaller changes and bug fixes.
March Significant improvements to many core applications, such as system upgrades and reviews in Software, simple photo editing in Photos and improved search in Files. Platform improvements include shortcut help windows which are available in many applications, a refined font, and better control of location services.[82]
September GNOME applications are based on GTK , the last gtkx release
Wayland is now default. Comprehensive Flatpak support. GNOME Software can install and update Flatpaks, GNOME Builder can create them, and the desktop provides portal implementations to enable sandboxed applications. Improvements to core GNOME applications include support for batch renaming in Files, sharing support in GNOME Photos, an updated look for GNOME Software, a redesigned keyboard settings panel, and much more.
March Night Light is a new feature and reduces eye strain at night by coloring the screen a little red. The date/time drop down now shows Weather information. A refined look to notifications. Gnome Calendar got a week view. Gnome Web got improvements to the experience of adding and managing bookmarks, and ships with Easy Privacy as default.[83] The online accounts, user and printer settings panel was redesigned.[84]
September New look for the Settings application, which has a new navigation sidebar and improved network and display settings, and browser synchronization thanks to the Firefox Sync service. Color emoji are now supported throughout GNOME and will be visible wherever they appear.[85]
12 March [86]
5 September
13 March
12 September
11 March
16 September
40 24 March
41 22 September

Features[edit]

User interface design[edit]

See also: Worse is better, KISS principle, and Principles of user interface design

Since GNOME 2, productivity has been a key focus for GNOME. To meet this end, the GNOME Human Interface Guidelines (HIG) were created. All GNOME programs share a coherent style of graphical user interface (GUI) but are not limited to the employment of the same GUI widgets. Rather, the design of the GNOME GUI is guided by concepts described in the GNOME HIG, itself relying on insights from cognitive ergonomics.[87] Following the HIG, developers can create high-quality, consistent, and usable GUI programs, as it addresses everything from GUI design to recommended pixel-based layout of widgets.

During the GNOME 2 rewrite, many settings deemed of little value to the majority of users were removed. The guiding principle was outlined by Havoc Pennington – a software developer involved in the project – who emphasized the idea that it is better to make software behave correctly by default than to add a UI preference to get the desired behavior:

A traditional free software application is configurable so that it has the union of all features anyone's ever seen in any equivalent application on any other historical platform. Or even configurable to be the union of all applications that anyone's ever seen on any historical platform (Emacs *cough*).

Does this hurt anything? Yes it does. It turns out that preferences have a cost. [..] [E]ach one has a price, and you have to carefully consider its value. Many users and developers don't understand this, and end up with a lot of cost and little value for their preferences dollar.

—&#;Havoc Pennington, Free software UI[88]

Accessibility[edit]

GNOME aims to make and keep the desktop environment physically and cognitively ergonomic for people with disabilities. The GNOME HIG tries to take this into account as far as possible but specific issues are solved by special software.

GNOME addresses computer accessibility issues by using the Accessibility Toolkit (ATK) application programming interface, which allows enhancing user experience by using special input methods and speech synthesis and speech recognition software. Particular utilities are registered with ATK using Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface (AT-SPI), and become globally used throughout the desktop. Several assistive technology providers, including Orca screen reader and Dasher input method, were developed specifically for use with GNOME.

Internationalization and localization[edit]

[icon]
This section needs expansion with:
  • number of supported languages
  • state of translation
  • support for special fonts
  • right to left fonts

You can help by adding to it. (June )

The internationalization and localization of GNOME software relies on locale.

Desktop[edit]

GNOME provides three different login sessions for desktop:

GNOME Shell[edit]

This session is based on GNOME Shell and Mutter (window manager). It is default and offers a mobile-like paradigm for launching applications and accessing open windows and virtual desktops, but through the use of extensions it is possible for the appearance to be that of a traditional taskbar and provide a basic start menu. This session uses more RAM and CPU due to use of JavaScript for GNOME Shell and all of its extensions, and requiring 3D acceleration.

