Paternal j l70

Paternal j l70 DEFAULT

About us

The J-L24-Y-DNA Project is for people whose y-dna results show them to be within any subclade of J2a (M410+) which is derived (positive) for the SNPs L24/L25.

SNP= Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and is the scientific term for a type of mutation that marks the branches of the genetic tree.

If you are tested or estimated as J2 or J2a and carry DYS450=9, or DYS450=10, then you are likely a member of the J-L24 clade. If in addition you carry DYS445=10 (+/-1) or DYS445=6 (+/-1) then you are very likely a member of J-L24. These are just estimates. One cannot be 100% certain without actually testing the L24 and L25 SNPs.

The SNP (mutation) rs35248080, assigned by FTDNA as L24, resides downstream of M410 (J2a), L26 (J2a4), and L27 (J2a4). The L26 and L27 SNPs replace the old condition DYS413 <= 18-18 (previously defining J2a4) as SNPs are pretty much unique (statistically invariant) whereas Y-STRs in general are not.

The SNP rs34534058, assigned as L25, resides downstream of L24. L25*=L25(xL70), the root of this clade, represents the majority of the cluster with the modal characteristic defined by DYS450=9 and DYS445=10. Also included within L25* is another group having DYS445=6.

L70 is a new SNP, currently not shown on your FTDNA Haplotree page, but it lies downstream of L25. Within L70 we find the main group of haplotypes represented by DYS450=9 and DYS445=6 as modal. The DYS445=6 deletion appears to have occurred in L25* before the L70 mutation. At this time no SNP has been found specifically related to the DYS445=6 deletion.

Within L70 there are 2 additional SNPs: M137, M318, defining subclades of L70. These appear to be relatively rarely occurring. Recently a group of Jewish Priests on the island of Djerba, Tunisia were found to be M318+. The project administrators will advise if they think you should test these SNPs.

With time, no doubt years of time, and enough members joining our group and testing SNPs and markers we hope to have the genetic structure and history of the J-L24 clade clearly established.

  • External Links

  • Support Wikipedia

  • Useful websites to visit:

    Z387 and J-L70 and DYS445=6 Map
    Hullinger Y-DNA Blog
    The J-L192.2 Map
    Definition of terms in genetic genealogy
    FTDNA Y-DNA J2 Tree
    The ISOGG Y-Tree
    Palindromic Region Map
    DYS425 NULL Project

  • Volunteer Statement

    We are not employees of Family Tree DNA and we do not receive any compensation from them. We are volunteers and we spend part of our free time and resources trying to locate and determine, through genetic testing and analysis, information about our ancient and more recent paternal ancestors.

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    Age: About 7,000 years ago

    Origin: Eurasia


    Parent Branch:J-CTS1192

    Descendant branch(s):J-PH3015 J-Z435

    FTDNA Tree Link:Link

    YFull Info

    Name: J-L70

    Age: 7000 ybp ± 2100 CI 95%

    Expansion: 3700 ybp ± 1500 CI 95%

    Parent: J-L7

    Note: This information does not imply an endorcement of YFull or their methods. It is provided at the request of readers.

    J-L70 is a branch on the paternal tree of human kind. It and branches help trace human history from our origin in Africa.

    FamilyTreeDNA Y-Haplotree

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    J-L70 Technical Details


    This branch is defined by the Y-Haplotree at FamilyTreeDNA as J-L70. There, it is the child of the J-CTS1192 branch.

    Defining Variant(s)

    L70, BY1436, CTS1486, CTS359, L397, L398, PF5425, PF5441, PF5444, PF7437, Z2139, Z2146, Z2152, Z386, Z395, Z415, Z425, Z444, Z8119


    This branch is defined by YFull as J-L70. There, it is the child of the J-L7 branch.

