Iowa indian artifacts

Iowa indian artifacts DEFAULT

Iowa's Earliest Residents


Table of Contents

The first people living in Iowa arrived about the same time as the last of the Ice Age glacier was retreating northward. Millennia would pass before their descendants began growing their own food. The warming climate, which halted the ice, allowed the earliest human settlers to occupy a landscape of cool, moist coniferous forests interspersed with open meadows and wetlands populated by many animals and plants never again seen by later peoples. Iowa has produced impressive remains of large Ice Age mammals such as mammoth and giant ground sloth at sites like the Allied Mammoth Site in Des Moines and West Tarkio Creek in Page County.

Clues to these earliest inhabitants come from the stone projectile points—named Clovis and Folsom—used as weapons and cutting tools—lost, forgotten, or cached at early Paleoindian period sites across Iowa. These early artifact discoveries tend to occur near streams or rivers, often in confluence areas, and near sources of high quality chert or flint. To date, over 200 Clovis and Folsom points have been recorded across the state, many found by collectors walking cultivated fields and stream beds. Only the Rummells-Maske site in Cedar County and the Carlisle cache in Warren County received professional excavation. A Clovis point discovered in Woodbury County retained blood residue sealed beneath a layer of calcium carbonate. Chemical analysis of the blood indicates the point had been used to hunt deer or elk.

The way of life for these earliest Iowans was likely nomadic with small communities moving to take advantage of resources. From various sites outside the state, we know that Paleoindian hunters often worked together to drive animals into areas where they might more easily be killed and then butchered. In addition to spearpoints, contemporary artifacts include knives, scrapers, abraders, choppers, rubbing stones, and some bone and antler artifacts. Most of these seem to reflect game processing and hide work.

Almost nothing is known of early Paleoindian society, housing, more perishable artifacts like clothing, or plant use. It is assumed that communities were small, probably extended families. Housing would likely have been temporary, involving some sort of branch or bone framework with a covering of skins or mats. Clothes likewise would have been made of skins. A few wild seeds like those of hackberry are occasionally reported at Paleoindian sites. These kinds of items do not usually survive except under rare circumstances of preservation.

To piece together a picture of this earliest period of Iowa’s history takes the combined contributions of scientists from a number of fields— geology, paleontology, and archaeology. Recent discoveries, like those at the Rummells-Maske and Carlisle sites are adding to our understanding of this remote period.

Major References

Alex 2000
Anderson and Tiffany 1972
Hill 2009
Morrow and Morrow 2002

Map of Iowa detailing the Pleistocene Glacial Advance

Pleistocene Glacial Advance Map Legend: Details land forms of Iowa, rivers/channels, vegetation, animals and cultural development

Image Credits:
Melanie Riley and Mary Kathryn Rocheford, UI-OSA (maps of glacial extent)
Matthew G. Hill, Iowa State University
Angela Collins, UI-OSA (Ice Age map and legend)
UI-OSA Photo Archives
UI-Museum of Natural History


Archaeological society celebrates Native American culture

MT. PLEASANT – Arrowhead collectors assembled at Iowa Wesleyan University Sunday morning, Jan. 19, to show off their finds and rub shoulders with like-minded enthusiasts.

The event was sponsored by the Hawkeye State Archaeological Society, and took place at the Howe Activity Center on the university's campus. Denny White, one of the organizers of the event, said the gathering is all about appreciating Native American culture and the artifacts it left behind.

'We're trying to educate the public about how these people lived and died,” White said.

White and his grandson Kaden manned a booth where they displayed arrowheads and other artifacts, all of which White had found himself. White said he became interested in the hobby in 1970. He did a lot of fishing and pheasant hunting, but found that he had a gap between his interests, free time waiting to be filled. He asked a friend for advice about a new hobby, and the friend suggested collecting arrowheads.

The very first year White went looking for arrowheads, he found 113 of them. White has learned that the shape of the arrowhead can hint at the time period when it was used or possibly even the tribe that used it. For instance, a type of arrowhead White has in his collection is called a Snyder point, which was a product of the Hopewell culture, stretching from the middle of Iowa east to Ohio, and spanning from Tennessee to Michigan's Upper Peninsula. According to the website, Snyder point arrowheads were made between 2500 and 1500 B.C.

White said he finds most of his arrowheads around water sources. Why? It's simple, he explained. The Native Americans needed food, so they hunted animals. And of course, animals needed water, so the natives often hunted them near water sources.

Arrowheads weren't the only thing on display Sunday. White's largest artifact was a tooth – a mammoth tooth, to be exact. He found it one day while he was catfishing in the Skunk River. He saw the tooth sticking out of the water, and noticed it was different from the rocks around it. He took it home, and after six weeks of research, determined it was a Columbian mammoth tooth around 16,000 years old.

'The river was very low when I found it. I'd say it only gets that low about every 15 years,” White said. 'The tooth was underwater most of the time, so no oxygen got to it [to dissolve it].”

Matt Wells of Macon, Missouri, displayed a shark's tooth he found in a riverbed in Missouri. He estimated the tooth was around 100 million years old, because it's been a long time since sharks have swum in Missouri. Wells also showed off a pipe estimated to be 1,500 years old. The pipe is made of clay, and was put in a fire to harden it.

'I've been collecting artifacts for the past five years,” Wells said. 'I hunt for them along rivers and creeks. There are a lot of good places to find them around Macon.”

Hoyt Grooms of Ottumwa has also been collecting artifacts for the past five years. He hunts for them throughout southeast Iowa, not just in his home county of Wapello but in all the surrounding counties, too.