GNOME Shell is the default graphical shell of GNOME. It features a top bar holding (from left to right) an Activities button, an application menu, a clock and an integrated system status menu.[89][90] The application menu displays the name of the application in focus and provides access to functions such as accessing the application's preferences, closing the application, or creating a new application window. The status menu holds various system status indicators, shortcuts to system settings, and session actions including logging out, switching users, locking the screen, and suspending the computer.

Clicking on the Activities button, moving the mouse to the top-left hot corner or pressing the Super key brings up the Overview.[91] The Overview gives users an overview of current activities and provides a way to switch between windows and workspaces and to launch applications. The Dash on the left houses shortcuts to favorite applications and open windows and an application picker button to show a list of all installed applications.[89] A search bar appears at the top and a workspace list for switching between workspaces is on the right. Notifications appear from the bottom of the screen.[92]

GNOME Classic[edit]

Beginning with GNOME , GNOME provides a suite of officially supported GNOME Shell extensions that provide Applications menu (a basic start menu) and "Places menu" on the top bar, and a panel with windows list at the bottom of the screen that lets quickly minimize and restore open windows, a "Show Desktop" button in the bottom left and virtual desktops in the bottom right corner.[93]

'GNOME Classic (March )

GNOME Classic with GNOME Files (March )

GNOME Flashback[edit]

An edited imageof GNOME Flashback that shows its functions including the Main menu, and the plug-ins of GNOME Panel

GNOME Flashback is an official session for GNOME 3. Based on GNOME Panel and Metacity,[94] it is lightweight,[95][96] has lower hardware requirements, and uses less system resources than GNOME Shell.[97] It provides a traditional and highly customizable taskbar (panel) with many plug-ins bundled in one package (gnome-applets) including a customizable start menu. It provides a similar user experience to the GNOME 2.x series and has customization capacities as built-in.

GNOME Flashback consists of the following components:

Mobile[edit]

See also: PureOS and Librem 5

The libhandy library can be used with GNOME Shell to create a responsive user interface that dynamically adapts to device form factor.[98]

Development[edit]

GNOME is developed by The GNOME Project.[] GNOME development is loosely managed. Discussion chiefly occurs on a number of public mailing lists.[] GNOME developers and users gather at an annual GUADEC meeting to discuss the current state and the future direction of GNOME.[] GNOME incorporates standards and programs from freedesktop.org to better support interoperability with other desktops.

GNOME is mainly written in C, XML, C++, C#, HTML, Vala, Python, JavaScript, CSS, and more.[4] A number of language bindingsare available.

Development platform[edit]

The GLib data structures and utilities library, GObject object and type system and GTKwidget toolkit comprise the central part of GNOME development platform. This foundation is further extended with D-BusIPC framework, Cairo 2D vector-based drawing library, Clutter accelerated graphics library, Pango international text rendering library, PulseAudio low-level audio API, GStreamer multimedia framework, and several specialized libraries including NetworkManager, PackageKit, Telepathy (instant messaging), and WebKit.[]

  • GNOME Display Manager (GDM), which manages user sessions, X and Wayland alike.
  • Tracker automatically searches the specified directories for files and keeps an index of them to provide fast search; heavily integrated into GNOME Shell and GNOME Files
  • GVfs, an abstraction layer framework for file systems augmenting GIO; well integrated into GNOME Files and GNOME Disks
  • dconf a backend for GSettings
  • Mutter, the Wayland compositor and X Window Manager
  • Linux color management, udev, etc.
  • Evolution Data Server, responsible for managing mail, calendar, address book, tasks and memo information
  • Meson is replacing GNU Build System (autotools) as build automation tools of choice
  • BuildStream, a distribution agnostic build and integration tool

Dependencies[edit]

The GNOME desktop environment does not consist solely of the graphical control element library GTK and the core applications that make use of it. There are quite a few additional software packages that make up the GNOME desktop environment, such as the above.