    Defining Variant(s)

    Z2168, Z444, PF5425, Z2146, L70, Z415, Z2143, Z2169, Z2144, Z2167, L397, Z2152, Z425, L398, Z2145, Z8119, Z433, Z386, Z2166, Z7714, Z2149, Z2150, Z2164, Z7713, Z7715, Z2153, Z7718, Z418, Z2161, Z2171, Z2157, L948, CTS359, CTS7464, Z2147, Z398, PF5444, Z395, Z2158, Z8122, Z7720, Z2139, Z2162, Z7711, Z7709, Z2159

    Sources & Resources

    Related Resources

    Coming soon…

    Academic Sources

    Peer reviewed sources have not been added for this branch yet. If you know of one I have missed, please link to it in the comments.

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    Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)

    Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

    This article is about the human Y-DNA haplogroup. For the human mtDNA haplogroup, see Haplogroup J (mtDNA).

    Haplogroup J-M304, also known as J,[Phylogenetics 1] is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is believed to have evolved in Western Asia.[2] The clade spread from there during the Neolithic, primarily into North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Socotra, the Caucasus, Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.

    Haplogroup J-M304 is divided into two main subclades (branches), J-M267 and J-M172.


    Haplogroup J-M304 is believed to have split from the haplogroup I-M170 roughly 43,000 years ago in Western Asia,[1] as both lineages are haplogroup IJsubclades. Haplogroup IJ and haplogroup K derive from haplogroup IJK, and only at this level of classification does haplogroup IJK join with Haplogroup G-M201 and Haplogroup H as immediate descendants of Haplogroup F-M89. J-M304 is defined by the M304 genetic marker, or the equivalent 12f2.1 marker. The main current subgroups J-M267 and J-M172, which now comprise between them almost all of the haplogroup's descendant lineages, are both believed to have arisen very early, at least 10,000 years ago. Nonetheless, Y-chromosomes F-M89* and IJ-M429* were reported to have been observed in the Iranian plateau (Grugni et al. 2012).

    On the other hand, it would seem to be that different episodes of populace movement had impacted southeast Europe, as well as the role of the Balkans as a long-standing corridor to Europe from the Near East is shown by the phylogenetic unification of Hgs I and J by the basal M429 mutation. This proof of common ancestry suggests that ancestral Hgs IJ-M429* probably would have entered Europe through the Balkan track sometime before the LGM. They then subsequently split into Hg J and Hg I in Middle East and Europe in a typical disjunctive phylogeographic pattern. Such a geographic hall[clarification needed] is prone to have encountered extra consequent gene streams, including the horticultural settlers. Moreover, the unification of haplogroups IJK creates evolutionary distance from F–H delegates, as well as supporting the inference that both IJ-M429 and KT-M9 arose closer to the Middle East than Central or East Asia.[citation needed]

    Haplogroup J has also been found among two ancient Egyptian mummies excavated at the Abusir el-Meleq archaeological site in Middle Egypt, which date from a period between the late New Kingdom and the Roman era.[3]


    Haplogroup J-M304 is found in its greatest concentration in the Arabian peninsula. Outside of this region, haplogroup J-M304 has a significant presence in other parts of the Middle East as well as in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Caucasus. It also has a moderate occurrence in Southern Europe, especially in central and southern Italy, Malta, Greece and Albania. The J-M410 subclade is mostly distributed in Anatolia, Greece and southern Italy. Additionally, J-M304 is observed in Central Asia and South Asia, particularly in the form of its subclade J-M172. J-12f2 and J-P19 are also found among the Herero (8%).[4]

    Subclade distribution[edit]


    Paragroup J-M304*[Phylogenetics 2] includes all of J-M304 except for J-M267, J-M172 and their subclades. J-M304* is rarely found outside of the island of Socotra, belonging to Yemen, where it is extremely frequent at 71.4%.[6] Haplogroup J-M304* also has been found with lower frequency in Oman (Giacomo 2004) harv error: no target: CITEREFGiacomo2004 (help), Ashkenazi Jews,[7]Saudi Arabia (Abu-Amero 2009) harv error: no target: CITEREFAbu-Amero2009 (help), Greece (Giacomo 2004) harv error: no target: CITEREFGiacomo2004 (help), the Czech Republic (Giacomo 2004 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGiacomo2004 (help) and Luca 2007 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLuca2007 (help)), Uygurs[8] and several Turkic peoples.[9] (Cinnioglu 2004 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCinnioglu2004 (help) and Varzari 2006).