'It's kind of a competition, because other people are hunting the same creeks I am,” he said.

Grooms has a YouTube channel where he posts videos of the artifacts he finds. He always makes a point of photographing or videotaping the artifact before he touches it. Grooms said that, because many people walk the same creeks in search of artifacts, most of his finds are fresh, maybe only a few weeks or months after they've reached the surface. That's especially true of the complete arrowheads. Once an arrowhead or other artifact reaches the surface of the dirt, it's more likely to be carried away by water and broken by other rocks.

Grooms can tell when an arrowhead has been underwater for a long time because it will be stained, usually turned black. However, he can remove the stain by putting the arrowhead in lemon juice, which will turn it back to the rock's original color.

Henry County resident Alfred Savage has collected Native American artifacts for the past 63 years, and has written for the Central States Archaeological Journal. He and his wife Deb are opening the Old City Hall Artifact Museum at 220 W. Monroe St. Suite 103 in Mt. Pleasant. They will have on display arrowheads, axes and other Native American artifacts from Henry County and beyond. The museum is open from 9 a.m. to noon the first Sunday of each month.

Alfred Savage grew up in Minnesota and later moved to his family's ancestral home of Salem, Iowa. While doing some digging through historical records, Savage found a map from 1837 showing a series of wigwams near Salem. It was meant to indicate the location of an American Indian encampment. Today, 183 years later, it is a gold mine of artifacts. Savage estimated that 90 percent of his collection has come from that site.

One of Savage's most unusual pieces is an iron ore axe blade. Iron ore is unheard of as an axe blade, since most blades were granite. Savage discovered that when he put a magnet next to the blade, it stuck. He said the rock must have come from deep within the earth where the temperature is over 2,000 degrees. It's either that, or the rock came from a meteorite, he said.

A few artifact collectors mentioned how the general public often refers to all American Indian pointed blades as 'arrowheads,” when in fact most of the blades found were used in other ways, such as knives, spears, drills, etc. Savage said true arrowheads – blades attached to arrows – were invented by North American Indians around 500 A.D., about 11,500 years after humans settled the continent.

Savage had on display a cache of 20 preform blades that were discovered in Champaign, Illinois, in 1982. A preform is a chunk of rock that has not been finished into a blade, but which is small enough to easily transport or trade. Savage said the Champaign area was a common place for American Indians to barter because it was connected to so many rivers. When the Frito-Lay plant was built in Champaign, it unearthed these preforms buried years ago.

Savage said the excavators dug probably 40 feet into the ground. He said it takes the earth about 500 years to make one foot of soil, so digging that deep below the surface allows modern humans to uncover facts about the distant past. He said the cache of 20 preforms in his possession is about 10,000 years old.

Union photo by Andy Hallman Matt Wells remarked that the small blades, like the two seen at the top of this photo, are true 'arrowheads' because they were attached to arrows, while other blades commonly called 'arrowheads' by the public are more likely to be knives, spears, drills, or something else.
Union photo by Andy Hallman Matt Wells of Macon, Missouri, and his sons Dayton, 7, middle, and Landon, 13, right, display the family's collection of arrowheads and American Indian artifacts.
Union photo by Andy Hallman Alfred Savage holds up a carving that can take three forms depending on how it's held. In the orientation seen here, it appears as a turtle, but turn it to one side and it appears as a snake. Rotate it once more and it becomes an owl.
Union photo by Andy Hallman Denny White holds up a piece of petrified palm tree that he found in Henry County. He estimates it is between 100-300 million years old.
Union photo by Andy Hallman Alfred Savage holds up an American Indian axe blade made of iron ore, which is unusual because most blades are made of granite. Savage is showing how a magnet sticks to the rock.
Union photo by Andy Hallman Gary Van Dyke, left, chats with Ottumwa resident Hoyt Grooms about his collection of American Indian artifacts.
Union photo by Andy Hallman These are all the blades and arrowheads Ottumwa resident Hoyt Grooms found in 2019, searching mostly creeks and rivers.
Union photo by Andy Hallman Hoyt Grooms shows off an axe blade.
Union photo by Andy Hallman Denny White shows off his 16,000-year-old mammoth tooth he found in the Skunk River while catfishing.
Union photo by Andy Hallman This copper tang knife from Michigan's Upper Peninsula was found by Denny White in Henry County. White said that, more than likely, it was a blade used to kill game. He said it could have ended up in southeast Iowa because the American Indians living in Michigan migrated here.
Union photo by Andy Hallman Dozens of people turned out for the Hawkeye State Archaeological Society artifact show Sunday, Jan. 19 at Iowa Wesleyan University in Mt. Pleasant.
Union photo by Andy Hallman Alfred Savage reviews his display of American Indian arrowheads and blades. Forty years ago, he told his wife he wanted one of every blade seen on the chart (in background), and now he has them.
Union photo by Andy Hallman Dozens of people turned out for the Hawkeye State Archaeological Society artifact show Sunday, Jan. 19 at Iowa Wesleyan University in Mt. Pleasant.
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Ioway Territory Artifacts