Wayland or X Window System[edit]

Main article: Wayland (display server protocol)

GNOME runs on Wayland and the X Window System.[] Wayland support was introduced in GNOME [90] and deemed "for the majority of users […] a usable day to day experience" by ,[] at which point Wayland became the default user session.[] With GNOME , Wayland compatibility was extended to Nvidia drivers.[] With GNOME or later, it is possible to run GNOME without the X Window System, using only Wayland.

systemd[edit]

Main article: systemd

In May Lennart Poettering proposed systemd as a GNOME dependency.[] As systemd is available only on Linux, the proposal led to a discussion of possibly dropping support for other platforms in future GNOME releases. Since GNOME multiseat support has only been available on systems using systemd.[76] In November the GNOME release team concluded there will be no compile time dependency on systemd for basic functionality, like session tracking. For non-basic functionality, like power management, compile time dependency is possible. For example, there is no concept of systemd inhibitors in alternatives like consolekit. A package manager may want to ensure that the system is not turned off while the upgrade is taking place.[][]

Applications[edit]

Core Applications[edit]

Main article: GNOME Core Applications

There are a large number of GTK and Clutter-based programs written by various authors. Since the release of GNOME , The GNOME Project concentrates on developing a set of programs that accounts for the GNOME Core Applications.[] The commonalities of the GNOME Core Applications are the adherence to the current GNOME Human Interface Guidelines (HIG) as well as the tight integration with underlying GNOME layers like e.g. GVfs (GNOME virtual filesystem) and also with one another e.g. GOA (gnome-online-accounts)[] settings and GNOME Files with Google Drive[][] and GNOME Photos with Google Photos. Some programs are simply existing programs with a new name and revamped user interface, while others have been written from scratch.

Games[edit]

Main article: GNOME Games

GNOME Games have the look and feel of the GNOME Core Applications and are released simultaneously with GNOME. All have been rewritten to conform to the current GNOME Human Interface Guidelines.

Development tools[edit]

Programmers have written software to provide development tools consistent with the GNOME desktop and to facilitate the development of GNOME software.

GNOME Builder is the new integrated development environment, Anjuta is the older one. Glade Interface Designer software constructs graphical interfaces using the graphical control elements in GTK. Devhelp is an API browser, Accerciser an accessibility explorer.

There are several debugging tools, including Nemiver, GtkInspector[][] and Alleyoop, have also been provided to facilitate development of GNOME software.

Integration options for third-party development tools (e.g. NoFlo) also exist.[]

The libsoup library enables access to HTTP servers from GNOME applications.[]