    YFull[1] and FTDNA[10] have however failed to find J* people anywhere in the world although there are 2 J2-Y130506 persons and 1 J1 person from Soqotra.

    The following gives a summary of most of the studies which specifically tested for J-M267 and J-M172, showing its distribution in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia.


    Main article: Haplogroup J-M267

    Haplogroup J-M267[Phylogenetics 3] defined by the M267 SNP is in modern times most frequent in the Arabian Peninsula: Yemen (up to 76%),[11]Saudi (up to 64%) (Alshamali 2009) harv error: no target: CITEREFAlshamali2009 (help), Qatar (58%),[12] and Dagestan (up to 56%).[13] J-M267 is generally frequent among Arab Bedouins (62%),[14]Ashkenazi Jews (20%) (Semino 2004) harv error: no target: CITEREFSemino2004 (help), Algeria (up to 35%) (Semino 2004) harv error: no target: CITEREFSemino2004 (help), Iraq (28%) (Semino 2004) harv error: no target: CITEREFSemino2004 (help), Tunisia (up to 31%),[15]Syria (up to 30%), Egypt (up to 20%) (Luis 2004) harv error: no target: CITEREFLuis2004 (help), and the Sinai Peninsula. To some extent, the frequency of Haplogroup J-M267 collapses at the borders of Arabic/Semitic-speaking territories with mainly non-Arabic/Semitic speaking territories, such as Turkey (9%), Iran (5%), Sunni Indian Muslims (2.3%) and Northern Indian Shia (11%) (Eaaswarkhanth 2009 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEaaswarkhanth2009 (help)). Some figures above tend to be the larger ones obtained in some studies, while the smaller figures obtained in other studies are omitted. It is also highly frequent among Jews, especially the Kohanim line (46%) (Hammer 2009) harv error: no target: CITEREFHammer2009 (help).

    ISOGG states that J-M267 originated in the Middle East. It is found in parts of the Near East, Anatolia and North Africa, with a much sparser distribution in the southern Mediterranean flank of Europe, and in Ethiopia.

    But not all studies agree on the point of origin. The Levant has been proposed but a 2010 study concluded that the haplogroup had a more northern origin, possibly Anatolia.

    The origin of the J-P58 subclade is likely in the more northerly populations and then spreads southward into the Arabian Peninsula. The high Y-STR variance of J-P58 in ethnic groups in Turkey, as well as northern regions in Syria and Iraq, supports the inference of an origin of J-P58 in nearby eastern Anatolia. Moreover, the network analysis of J-P58 haplotypes shows that some of the populations with low diversity, such as Bedouins from Israel, Qatar, Sudan and the United Arab Emirates, are tightly clustered near high-frequency haplotypes. This suggests that founder effects with star burst expansion into the Arabian Desert (Chiaroni 2010) harv error: no target: CITEREFChiaroni2010 (help).


    Main article: Haplogroup J-M172

    Haplogroup J-M172[Phylogenetics 4] is found in the highest concentrations in the Caucasus and the Fertile Crescent/Iraq and is found throughout the Mediterranean (including the Italian, Balkan, Anatolian and Iberian peninsulas and North Africa) (Giacomo 2003) harv error: no target: CITEREFGiacomo2003 (help).