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Welcome to Ioway Territory Artifacts. I'm Kurt Kruggel, an enthusiastic surface hunter and collector of Native American lithic objects for the past 30 years. I'm a member of A.S.A.A.; G.I.R.S. and C.S.A.S., but there are no meetings or chapters, and few known collectors, in North Central Iowa and I've collected "in a vacuum" for most of the 30 years. As a result, I've established solid ties with some fine collectors in other areas of the Midwest and other regions of the country during the past few years through buying lithic objects from stores and the Bennett and Rowland's auctions. Although Iowa produces a wide variety of ancient Indian lithic objects, rarely do they seem to come onto the market. For these reasons, you will see that I deal in artifacts from IA, IL, MO, TN, KY, AR, TX, OK, IN, OH and other Midwest States. I strive to offer good, authentic Ancient North American Indian artifacts. Almost all of my product items will be in the lower end of the financial spectrum - from $150.00 and less. I am also a 23 year, enthusiastic, collector of ANTIQUE TRADE BEADS USED IN THE NORTH AMERICAN FUR TRADES ERA'S. You will see fine quality, highly-collectible examples of these beads for sale on my store pages. All items are legally obtained and guaranteed 100% to be authentic. I offer a 15-day, money back guarantee or 30 days if you send the item(s) for authentication. A full refund will be given if the item is returned to me in "as sent to you" condition, if you are unhappy with the item, in any way. Shipping costs will be $6.00 per item, priority. Smaller items will be $3.00. Items can be combined to reduce shipping costs. Insurance will be extra. Shipping costs on stone and heavier items will be based on actual weight. Payment is to be personal check, cashier's check or money order. Shipment will be made as soon as possible upon clearance of any personal check, next day with cashier's check or money order. I look forward to meeting you on-line and serving your artifact needs. Thank you. IF YOU HAVE TRIED TO CONTACT ME THROUGH THE "ADD TO CART" ON THE STORE SITE AND I HAVE NOT RESPONDED TO YOU WITHIN ONE DAY, PLEASE RECONTACT ME ON THE E-MAIL ADDRESS ABOVE OR PLEASE CALL MY CELL: 641-420-1063 THANK YOU. KURT

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Artifact hunter looking for treasures

To the unpracticed eye, the stone shard resting in the stream bed seemed little removed from the pebbles and rocks that cradled it. But its discoverer drew a deep breath because he knew he was looking at something special.

Brent Japsen of Mount Pleasant bent down and carefully removed the find from the creek detritus a recent rain had dislodged from the watershed bluff. There, resting across his palm was a gift of aboriginal craftsmanship that had come to him from a distance of 4,000 years.

This finely worked, pointed stone shaft would mark the highpoint of Japsen�s 30 years of scouring area streams, bluffs, farm field margins and woodlands for Indian artifacts.

At a time when Stonehenge in Britain was taking its final form and Egypt�s Great Pyramids were new to the Giza plain, a Native American paused to fashion a stone knife that was an artistic expression. It may have had ceremonial significance or been a badge of status, but for whatever purpose, the finely made object was lost to human touch until Japsen discovered it.

Japsen, a robust and gregarious Wal-Mart warehouse employee polished by long hours in his beloved out-of-doors, is an Indian artifact hunter. But he is quick to explain what sets his breed of hunters apart from artifact collectors.

�We are not out there buying, selling and trading arrow heads and spear points,� he said. �We are out there walking the ground and trying to find out why an artifact should be at a certain place and there is a lot of satisfaction in our hunt. We don�t buy our collections � we build them.�

It can be a demanding pursuit, with more poison ivy, bug bites and abrasions than meaningful discoveries. But one day last June, in Henderson County, Ill., he found an artifact unique in his recovery of more than 1,000 stone implements, points, decorative pieces and pottery shards.

That stone knife blade now resides in solitary splendor in a dedicated wood case. But Japsen is willing to draw it forth so its smooth surface can be appreciated.

�I�ve had a number of people look at this, and from the style it can be 4,000 years old,� he explained. �And they seem to agree it is a ceremonial knife blade. You can see where it is notched for a leather strap that would hold it to a handle. And it has been so highly polished it cannot have been used for actual cutting.�

The 5-inch blade is as smooth as if it had been molded from a space-age plastic, and it has a warm color setting it apart from the other chert and flint pieces in Japsen�s collection.

�Just the stone itself makes it unusual,� he said. �People who know these things say the material came from southern Illinois, and how it came to be here is a mystery.�

It is that mystery, along with scores of others associated with the artifacts resting in glass and wood frames in Japsen�s comfortable living room, that are the principal attraction for the hunt.

�It is hard to explain,� he continued, �but when I bent down to pick up the knife blade, my heart was beating so hard. I thought I was the first person in thousands of years that held this. Who was the man who shaped it? Why did he make it and how did it come to be lost? All of that was going through my mind.�

These questions and an imagining of a prehistoric people predating the Sac and Fox tribes make artifact hunting an addictive hobby. Sally, Japsen�s understanding wife, can attest to the pull the pursuit can exert.

�I think if he could, he would spend every day out there looking for these things. Our living room is starting to look like a cabin in the woods,� she laughed. �The collection takes up so much room that I am lucky if I get just one shelf for my things.�

Japsen�s artifact hunting started its pull on an early winter duck-hunt. It was a day the ducks were not flying, so Japsen�s hunting companions suggested they walk a creek bed to see if there were any points to be found.

�It didn�t sound like much of an idea,� Japsen confessed, �but I decided to give it a try. After a lot of walking, I happened to look down at the stream bed and there, framed in the ice just like it was in a window, was my first spear point. After that I was hooked.�

The search for points � arrowheads and spear points � also has produced a range of other finds. There are gaming stones, scrapers, stone ax heads and hoes. Pottery shards and decoratively formed necklace stones also are part of the large collection. A finely smoothed stone ball, little larger than a golf ball, is a fish net weight and has a deeply incised, narrow groove that would hold a cord.

Another of Japsen�s favorite finds in an ax head broken into two pieces.