BuildStream is a flexible and extensible framework for the modeling of build and CI pipelines in a declarative YAML format, written in Python.[] Its mascot is a Beaver, because beavers build things in a stream.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ab"GNOME Released" (Press release). San Jose, California: The GNOME Project. 3 March Retrieved 11 January
  2. ^https://foundation.gnome.org//09/22/gnomerelease/.
  3. ^https://mail.gnome.org/archives/desktop-devel-list/September/msghtml.
  4. ^ ab"The GNOME Open Source Project on Open Hub: Languages Page". www.openhub.net.
  5. ^https://help.gnome.org/misc/release-notes//i18n.html.en
  6. ^"GNOME License". Retrieved 8 December
  7. ^Sandler, Karen (26 March ). "Introducing GNOME ". The GNOME Project (video). YouTube. Retrieved 2 July
  8. ^Clinton, Jason (2 April ). "GNOME 3: Fewer interruptions". The GNOME Project (video). YouTube. Retrieved 7 April
  9. ^Clasen, Matthias (19 February ). "Portability of the GNOME desktop environment". Retrieved 18 March
  10. ^ abKlapper, Andre (6 April ). "Re: GNOME -> Gnome". GNOME marketing list (Mailing list). Retrieved 26 March
  11. ^GNOME census(PDF), Neary
  12. ^"Staring into the abyss". Gnome. 27 July Retrieved 15 March
  13. ^de Icaza, Miguel (15 August ). "The GNOME Desktop project". mail.gnome.org. Retrieved 11 August
  14. ^ ab"About Us | GNOME". web.archive.org. 27 June Retrieved 15 April
  15. ^Announcement: Qt version released, 25 June , archived from the original on 9 March , retrieved 16 April
  16. ^Stallman, Richard Stallman (5 September ). "Stallman on Qt, the GPL, KDE, and GNOME". Retrieved 9 September
  17. ^"Why you shouldn't use the Lesser GPL for your next library". Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 20 January
  18. ^The GNOME Project: "GNOME Foundation Guidelines on Copyright Assignment". Accessed 26 March Archived 4 March at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^Wuelfing, Britta. "GNOME: Split from GNU Project?&#;» Linux Magazine". Linux Magazine. Retrieved 14 April
  20. ^Loshin, Pete (6 November ). "Gnome". Computerworld. Retrieved 14 April
  21. ^"Official GNU software packages (archived on sep)".
  22. ^Neil Mcgovern. "I asked (as ED for @GNOME) GNU to remove us from that page multiple times. They have refused to do so". Twitter. Retrieved 21 August
  23. ^GNOME. "Let's also clarify that here. GNOME is NOT a GNU project". GNOME. Retrieved 21 August
  24. ^https://www.gnu.org/software/software.html
  25. ^GNOME. "GTK commit a4bf7, "Update the README"". GNOME. Retrieved 8 September
  26. ^Pennington, Havoc (). "What is Gnome?". GTK / Gnome Application Development. Archived from the original on 11 July
  27. ^Gowin, John (9 November ). "GNOME Office, how far along are we?". Linux Orbit. Archived from the original on 1 January
  28. ^TH, Sam (10 April ). "GUADEC Results". gnome-office-list (Mailing list). LWN.net. Retrieved 3 May
  29. ^Loli, Eugenia (15 September ). "GNOME-Office Released; Nautilus Becomes Object-Oriented". OSNews. Retrieved 4 May
  30. ^Esselbach, Philipp (15 September ). "GNOME-Office Released". Linux Compatible. Retrieved 4 May
  31. ^"GNOME-Office Released" (Press release). 15 September Retrieved 4 May
  32. ^Sevior, Martin (30 June ). "Next GNOME-Office release". gnome-office-list (Mailing list). Retrieved 4 May
  33. ^Sevior, Martin (30 July ). "Update on progress for GNOME-Office". gnome-office-list (Mailing list). Retrieved 4 May
  34. ^Sevior, Martin (2 October ). "Three weeks until gnome-office, what progress on the website?". gnome-office-list (Mailing list). Retrieved 4 May
  35. ^Welinder, Morten (19 December ). "Gnumeric is Here!". gnome-office-list (Mailing list). Retrieved 4 May
  36. ^"Office Applications". The GNOME Project. Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 4 May
  37. ^Foxwell, Harry; Tran, Hung (). Pro OpenSolaris: A New Open Source OS for Linux Developers and Administrators. Apress. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  38. ^Paul, Ryan (14 July ). "GNOME officially announced and explained". Ars Technica. Retrieved 26 April
  39. ^ abcdPaul, Ryan (6 April ). "A shiny new ornament for your Linux lawn: Ars reviews GNOME ". Ars Technica. Retrieved 26 April
  40. ^"A new default theme for GTK". blogs.gnome.org. Retrieved 24 December
  41. ^"Mate Desktop Environment - GNOME2 fork / Community Contributions / Arch Linux Forums". bbs.archlinux.org. Retrieved 15 May
  42. ^"MATE is under active development to add support for new technologies while preserving a traditional desktop experience". Archived from the original on 6 May
  43. ^PCMan (3 July ). "LXDE-Qt Preview". LXDE Blog. Retrieved 15 May
  44. ^"LXQt History". GitHub. Retrieved 15 May
  45. ^Ricky (4 August ), "Linus Torvalds Ditches GNOME For Xfce", Digitizor, retrieved 8 November