    The highest ever reported concentration of J-M172 was 72% in Northeastern Georgia (Nasidze 2004) harv error: no target: CITEREFNasidze2004 (help). Other high reports include Ingush 32% (Nasidze 2004) harv error: no target: CITEREFNasidze2004 (help), Cypriots 30-37% (Capelli 2005), Lebanese 30% (Wells et al. 2001), Assyrian, Mandean and ArabIraqis 29.7% (Sanchez et al. 2005)[full citation needed], Syrians and Syriacs 22.5%, Kurds 24%-28%, Pashtuns 20-30%,[16]Iranians 23% (Aburto 2006), Ashkenazi Jews 24%, Palestinian Arabs 16.8%-25%, Sephardic Jews 29%[17] and North Indian Shia Muslim 18%, Chechens 26%, Balkars 24%, Yaghnobis 32%, Armenians 21-24%, and Azerbaijanis 24%-48%.

    In South Asia, J2-M172 was found to be significantly higher among Dravidian castes at 19% than among Indo-European castes at 11%. J2-M172 and J-M410 is found 21% among Dravidian middle castes, followed by upper castes, 18.6%, and lower castes 14%. (Sengupta 2006) harv error: no target: CITEREFSengupta2006 (help)[18] Subclades of M172 such as M67 and M92 were not found in either Indian or Pakistani samples which also might hint at a partial common origin.(Sengupta 2006) harv error: no target: CITEREFSengupta2006 (help)[18]

    According to a genetic study in China by Shou et al., J2-M172 is found with high frequency among Uygurs (17/50 = 34%) and Uzbeks (7/23 = 30.4%), moderate frequency among Pamiris (5/31 = 16.1%), and low frequency among Yugurs (2/32 = 6.3%) and Monguors (1/50 = 2.0%). The authors also found J-M304(xJ2-M172) with low frequency among the Russians (1/19 = 5.3%), Uzbeks (1/23 = 4.3%), Sibe people (1/32 = 3.1%), Dongxiangs (1/35 = 2.9%), and Kazakhs (1/41 = 2.4%) in Northwest China.[19]


    In Y-chromosome phylogenetics, subclades are the branches of haplogroups. These subclades are also defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or unique event polymorphisms (UEPs).

    Phylogenetic history[edit]

    Main article: Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups

    Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)(α)(β)(γ)(δ)(ε)(ζ)(η)YCC 2002 (Longhand)YCC 2005 (Longhand)YCC 2008 (Longhand)YCC 2010r (Longhand)ISOGG 2006ISOGG 2007ISOGG 2008ISOGG 2009ISOGG 2010ISOGG 2011ISOGG 2012

    Research publications[edit]

    The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC tree.

    Phylogenetic trees[edit]

    There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup J-M304. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) also provides an amateur tree.

    The Genomic Research Center draft tree[edit]

    This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's Draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup J-P209 (Krahn & FTDNA 2013) harv error: no target: CITEREFKrahnFTDNA2013 (help). For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

    • J-M304 12f2a, 12f2.1, M304, P209, L60, L134
      • M267, L255, L321, L765, L814, L827, L1030
        • M62
        • M365.1
        • L136, L572, L620
          • M390
          • P56
          • P58, L815, L828
          • L256
        • Z1828, Z1829, Z1832, Z1833, Z1834, Z1836, Z1839, Z1840, Z1841, Z1843, Z1844
      • M172, L228
        • M410, L152, L212, L505, L532, L559
        • M12, M102, M221, M314, L282

    The Y-Chromosome Consortium tree[edit]


    This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2013)

    This is the official scientific tree produced by the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). The last major update was in 2008 (Karafet 2008) harv error: no target: CITEREFKarafet2008 (help). Subsequent updates have been quarterly and biannual. The current version is a revision of the 2010 update.[20]

    See also[edit]


    Y-DNA J subclades[edit]