�I found half of this in northern Des Moines County and a few years later, a friend invited me to a hog roast near the farm where I found the piece. At the party I got to talking to a guy from the area and he said he, too, had found a broken ax head nearby a few months earlier. We brought the two pieces together and they were a perfect match. What are the chances of that?� Japsen wondered.

Japsen shares his love of the ancient with about 300 members of the Hawkeye State Archaeological Society of Iowa. In addition to regular public shows, the group exchanges information on a range of discoveries not limited to points and shards.

�There is a collector in this area who has found a stone pipe head carved in the shape of a frog,� Japsen said. �And there is a group near Oskaloosa that has been working with the state to recover the bones of a mammoth. There is so much to find out there and you never get tired of it.�

The group�s next show will be April 3 in Durant. Japsen encouraged people to attend.

Not all of the information coming from the group�s shows deal with prehistoric artifacts. Often, there�s practical pointers as well. One recent suggestion was that repeated bouts of poison ivy, which are a hunter�s hazard, could be defeated if the sufferer simply ate a poison ivy leaf at the start of the hunting season. Japsen is curious about all things Indian, but so far has drawn the line at this folk cure.


Artifacts iowa indian

Archaeology of Iowa

Aspect of archaeology in the United States

This article is about the buried remains of human cultures in Iowa. For studies of rocks, fossils, paleontology, and soils, see Geology of Iowa.

The archaeology of Iowa is the study of the buried remains of humanculture within the U.S. state of Iowa from the earliest prehistoric through the late historic periods. When the American Indians first arrived in what is now Iowa more than 13,000 years ago, they were hunters and gatherers living in a Pleistoceneglacial landscape. By the time European explorers visited Iowa, American Indians were largely settled farmers with complex economic, social, and political systems. This transformation happened gradually. During the Archaic period (10,500–2,800 years ago) American Indians adapted to local environments and ecosystems, slowly becoming more sedentary as populations increased. More than 3,000 years ago, during the Late Archaic period, American Indians in Iowa began utilizing domesticated plants. The subsequent Woodland period saw an increase on the reliance on agriculture and social complexity, with increased use of mounds, ceramics, and specialized subsistence. During the Late Prehistoric period (beginning about AD 900) increased use of maize and social changes led to social flourishing and nucleated settlements. The arrival of European trade goods and diseases in the Protohistoric period led to dramatic population shifts and economic and social upheaval, with the arrival of new tribes and early European explorers and traders. During the Historical period European traders and American Indians in Iowa gave way to American settlers and Iowa was transformed into an agricultural state.[1]

Iowa archaeologists[edit]

Ellison Orr’s and Theodore Lewis’ 1910 sketch of effigy mounds near McGregor, Iowa, now part of Effigy Mounds National Monument.

Archaeologists have studied the prehistory of Iowa since the mid-19th century, when large American Indian mounds were first observed along the Mississippi. Early archaeologists such as S.V. Proudfit and Theodore Lewis documented large sites such as earthworks, mounds, and earthlodges.[2] Truly systematic recording of Iowa sites began with Charles R. Keyes and Ellison Orr’s surveys and excavations beginning in the 1920s. Documenting hundreds of sites, often just before they disappeared under the plow, Keyes’ and Orr’s work led to the formation of the Iowa Archaeological Survey, the Iowa Archeological Society, and the designation of Effigy Mounds National Monument. After their deaths in 1951, the Survey was disbanded, and their efforts were continued by the University of Iowa’s Department of Sociology and Anthropology, which formed the Office of the State Archaeologist[3] (OSA) in 1959.[1] The OSA maintains an extensive list of more than 23,000 recorded archaeological sites in Iowa, and conducts survey and excavation across the state. Other institutions conducting archaeological research in Iowa include the State Historical Society of Iowa, the Iowa Archeological Society, the University of Iowa, Iowa State University, Grinnell College, Luther College, and private archaeological firms.[4] Professional archaeologists in Iowa are represented by the Association of Iowa Archaeologists.[5] Iowa archaeology grew dramatically beginning in the 1960s with the introduction of Cultural Resources Management legislation that required archaeological survey and excavation at many federal projects in Iowa.[1]

Paleoindian (13,500–10,500 years ago)[edit]

Paleoindian hunters and gatherers were the first occupants of Iowa, entering the state at the end of the Pleistocene glacial period. At the time the state was covered by tundra, conifer forests, and deciduous forests. Areas immediately north of Des Moines extending to Minnesota were covered by the receding Des Moines Lobe, a large glacier system. Highly mobile, their sites are scattered across Iowa and are noted for their large stone points. While Paleoindians were traditionally viewed as big game hunters, more recent research suggests much of their subsistence was derived from small game and wild plants. Paleoindian points are found throughout Iowa, but almost no intact Paleoindian sites have been excavated, probably because they were ephemeral and are now either destroyed by plowing or are very deeply buried in river valleys.[1][6]

Clovis and other Early Paleoindian[edit]

The oldest artifacts found in Iowa are Clovis points, large lanceolate points found occasionally in all parts of the state except for the Des Moines Lobe. Possible sources of game were giant Pleistocene megafauna, including mammoth, mastodon, and giant forms of bison, all of which are now extinct. While widespread, only two Clovis sites have been excavated in Iowa. The Rummells-Maske site is a Clovis site in Cedar County; unfortunately, this site was damaged by plowing, although 20 points and point fragments were recovered.[7] The Carlisle Clovis Cache Site in Warren County contained 38 unfinished stone tools that appear to date to the Clovis period, but these results have not yet been published.[8]