  46. ^"Torvalds: I want to be nice, and curse less, but it's just not in me". The Register. 7 November Retrieved 2 January
  47. ^Heath, Nick. "Linus Torvalds switches back to Gnome 3.x desktop". ZDNet.
  48. ^Hoffman, Chris. "How GNOME is winning back disillusioned Linux users". PC World. IDG TechNetwork. Retrieved 5 April
  49. ^ ab"GNOME 40 Release Notes". Retrieved 27 March
  50. ^Larabel, Michael (24 March ). "GNOME 40 Released With Many Improvements - Phoronix". Retrieved 27 March
  51. ^ abBassi, Emmanuele (16 September ). "New GNOME versioning scheme". Retrieved 17 September
  52. ^https://forty.gnome.org
  53. ^de Icaza, Miguel. "The story of the GNOME project". Archived from the original on 24 February
  54. ^"GNOME "Bongo GNOME" Unleashed" (Press release). The GNOME Project. 25 May Archived from the original on Retrieved 8 June
  55. ^"GNOME "Tranquility" is released". mail.gnome.org. Retrieved 12 September
  56. ^"GNOME Released: Desktop Environment Boasts Power, Stability, Polish and Integration" (Press release). Copenhagen, Denmark: The GNOME Project. Business Wire. 2 April Archived from the original on Retrieved 8 June
  57. ^Waugh, Jeff (27 June ). "GNOME Desktop and Developer Platform Released!". desktop-devel (Mailing list). Retrieved 20 September
  58. ^"GNOME Release notes" (Press release). The GNOME Project. 5 February Retrieved 19 February
  59. ^Waugh, Jeff (11 September ). "Announcing the GNOME Desktop & Developer Platform". gnome-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved 20 September
  60. ^Sobala, Andrew (31 March ). "Announcing the GNOME Desktop & Developer Platform". gnome-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved 20 September
  61. ^"GNOME release notes" (Press release). Boston, Massachusetts: The GNOME Project. 15 September Retrieved 19 February
  62. ^"GNOME released!" (Press release). Boston, Massachusetts: The GNOME Project. 9 March Retrieved 8 June
  63. ^"GNOME Release Notes". Retrieved 31 October
  64. ^"GNOME Release Notes". Retrieved 31 October
  65. ^Newren, Elijah (6 September ). "Celebrating the release of GNOME !". gnome-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved 20 September
  66. ^Newren, Elijah (14 March ). "Celebrating the release of GNOME !". gnome-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved 20 September
  67. ^Ryan, Paul (19 September ). "GNOME officially released". Ars Technica. Retrieved 20 September
  68. ^Untz, Vincent (12 March ). "Celebrating the release of GNOME !". gnome-announce-list (Mailing list). Retrieved 12 March
  69. ^"GNOME Release Notes, Section "GVFS and GIO"".
  70. ^Untz, Vincent (24 September ). "Celebrating the release of GNOME !". gnome-announce-list (Mailing list). Retrieved 27 September
  71. ^Untz, Vincent (18 March ). "Celebrating the release of GNOME !". gnome-announce-list (Mailing list). Retrieved 18 March
  72. ^Holwerda, Thom (24 September ). "GNOME Released". OSNews. Retrieved 5 April
  73. ^Holwerda, Thom (31 March ). "GNOME Released". OSNews. Retrieved 4 April
  74. ^"GNOME Release Notes". Retrieved 31 October
  75. ^"GNOME Release Notes". The GNOME Project. Retrieved 7 April
  76. ^ abVitters, Olav; Klapper, André; Day, Allan. "GNOME Release Notes". The GNOME Project. Retrieved 5 October
  77. ^"A list of features that have been implemented for ". The GNOME Project. Retrieved 28 March
  78. ^"Add high dpi support". 12 February
  79. ^"Convert applications to DBusActivatable".
  80. ^Wallen, Jack (28 March ). "GNOME has resurrected what was once the darling of the Linux desktop". TechRepublic. Archived from the original on 28 March
  81. ^"GNOME is here with reimagined notifications and visual upgrades galore". 28 March Retrieved 19 February
  82. ^"GNOME ". 23 March
  83. ^"GNOME Released, This Is What's New". OMG! Ubuntu!. 23 July
  84. ^"Introducing GNOME 'Portland'". 23 July
  85. ^"GNOME Released". 13 September
  86. ^"GNOME x Development Series".
  87. ^"GNOME Human Interface Guidelines".
  88. ^Pennington, Havoc (April ). "Free Software UI". Retrieved 21 June
  89. ^ ab"Terminology for Gnome Shell". GNOME Wiki. The GNOME Project. Archived from the original on 22 May Retrieved 22 May
  90. ^ abDay, Allan. "GNOME Release Notes". The GNOME Project. Retrieved 22 May
  91. ^"GNOME 3 Cheat Sheet". GNOME Wiki. The GNOME Project. Retrieved 13 June
  92. ^"GNOME Shell Design". The GNOME Project. Retrieved 3 December
  93. ^Day, Allan. "GNOME Release Notes". The GNOME Project. Retrieved 13 June
  94. ^"Projects/GnomeFlashback – GNOME Wiki". Retrieved 21 December
  95. ^"GNOME/Flashback – ArchWiki". Retrieved 21 December
  96. ^"How to Install Classic GNOME Flashback in Ubuntu LTS". Retrieved 21 December
  97. ^"Debian – Details of package gnome-session-flashback in buster". Retrieved 21 December
  98. ^"The New libhandy ". Purism (company). Retrieved 30 May
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOME

Hot Topic: Why the Next Version of GNOME is GNOME 40

GNOME app grid

Here&#;s a curve ball: GNOME developers have announced that the next major stable release of the desktop environment will come with a new version number.

And no: I don&#;t mean GNOME as you (and me) might&#;ve been expecting. With the current GNOME release you might be expecting it. After all, that follows on from GNOME , that from , and so on going all the way back to and GNOME

Also Read

10 Best Features in GNOME

But GNOME 40 will be the next stable release.

Yes, GNOME 40.

Since there&#;s a rather dramatic leap between GNOME and GNOME 40 (37 if you&#;re keeping count) you might be wondering what&#;s going on and why.

Enter the GNOME Foundation&#;s Emmanuele Bassi who, in a forum post to unveil the new versioning, explains the reasoning behind the leap. And the short answer is to simplify the &#;unwieldy&#; numbering.

Dropping the &#;3.&#; prefix underlines the fact that GNOME 40 is a set of technologies different to those introduced back in GNOME , but not to the degree that would warrant a &#;GNOME &#; branching.

And with GTK on the way too there&#;s a chance things could get a bit confusing for users and developers …and the marketing team.

But as the number &#;40&#; isn&#;t a total clean break from &#;&#; (as 40 follows 38) there&#;s still a connection and continuation from GNOME next to GNOME now.

Changing the version number underlines the fact that GNOME 40 is different beast to GNOME

The changes don&#;t stop there, either.

The GNOME 40 development cycle will continue to use pre-release milestones but there will a) be fewer of them and b) they won&#;t use uneven numbers. For context, GNOME was the development version of GNOME , GNOME was the development version of GNOME , and so on going back until the time of the dinosaurs (maybe not that far).

Simplicity.

After GNOME 40 is released in March a series of point releases will follow. These will be numbered GNOME 40.1, GNOME 40.2, and so on (though the emphasis is mine).

In October of next year GNOME 41 will be released. The version after that GNOME 42, and so on.

Whether the label reads GNOME or GNOME 40, it doesn&#;t strictly matter. Underneath, it&#;s still the same hugely popular, user-focused desktop environment.

News gnome GNOME 40

Sours: https://www.omgubuntu.co.uk//09/gnomeversion-number-change

Version gnome latest of

Get things done with ease, comfort, and control.

GNOME 40

An easy and elegant way to use your computer, GNOME 41 is designed to help you have the best possible computing experience.


GNOME 40 overview

Simple and Easy to Use

Every part of GNOME 41 has been designed to make it simple and easy to use. The Activities Overview is a simple way to access all your basic tasks. A press of a button is all it takes to view your open windows, launch applications, or check if you have new messages. Having everything in one convenient place means you don&#;t have to learn your way around a maze of different technologies.