    1. ^ abcd"J YTree". Archived from the original on 23 May 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
    2. ^ abY-DNA Haplogroup JArchived 18 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, ISOGG, 2015
    3. ^Schuenemann, Verena J.; et al. (2017). "Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods". Nature Communications. 8: 15694. Bibcode:2017NatCo...815694S. doi:10.1038/ncomms15694. PMC 5459999. PMID 28556824.
    4. ^Wood, Elizabeth T.; et al. (2005). "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes"(PDF). European Journal of Human Genetics. 13 (7): 867–876. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201408. PMID 15856073. S2CID 20279122. Archived(PDF) from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
    5. ^El-Sibai 2009 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEl-Sibai2009 (help) reported results from several studies : Di Giacomo 2003 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDi_Giacomo2003 (help), Al-Zahery 2003 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAl-Zahery2003 (help), Flores 2004 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFlores2004 (help), Cinnioglu 2004 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCinnioglu2004 (help), Capelli 2005 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCapelli2005 (help), Goncalves 2005 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGoncalves2005 (help), Zalloua 2008 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFZalloua2008 (help), Cadenas 2008 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCadenas2008 (help)
    6. ^Cerny 2008 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCerny2008 (help): J-12f2(xM267, M172)(45/63) Černý, Viktor; et al. (2009). "Out of Arabia—the settlement of island Soqotra as revealed by mitochondrial and Y chromosome genetic diversity"(PDF). American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 138 (4): 439–447. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20960. PMID 19012329. Archived from the original(PDF) on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
    7. ^Shen 2004 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFShen2004 (help): Haplogroup J-M304(xM267, M172) in 1/20 Ashkenazi Jews.
    8. ^Zhong et al (2011), Mol Biol Evol January 1, 2011 vol. 28 no. 1 717-727Archived 23 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, See Table[permanent dead link].
    9. ^Yunusbaev 2006 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFYunusbaev2006 (help):Stats are for combined Dagestan ethnic groups see the Dagestan article for details. Dargins (91%), Avars (67%), Chamalins (67%), Lezgins (58%), Tabassarans (49%), Andis (37%), Assyrians (29%), Bagvalins (21.4%))
    10. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    11. ^
    12. ^Cadenas 2008 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCadenas2008 (help): 42/72=58.3% J-M267
    13. ^Yunusbaev 2006 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFYunusbaev2006 (help): Dargwas (91%), Avars (67%), Chamalins (67%), Lezgins (58%), Tabassarans (49%), Andis (37%), Assyrians (29%), Bagvalins (21.4%))stats combined Dagestan ethnic groups see Dagestan article
    14. ^Nebel 2001 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNebel2001 (help): 21/32
    15. ^31% is based on Combined Data
    16. ^Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A. (2012). "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLOS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552.
    17. ^"Archived copy"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    18. ^ abSengupta, S; Zhivotovsky, LA; King, R; et al. (February 2006). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.
    19. ^Shou et al (2010), Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western EurasiansArchived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Journal of Human Genetics (2010) 55, 314–322; doi:10.1038/jhg.2010.30; published online 23 April 2010, Table 2. Haplogroup distribution and Y-chromosome diversity in 14 northwestern populationsArchived 14 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine
    20. ^"Y-DNA Haplotree". Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2013.Family Tree DNA uses the Y-Chromosome Consortium tree and posts it on their website.

    Works cited[edit]