Other Iowa Early Paleoindian points include Gainey, a point that appears to be intermediate between Clovis and Folsom. Gainey points were also recovered at Rummells-Maske. While Folsom points are found throughout Iowa, especially western Iowa, none have been excavated in a well-preserved site.[9]

Dalton and other Late Paleoindian[edit]

At the beginning of the glacial-free Holocene Epoch, humans in Iowa utilized projectile point found throughout the mid-continent, including Dalton, Fayette, Agate Basin, and Hell Gap. Humans were still highly mobile, and by this time most of the Pleistocene megafauna had gone extinct. As with the Early Paleoindian period, no intact Late Paleoindian sites have been excavated in Iowa.[10]

Archaic Period[edit]

The Archaic is the longest period of Iowa prehistory, lasting about 8,000 years. Overall, populations appear to have increased in Iowa during the Archaic, despite a changing climate. During this time American Indians transitioned from highly mobile hunters and gatherers with large ranges towards a focus on local resources and ecosystems. Domesticated plants appeared in Iowa towards the end of the Archaic.[1]

Early Archaic (10,500–7,500 years ago)[edit]

During the Early Archaic period regional variation in point forms is seen in Iowa, and Indians adapted to more localized forms of hunting and gathering while probably maintaining seasonal movements from camp to camp.[1] Common stone tool types are Corner-notched St. Charles points and Thebes Knives. Soon Hardin and Kirk points appear in Iowa as well.[11] Excavated Early Archaic sites in Iowa include the Soldow Site,[12] Horizons IIIa and II of the Cherokee Sewer Site,[1][13] and the Simonsen Site.[14]

Middle Archaic (7,500–5,000 years ago)[edit]

Temperatures rose in the mid-continent during the Middle Archaic, a warming trend known as the Hypsithermal. Grasslands expanded east, forests became less common, and many Iowa lakes shrank or disappeared. Humans responded by diversifying their subsistence strategy: eastern Iowa saw a shift towards river resources, and western Iowa towards Plains resources. Excavated sites in eastern and central Iowa include the Brash Site,[15] the Gast Spring Site,[1] and the Ed’s Meadow Site.[16] Western Iowa sites include the Turin Site,[17] Horizon I of the Cherokee Sewer Site,[13] and the Pony Creek Site.[18]

Late Archaic (5,000–2,800 years ago)[edit]

In the Late Archaic the climate became more similar to modern with the end of the Hypsithermal. The number of Late Archaic Sites increased in Iowa, perhaps reflective of increased populations allowed by climate change and new subsistence strategies. The Late Archaic sees the first indication of mound building in Iowa, as well as direct evidence of domesticated plants, and large, long-term settlements. The Red Ocher Culture appeared in northeast Iowa, associated with copper artifacts and mound building. Numerous Late Archaic sites have been excavated in eastern Iowa, some showing the gradual adaptation of cultigens, including squash, little barley, marsh elder, and barnyard grass.[19] Sites with evidence for early cultigens in Iowa include the Edgewater Park Site in Coralville,[20] the Gast Spring Site,[1][21] and the Sand Run Slough West Site.[22] In western Iowa, Late Archaic sites are common, however large bison killing or processing sites are less common than before, and there is little evidence for the use of domesticated plants.[23]

Woodland Period[edit]

During the Woodland period, many American Indians in Iowa shifted away from hunting and gathering and used more domesticated plants, although wild food was still important. Ceramics, the bow and arrow, burial mounds, and evidence of political and social hierarchy became common at Woodland sites in Iowa.[1]

Early Woodland (800 BC–200 BC)[edit]

The Early Woodland period saw the introduction of ceramics to Iowa, including Marion Thick and Black Sand types. Marion Thick may have originated with the nucleated Late Archaic cultures of the Upper Midwest, and was widespread in distribution.[24] Early Woodland Indians in eastern Iowa built large burial mounds in the Mississippi River region, and participated in long-distance trade of exotic raw material. This long-distance trade may have been the forerunner of the later Havanna-Hopewell trading sphere. In north-central Iowa, Early Woodland peoples appear to have interacted more directly with the Prairie Lakes region of Minnesota. Numerous Early Woodland sites have been excavated in Iowa, including the Gast Spring Site,[1] and many sites which have not been formally published.[25]

Middle Woodland (200 BC–400 AD)[edit]

The Middle Woodland Indians of eastern Iowa participated at the edge of the Havana and Hopewell interaction networks. This cultural connection to the East is seen in the construction of large mounds, earthworks, and the trade of exotic goods over very long distances. There were several large earthwork enclosures in Iowa along the Mississippi that date to the Middle Woodland period, but none in the interior of the state, indicating Iowa is the western edge of Havana-Hopewell influence.[26] The Toolesboro Mound Group in Louisa County included a large octagonal earthen enclosure that covered several acres; earthworks of this style are indicative of the monumental construction once seen in Havana, Illinois along the Illinois River and sites in the Ohio River drainage including Chillicothe and Newark, Ohio. Hopewell trading networks were quite extensive, with obsidian from the Yellowstone area, copper from Lake Superior, and shells from the Gulf Coast appearing in Middle Woodland Iowa sites. Sites in eastern Iowa appeared to nucleate, vacating much of the hinterlands.[27] Western Iowa appears to have been not directly involved in this exchange network, and the Havana-Hopewell flourishing did not extend much above the Kansas City area of the Missouri River.[28]

Late Woodland (400–1250 AD)[edit]