GNOME 40 folders

Intuitive and Efficient

GNOME 41 provides a focused working environment that helps you get things done. It is packed with features that will make you more productive: a powerful search feature that helps you access all your work from one place; side-by-side windows that make it easy to view several documents at the same time; seamless integration with online accounts which allows you to access all your data in one place; and a messaging system that comfortably deals with notifications, letting you quickly respond in place or return to them in a convenient time.


GNOME 40 notifications

Finely Crafted

Every aspect of GNOME 41 has been crafted to fit together as a harmonious whole, providing a consistent and integrated experience. Our attention to detail means a smooth and polished product that lets you do the things you want without getting in the way. GNOME 40 is satisfying to use and beautiful to behold.


And much, much more&#;


GNOME Supporters

GNOME is supported by our generous network of supporters—one-time donors, sponsors, Friends of GNOME, infrastructure supporters, and our Advisory Board.

Sours: https://www.gnome.org/
GNOME 41 - The Best Software Center?

No place like GNOME: 41 in beta, features frozen for forthcoming release

The next release of GNOME desktop, version 41, is now in beta and its features and API are frozen.

GNOME 40 was released in March and, despite the huge leap in version number from , it was not intended to be radically different from the 3.x line in the same way that GNOME 3 was to GNOME 2. "Radical technological and design changes are too disruptive for maintainers, users, and developers," said Emmanuele Bassi from the GNOME Team.

Instead, the version number of 40 is to signify it's roughly the 40th release of GNOME – specifically, the 41st – rather than a 2.x-tox level of change that to, say, would suggest.

Version 40 did, nevertheless, introduce quite a few changes to app-launching and navigation, as well as for the core apps. There is also an associated update of GTK (GNOME Toolkit) to version 4.x, and the combination of GNOME 40 and GTK may give you pause for thought before upgrading.

Canonical developer Sebastien Bacher, for one, declared in January that "there are quite some moving parts in GNOME 40," considering both the new shell design and GTK4, concluding that Ubuntu would stick to GTK3 and GNOME for version

Ubuntu , expected in October, will include GNOME 40 but not 41 according to Bacher, who said last week "ideally we would have updated to 41 but feature freeze is today and we didn’t really have the resources available for the update."

The GNOME team has now released the beta of 41 which "also marks the start of the UI, feature and API freezes (collectively known as The Freeze)," according to the post by Abderrahim Kitouni, a member of the release team, yesterday.

Kitouni warned that "this branch is based on the branch of freedesktop-sdk and as such has quite a few ABI [Application Binary Interface] breaks," meaning that application changes will be needed. GNOME 41 is built with GTK , which was recently completed, and which contains many fixes and enhancements.

The list of what is new in GNOME 41 is here though this list is hardly user-friendly. Changes include improved Wayland support (the graphics protocol very gradually taking over from X), ICS support in GNOME Calendar (which seems way overdue), updated GNOME control center with new panels, new design for GNOME Music, "many parts of the user interface reworked" in the GNOME software manager, corrections for the Nautilus file manager including "fix Compress… acting on file that was not the selected one", and a long list of fixes for the GJS (GNOME JavaScript) engine and the Vala programming language.

Judging by the what's new list, this release is more about fixing and polishing than anything dramatically new, which means it is a shame that Ubuntu will not include it by default as there is likely to be little downside, compatibility aside.

The last 3.x release of GNOME, hope you have enjoyed it!"

It is also worth noting that coinciding with the beta release for GNOME 41 is the release of GNOME which release team member Javier Jardón notes is the "last 3.x release of GNOME, hope you have enjoyed it!".

This is a big milestone, considering that GNOME was released in April , over 10 years ago. This may also seem premature considering that most distros have yet to migrate to GNOME

The recommended route for those keen to try GNOME 41 beta is to download the beta image of GNOME OS, intended for test and development, and run it in a hypervisor such as GNOME Boxes. ®

Sours: https://www.theregister.com//08/24/gnome_41_beta/

Similar news:

Aren't you shocked. - As if by the way, asks Ira. Have you had such an experience. I didnt know what to answer - I didnt have this, but suddenly for some reason I.



4277 4278 4279 4280 4281