    • Y Chromosome Consortium "YCC" (2002). "A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups". Genome Research. 12 (2): 339–48. doi:10.1101/gr.217602. PMC 155271. PMID 11827954.
    • Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Underhill, Peter A (2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genetics. 10: 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. PMC 2759955. PMID 19772609.
    • Alshamali, Farida; Pereira, Luísa; Budowle, Bruce; Poloni, Estella S.; Currat, Mathias (2009). "Local Population Structure in Arabian Peninsula Revealed by Y-STR diversity". Human Heredity. 68 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1159/000210448. PMID 19339785.
    • Chiaroni, Jacques; King, Roy J; Myres, Natalie M; Henn, Brenna M; Ducourneau, Axel; Mitchell, Michael J; Boetsch, Gilles; Sheikha, Issa; et al. (2009). "The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations". European Journal of Human Genetics. 18 (3): 348–53. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.166. PMC 2987219. PMID 19826455.
    • Chiaroni, Jacques; King, Roy J; Myres, Natalie M; Henn, Brenna M; Ducourneau, Axel; Mitchell, Michael J; Boetsch, Gilles; Sheikha, Issa; et al. (2010). "The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations". European Journal of Human Genetics. 18 (3): 348–53. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.166. PMC 2987219. PMID 19826455.
    • Cinnioglu, Cengiz; King, Roy; Kivisild, Toomas; Kalfoglu, Ersi; Atasoy, Sevil; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Lillie, Anita S.; Roseman, Charles C.; et al. (2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Human Genetics. 114 (2): 127–48. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639. S2CID 10763736.
    • Di Giacomo, F.; Luca, F.; Anagnou, N.; Ciavarella, G.; Corbo, R.M.; Cresta, M.; Cucci, F.; Di Stasi, L.; et al. (2003). "Clinal patterns of human Y chromosomal diversity in continental Italy and Greece are dominated by drift and founder effects". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 28 (3): 387–95. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00016-2. PMID 12927125.
    • Di Giacomo, F.; Luca, F.; Popa, L. O.; Akar, N.; Anagnou, N.; Banyko, J.; Brdicka, R.; Barbujani, G.; et al. (2004). "Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe". Human Genetics. 115 (5): 357–71. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1168-9. PMID 15322918. S2CID 18482536.
    • Hammer, Michael F.; Behar, Doron M.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Mendez, Fernando L.; Hallmark, Brian; Erez, Tamar; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Rosset, Saharon; Skorecki, Karl (2009). "Extended Y chromosome haplotypes resolve multiple and unique lineages of the Jewish priesthood". Human Genetics. 126 (5): 707–17. doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0727-5. PMC 2771134. PMID 19669163.
    • Jobling, Mark A.; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2000). "New uses for new haplotypes". Trends in Genetics. 16 (8): 356–62. doi:10.1016/S0168-9525(00)02057-6. PMID 10904265.
    • Karafet, T. M.; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, P. A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F. (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.
    • Luca, F.; Di Giacomo, F.; Benincasa, T.; Popa, L.O.; Banyko, J.; Kracmarova, A.; Malaspina, P.; Novelletto, A.; Brdicka, R. (2007). "Y-chromosomal variation in the Czech Republic". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 132 (1): 132–9. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20500. hdl:2108/35058. PMID 17078035.
    • Luis, J; Rowold, D; Regueiro, M; Caeiro, B; Cinnioglu, C; Roseman, C; Underhill, P; Cavallisforza, L; Herrera, R (2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (3): 532–44. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC 1182266. PMID 14973781.
    • Mirabal S, Varljen T, Gayden T, et al. (July 2010). "Human Y-chromosome short tandem repeats: A tale of acculturation and migrations as mechanisms for the diffusion of agriculture in the Balkan Peninsula". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 142 (3): 380–390. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21235. PMID 20091845.
    • Nasidze, I.; Ling, E. Y. S.; Quinque, D.; Dupanloup, I.; Cordaux, R.; Rychkov, S.; Naumova, O.; Zhukova, O.; et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus". Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (3): 205–21. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00092.x. PMID 15180701. S2CID 27204150.
    • Pericić M, Lauc LB, Klarić IM, et al. (October 2005). "High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations". Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (10): 1964–75. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443.
    • Shen, Peidong; Lavi, Tal; Kivisild, Toomas; Chou, Vivian; Sengun, Deniz; Gefel, Dov; Shpirer, Issac; Woolf, Eilon; et al. (2004). "Reconstruction of patrilineages and matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli populations from Y-Chromosome and mitochondrial DNA sequence Variation". Human Mutation. 24 (3): 248–60. doi:10.1002/humu.20077. PMID 15300852. S2CID 1571356.