The Late Woodland Period was once considered to be relatively unimportant and uninteresting compared to earlier and later periods, but recent research shows unexpected cultural complexity.[1][29] Late Woodland sites are more dispersed than Middle Woodland sites, but they are apparently more numerous. Gone are the complex earthworks and long-distance trade networks, but this does not appear to be a cultural collapse, since Late Woodland sites and artifact types overlap with and transition from Middle Woodland sites. Technical changes of the Late Woodland include the use of true arrow heads, thinner and larger ceramics with less elaborate decorations, and the adaptation of new crops, including maize.[30] Numerous regional variations and phases have been defined in Iowa, based in large extent on differences of ceramic form and decoration.[1] Excavations at Late Woodland sites are common, some of these sites showing surprising complexity. The Gast Farm Site excavations revealed a complex settlement associated with a midden of refuse 100 m in diameter. Large storage and food processing pits, trash middens, and other features were excavated. Occupants utilized acorns, other nuts and fruits, goosefoot, little barley, maygrass, sunflower, fish, birds, deer, muskrat, and turtle. There was little evidence of long-distance trade.[31] The Rainbow and M.A.D. sites provide a glimpse into the Late Archaic of western Iowa. At Rainbow, a large house was excavated, showing evidence of reuse and possible joint occupation by two families.[32] Mound building became more common during the Late Woodland Period, large groups of mounds appeared including the Slinde Mound Group, and the Fish Farm Mound Group.

Effigy Mounds[edit]

The Late Woodland in Iowa is perhaps best known for effigy mounds, large, low mounds shaped like animals such as birds and bears. Effigy mounds are distributed across southern Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and northeast Iowa. A large concentration of mounds in several groups is preserved at Effigy Mounds National Monument. Like most mounds in Iowa, excavation reveals that these mounds were commonly used as sacred burial locations but contain few artifacts.[33] Recent ground-penetrating radar survey of selected mounds at Effigy Mounds National Monument reveal that many are badly disturbed, but others appear to be comparatively intact.[34] The Folkert Mound Group in central Iowa contains an enigmatic cruciform mound that may or may not be astronomically aligned.[35][36]

Late Prehistoric (900–1600)[edit]

Map of archaeology of Fort Des Moines in downtownDes Moines

Maize appears to have been the catalyst for change in the Late Prehistoric period in Iowa. While maize had been a minor crop in the Woodland Period, many archaeologists believe new varieties of maize were introduced to the region that produced higher yields, allowing for a population boom. This increase in population, combined with the potential for surplus and growing tensions over control of territory, appears to have led to large nucleated settlements throughout the eastern U.S.[37] Although this manifested itself earliest along the Mississippi south of Iowa, the earliest Late Prehistoric cultures appeared in the western part of the state.[38]

Great Oasis (ca. 900–1100)[edit]

Great Oasis sites appeared in the Missouri River drainage, and have attributes of both Late Woodland and Late Prehistoric cultures. Great Oasis cultures extended through the eastern Plains from Iowa to South Dakota. Developing independently from the eastern Mississippian cultures, Great Oasis sites display large sites along major stream terraces, increased reliance on agriculture combined with hunting and gathering, substantial pit earth lodges, and a transition from Late Woodland to Late Prehistoric ceramic forms. Overall, Great Oasis appears to have been a regional adaptation of new forms of farming and settlement patterns, including seasonal occupation of different ecological zones, that includes aspects of Late Woodland and the subsequent Middle Missouri Tradition.[1][39][40]

Mill Creek and Glenwood (1100–1300)[edit]

In northwestern Iowa, Great Oasis underwent dramatic changes as Mill Creek sites appeared. While Mill Creek has many stylistic similarities with Great Oasis and some Mill Creek sites contain Great Oasis ceramic forms, Mill Creek sites are substantially different. Mill Creek sites became nucleated, often fortified, had a much higher dependence on maize and bison hunting, show substantial evidence of long-distance trade, and appear to have been occupied year-round. The Phipps and Chan-Ya-Ta sites are classic examples. Glenwood culture sites in southwest Iowa near the Missouri River appear to be unrelated to the earlier Great Oasis sites, and are notable for their large earthlodge sites. Glenwood sites appear to have been more oriented in lifeways and trade with the Central Plains Tradition cultures to the west than with the Mississippian cultures to the southeast. Around 1300 AD Mill Creek and Glenwood sites in Iowa disappeared, replaced by the rapidly spreading Oneota cultures.[41][42][43][44][45]

Oneota (1250–1700)[edit]

Excavation of the Oneota component of the Birds Run Site in Des Moines

Very large Mississippian centers appeared around AD 1000, with enormous earthen pyramids, palisades, and extreme social hierarchy. The earliest large Mississippian center was Cahokia, east of St. Louis. Cahokia appears to have dominated trade in the upper Mississippi, with satellite or closely aligned settlements as far as Aztalan in Wisconsin.[1][46] In Iowa, there is little evidence of Mississippian occupation, and the Late Woodland lasts longer in the east than in the west. This is puzzling, given the proximity to Mississippian cultures; it is possible that the nearby presence of the large, hierarchal Mississippian trading network inhibited local development.[1] After the decline of the Cahokia network after AD 1250 the local Late Woodland populations expanded in complexity, developing large nucleated villages and their own trading network, known as Upper MississippianOneota. Oneota, named by Charles Keyes for a river in northeast Iowa, was a large cultural manifestation that covered the Upper Midwest at the edge of the Mississippian cultures. Oneota sites are easily identifiable by the globular, shell-tempered pots, which typically have strap handles and incised designs. Pots of this kind were well designed for the cooking of porridge and foods made from the various cultivated foods of the area. Important Oneota sites in Iowa include Kingston,[47] Mckinney,[48] Christenson,[49]Blood Run,[50]Hartley Fort, the Lane Enclosure,[51] three sites in downtown Des Moines,[52][53] and sites along the Upper Iowa River, including several large earthwork enclosures.[26][54] After the decline of the Mill Creek and Glenwood cultures in western Iowa, Oneota cultures appeared across the state. It is widely accepted that the Oneota were the ancestors of modern American Indian tribes associated with Iowa, including the Ioway, Ho-Chunk (Winnebago), Otoe, Missouria, and Omaha.[1]

Protohistoric (1600–1800)[edit]

Catlinite pipe, probably Ioway, from the Protohistoric Wanampito Site (13BM16), Bremer County, Iowa.