    Thesis and Dissertations


    Mailing Lists

    Further reading[edit]

    • yJdb: the Y-haplogroup J database haplotypes of haplogroup J.
    • [1]
    • Haplogroup J subclades at International Society of Genetic Genealogy
    • Nebel et al. 2001, see Modal Haplotypes of "J1" (as Eu10)
    • Sanchez, Juan J; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Børsting, Claus; Hernandez, Alexis; Gorlin, RJ (2005). "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males". European Journal of Human Genetics. 13 (7): 856–66. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201390. PMID 15756297.
    • Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, et al. (February 2006). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.

    Phylogenetic notes[edit]

    1. ^ISOGGY-DNA Haplogroup J and its Subclades - 2016Archived 18 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine (2 February 2016).
    2. ^This table shows the historic names for J-M304 (a.k.a. J-P209, and J-12f2.1) in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
      YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)J-M304
      (a.k.a. J-12f2.1 or J-P209)
      Jobling and Tyler-Smith 20009
      Underhill 2000VI
      Hammer 2001Med
      Karafet 200123
      Semino 2000Eu10
      Su 1999H4
      Capelli 2001B
      YCC 2002 (Longhand)J*
      YCC 2005 (Longhand)J
      YCC 2008 (Longhand)J
      YCC 2010r (Longhand)J
    3. ^This table shows the historic names for J-M267 and its earlier discovered and named subclade J-M62 in published peer reviewed literature.
      YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)J-M267J-M62
      Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000-9
      Underhill 2000-VI
      Hammer 2001-Med
      Karafet 2001-23
      Semino 2000-Eu10
      Su 1999-H4
      Capelli 2001-B
      YCC 2002 (Longhand)-J1
      YCC 2005 (Longhand)J1J1a
      YCC 2008 (Longhand)J1J1a
      YCC 2010r (Longhand)J1J1a
    4. ^This table shows the historic names for J-M172 in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
      YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)J-M172
      Jobling and Tyler-Smith 20009
      Underhill 2000VI
      Hammer 2001Med
      Karafet 200124
      Semino 2000Eu9
      Su 1999H4
      Capelli 2001B
      YCC 2002 (Longhand)J2*
      YCC 2005 (Longhand)J2
      YCC 2008 (Longhand)J2
      YCC 2010r (Longhand)J2

    External links[edit]

    Phylogenetic tree and Distribution Maps of Y-DNA haplogroup J[edit]


    Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups[χ 1][χ 2]
    Ambox current red Asia Australia.svg

    This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(February 2021)

    "Y-chromosomal Adam"
    A00A0-T [χ 3]
    A0A1 [χ 4]
    F1 F2 F3 GHIJK
    I      LT [χ 5]      K2 [χ 6]
    L     T    K2a [χ 7]       K2b [χ 8]     K2c    K2dK2e [χ 9]  
    K-M2313 [χ 10]    K2b1 [χ 11][χ 12]
    NO   [χ 13] M [χ 14]    P1     P2
    1. ^Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.
    2. ^International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
    3. ^Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A-L1085 (and previously as A0'1'2'3'4).
    4. ^Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
    5. ^Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
    6. ^Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T-M184 was known as "Haplogroup K2". That name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
    7. ^Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and its primary subclade K-M2313 were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. doi:10.1038/ng.3559. PMC 4884158. PMID 27111036. In the past, other haplogroups, including NO (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
    8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
    9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
    10. ^K-M2313*, which as yet has no phylogenetic name, has been documented in two living individuals, who have ethnic ties to India and South East Asia. In addition, K-Y28299, which appears to be a primary branch of K-M2313, has been found in three living individuals from India. See: Poznik op. cit.; YFull YTree v5.08, 2017, "K-M2335", and; PhyloTree, 2017, "Details of the Y-SNP markers included in the minimal Y tree" (Access date of these pages: 9 December 2017)
    11. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
    12. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
    13. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
    14. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)

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    L70 paternal j

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