Protohistoric refers to the period when American Indians were exposed to European trade items and large population shifts occurred because of introduced European diseases and warfare, but there is very little direct written documentation. Explorers such as Marquette and Joliet occasionally documented American Indians along the Mississippi in Iowa, but it was not until the early 19th century that regular written accounts of American Indians in Iowa became common. American Indians in the early Protohistoric period continued many aspects of Oneota culture, but soon almost all indigenous technology disappeared, including ceramics and stone tool production.[55] It was during this period that the Meskwaki (Fox) and Sauk appeared in eastern Iowa, displaced from their homelands in the east. Important protohistoric sites include Milford;[56]Blood Run; Gillett Grove;[57] and Iowaville.[58]

Historical (1800–present)[edit]

The earliest European forts and settlements were established by traders beginning in the 1680s. Almost none of these ephemeral early historical sites have been located archaeologically. Julien Dubuque’s Mines of Spain settlement and adjacent Meskwaki village occupied in the late 18th century and early 19th century, has been the subject of numerous archaeological surveys.[59]Fort Madison (1808–1813), the first American settlement and the first American fort in Iowa, was partially excavated in 1965.[60] American settlement began in earnest in the 1830s, and the official removal of American Indians from Iowa was completed by 1852. Several of these historical sites have been excavated, including Gilbert’s Trading Post.[61] and Fort Atkinson.[62] Archaeologists have also studied historical American settlements, including excavations at the Plum Grove Historic House,[63][64] the Buxton African-American community,[65] and the Bowen’s Prairie community.[66]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqAlex, Lynn M. (2000). Iowa's Archaeological Past. University of Iowa Press.
  2. ^Proudfit, S. V. (1880) Antiquities of the Missouri Bluffs. American Antiquarian 3:271–280; Lewis, Theodore H. (1885) Effigy Mounds in Iowa. Science 6(146):453–454
  3. ^Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-25. Retrieved 2008-06-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^"Association of Iowa Archaeologists: Membership Directory". Archived from the original on 2009-07-16. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
  5. ^Association of Iowa Archaeologists, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2008-06-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^Iowa's Earliest Residents, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-04-10. Retrieved 2010-03-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^Anderson, Adrian D., and Joseph A. Tiffany (1972) Rummells-Maske: A Clovis Find-Spot in Iowa. Plains Anthropologist 17:55–59
  8. ^The Carlisle Cache, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-04-10. Retrieved 2010-03-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^Alex 2000:49–50; Morrow, Julie, "The Early Paleoindian Period" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2008-06-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^Alex 2000:50–53
  11. ^Morrow, Toby; "The Late Paleoindian/Early Archaic Period" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2008-06-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^Flanders, Richard E. (1977) The Soldow Site, 13HB1: An Archaic Component from North Central Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 24:125– 147
  13. ^ abAnderson, Duane C., and Holmes A. Semken, Jr. (eds.) (1980) The Cherokee Excavations: Holocene Ecology and Human Adaptations in Northwestern Iowa. Academic Press, New York
  14. ^Frankforter, W. D., and George A. Agogino (1960) The Simonsen Site: Report for the Summer of 1959. Plains Anthropologist 5:65–70
  15. ^Collins, James M. (1995) Lithic Technology and Temporal Variation at a Chert Workshop in Central Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 42:8–20
  16. ^Morrow, Toby A. (1998) Phase III Excavations at the Ed’s Meadow Site (13DM712). Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  17. ^Fisher, Alton K. (1985) Turin: A Middle Archaic Burial Site in Western Iowa. Plains Anthropologist 30:195–218
  18. ^Reeves, Brian (1973) The Concept of an Altithermal Cultural Hiatus in Northern Plains Prehistory. American Anthropologist 75:1221–1253
  19. ^Crops of Ancient Iowa, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-04-10. Retrieved 2010-03-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^Whittaker, William E., Michael T. Dunne, Joe Alan Artz, Sarah E. Horgen, and Mark L. Anderson (2007) Edgewater Park: A Late Archaic Campsite along the Iowa River. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 32(1):4–46;
  21. ^Dunne, Michael T., and William Green (1998) Terminal Archaic and Early Woodland Plant Use at the Gast Spring Site (13LA152), Southeast Iowa. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 23(1):45–88
  22. ^Alex 2000:76–77
  23. ^Alex 2000:78–79
  24. ^Alex 2000:88; Klippel, Walter E. (1972) An Early Woodland Period Manifestation in the Prairie Peninsula. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 19:1–91
  25. ^Alex 2000:87–98
  26. ^ abWhittaker, William; William Green (2010). "Early and Middle Woodland Earthwork Enclosures in Iowa". North American Archaeologist. 31 (1): 27–57. doi:10.2190/NA.31.1.b. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  27. ^Alex 2000:100–109
  28. ^Alex 2000:112–115
  29. ^Benn and Green 2000
  30. ^Alex 2000:115–118
  31. ^Benn, David W., and William Green (2000) Late Woodland Cultures in Iowa. In Late Woodland Societies: Tradition and Transformation across the Midcontinent, ed. T. E. Emerson, D. L. McElrath, and A. C. Fortier, pp. 429–496. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska
  32. ^Benn, David W. (ed.) (1990) Woodland Cultures on the Western Prairies: The Rainbow Site Investigations. Report 18. Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  33. ^Lenzendorf, Dennis (2000) Effigy Mounds: A Guide to Effigy Mounds National Monument. Eastern National, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania
  34. ^Whittaker, William E., and Glenn R. Storey (2008) Ground-Penetrating Radar Survey of the Sny Magill Mound Group, Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa. Geoarchaeology 23:474–499
  35. ^Collins and Whittaker (2007) Digital Mapping and Ground-Penetrating Radar Survey of the Folkert Mound Group (13HA30), Hardin County, Iowa. Contract Completion Report 1395. Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  36. ^Horton (2007) A Star Explodes! A.D. 1054: Did Prehistoric Native Iowans Witness and Record this Titanic Stellar Event? Newsletter of the Iowa Archeological Society 57(3):1–2
  37. ^Alex 2000:142–145
  38. ^Alex 2000:138–139
  39. ^Anderson, Adrian D. (1961) The Glenwood Sequence: a Local Sequence for a Series of Archaeological Manifestations in Mills County, Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 10:1–101
  40. ^Henning, Dale R. (2005) The Evolution of the Plains Village Tradition. In North American Archaeology, Timothy Pauketat and D. D. Loren (eds.), pp. 161–186. Blackwell, Boston
  41. ^Alex 2000
  42. ^Green, William (1991) The Paul Rowe Archaeological Collection: A Key to Central Plains Prehistory. Plains Anthropologist 36:79–86
  43. ^Perry, Michael J. (1998) An Archeological Survey of the Lower Pony Creek Valley: Implications for Glenwood Locality Settlement Pattern. Central Plains Archaeology 6(1):35–56
  44. ^Steinacher, Terry L., and Gayle F. Carlson (1998) The Central Plains Tradition. In Archaeology on the Great Plains, W. R. Wood (ed.), pp. 235–268. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence
  45. ^Tiffany, Joseph A. (2002) Archaeological Perspectives on Southwest Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 49:11–26
  46. ^Emerson, T. E., and R. B. Lewis (eds.) (1991) Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois
  47. ^Straffin, Dean F. (1971) The Kingston Oneota Site. Research Report 2. Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  48. ^Alex 2000:197–198
  49. ^Benn, David W. (1991) The Christenson Oneota Site, 13PK407. The Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 38
  50. ^Green, William, and Clare Tolmie (2004) Analysis of Plant Remains from Blood Run. Plains Anthropologist 49:525–625; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-01-06. Retrieved 2011-12-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  51. ^Alex 2000:206–207
  52. ^Schoen, Christopher M. (2005) A Point of Land and Prehistoric Peoples. Iowa Heritage Illustrated 86(1): 8–9
  53. ^Whittaker, William E. (2008). "Prehistoric and Historic Indians in Downtown Des Moines". Newsletter of the Iowa Archeological Society. 58 (1): 8–10.
  54. ^Wedel, Mildred Mott. (1959) Oneota Sites on the Upper Iowa River. The Missouri Archaeologist 21(2–4)
  55. ^Alex 2000:211–226
  56. ^Tiffany, Joseph A. and Duane Anderson (1993) The Milford Site (13DK1): A Postcontact Oneota Village in Northwest Iowa. Plains Anthropologist 38(145):283–206
  57. ^Shott, Michael J., Joseph A. Tiffany, John F. Doershuk, and Jason Titcomb (2002) The Reliability of Surface Assemblages: Recent Results from the Gillett Grove Site, Clay County, Iowa. Plains Anthropologist 47:165–182
  58. ^Alex 2000; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-05. Retrieved 2008-06-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  59. ^Alex 2000:227
  60. ^McKusick, Marshall B. (2009). "Fort Madison, 1808–1813". In William E. Whittaker (ed.). Frontier Forts of Iowa: Indians, Traders, and Soldiers, 1682–1862. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. pp. 55–74. ISBN .
  61. ^Alex 2000:234–235
  62. ^Whittaker (editor), William E. (2009). Frontier Forts of Iowa: Indians, Traders, and Soldiers, 1682–1862. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. ISBN .CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  63. ^Charlton, Thomas H., Cynthia O. Charlton, Stephen C. Lensink, and James A. Sartain (1988) Historical Archaeology at Plum Grove. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 35: 39–69
  64. ^Whittaker, William E. (1999) Production of Animal Commodities at Plum Grove, Iowa City. Historical Archaeology 33(4):44–57
  65. ^Gradwohl, David M., and Nancy M. Osborn (1984) Exploring Buried Buxton. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa
  66. ^"The University of Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist: GCP – Bowen's Prairie Historic Archaeological District". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2009-07-22.

External links[edit]

Iowa Indian artifacts

This was just the beginning. I was very excited by the woman's desire to continue our occupation. Very soon I felt how her vulva, in which my penis was moving, squeezed it, and began to shrink randomly. Not yet out of a lost army habit, I woke up. At six o'clock in the morning.

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The effect was instantaneous: the snub-nosed face trembled, stiffened - only. The lips whispered silently "more!" - the eyes were clouded with fog, and. Even I, as it seemed to me, felt with the tip of my penis something deep, soft, hot - and only had time to think: got to the uterus.

Dasha, distraught, gulped air with a wheeze - "Y-s-s-s-s-s-i-i-i-i.

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