The $35,000 Tesla Model 3 is finally here. It is sleek, quick as hell, and meant for the masses. And it is the most important car the company will ever build.
The Model 3 is the car Tesla Motors has promised since the company's founding, the car that CEO Elon Musk is convinced will push EVs into the mainstream and the technology to an inflection point. Not to put too fine a point on it, it is the car Musk believes will change the world.
"It's very important to accelerate the transition to sustainable transport," Musk said on stage. "This is really important for the future of the world."
In person and on paper, the Model 3 is a stunner. It's a handsome sedan, with four doors and five seats, and all the comfort and practicality you'd expect of an upscale mid-size sedan. The battery is good for a 0 to 60 mph time under six seconds, a range of 215 miles. It's packed with tech, stylish, and a bargain if Tesla can deliver it at the $27,500 base price Musk promises you'll pay after the federal tax credit.
The specs and price are key, because so far Tesla Motors has aimed squarely at the affluent. The company's first three models---the innovative Roadster sports car, exquisite Model S sedan, and tech-slinging Model X SUV---made electric cars fun, cool, and compelling. The Model 3 is meant to do something greater: sell the masses on electric propulsion.
Tesla is hardly alone in hoping to do this and, frankly, got beaten in the race to build a $30K EV wth a triple-digit range by General Motors. In January, the Detroit stalwart introduced the 2017 Chevrolet Bolt, a battery electric hatchback with a range of 200 miles and a price of 30 grand after the $7,500 federal tax credit.
Still, Musk isn’t the slightest bit worried and, to be fair, has little reason to be. The Bolt is lovely, but Tesla has a proven ability to get people excited, and there's no denying the company has a cachet many automakers do not. You don't often see people lining up outside dealerships simply to place a $1,000 deposit on a car they haven't even seen---something that happened at many Tesla stores this week. By the time Musk pulled the sheet off the Model 3 at the sprawling Space X campus here in Hawthorne, California, 115,000 customers had put their money down.
"They’ll absolutely have a wow factor, because it’s Tesla," says Gary Silberg, an automotive analyst with KPMG. "They’ll know how to market it, and from that perspective, there’s no doubt in my mind it’s gonna be a big success."
Tesla doesn't have to worry about creating a market for the 3. Nor does it have to worry about actually building it. No, the upstart automaker has to do something much harder.
If the company is to truly influence, let alone change, how humanity moves around, it must become more than a niche automaker building luxury vehicles and playing gadfly to the big players. That means producing vehicles on a massive scale and generating sustainable profits. To do that, Tesla must think and act a lot more like the very automakers Musk is so quick to ridicule as out-dated and old-fashioned.
It's time for Tesla to grow up.
A Different Kind of Car Company
Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning founded Tesla Motors in 2003. Musk, flush with cash after selling PayPal to eBay for $1.4 billion, joined in early 2004 as its chairman and primary benefactor. He took over as CEO in 2008, shortly after the debut of the company's first car, the Roadster. The two-seater was a proof of concept, designed to show that EVs could be cool. It was based on the Lotus Elise, hit 60 mph in 3.7, and squeezed 245 miles from a 950-pound battery. Car & Drivercalled it “a revelation”. Tesla sold about 2,400 Roadsters in four years.
Then came the Model S, a truly remarkable sedan good for almost 300 miles on a charge. Even now, four years after its debut, the sedan remains a marvel. It's everything most people would ever want in a car---roomy, comfortable, practical, quick, and reliable. Motor Trend and Automobile Magazinecalled it the car of the year in 2013, and Consumer Reportsgave it its best score ever.
Tesla has steadily improved the S, using over-the-air software updates to make every car even better. It made hardware changes, too, offering a second motor to provide four wheel drive, bigger batteries for more range, improved electronics, and self-driving capabilities. The 0 to 60 time plunged to a stomach-dropping 2.8 seconds---on par with six-figure exotics.
Meanwhile, Tesla built an international network of 1,600 “superchargers” where owners can plug in for free and charge the battery to 80 percent in as little as 30 minutes. It fought for the right to sell cars directly to customers. It took over an enormous factory once owned by GM and Toyota. It broke ground on a "gigafactory" where it will work with Panasonic to build almost unimaginable numbers of batteries. And in October, it introduced the Model X, a handsome, falcon-winged SUV based on the Model S.
So far, so good.
The Master Plan
All of this has unfolded in accordance with the "master plan" Musk laid out in a 2006 blog post. "Almost any new technology initially has high unit cost before it can be optimized and this is no less true for electric cars," he wrote. "The strategy of Tesla is to enter at the high end of the market, where customers are prepared to pay a premium, and then drive down market as fast as possible to higher unit volume and lower prices with each successive model."
Thirteen years after Eberhard and Tarpenning founded the company, Tesla remains firmly entrenched in step one of that process. Its cars are wonderful, but have only gotten more expensive over time. When he announced the Model S in 2009, Musk said it would start at $57,400. Today the base price is $70,000 and the average sale price is $105,000, according to an estimate Morgan Stanley made in 2014, before the company added pricey---and popular---upgrades like autopilot and all-wheel drive. (Tesla will not reveal the average sale price of its cars.)
Of course, there's a reason automakers love the luxury market---it's where the money is. "Nobody makes money---or not a lot of money---on the low-end brands," Silberg says. Hans-Werner Kaas, a senior partner at McKinsey, says luxury cars offer margins around eight to nine percent, double what you usually get from volume products.
Even with Porsche, Audi, and others jumping into the high-end EV market, there’s no reason to think Tesla wouldn't hold its own in an increasingly crowded market. It could very easily continue selling 90,000 or so sedans and SUVs a year and keep everyone happy.
But that's not how you change the world. And Musk, more than anything, wants to change the world. It's true with Solar City, it's true with SpaceX, and it's absolutely true with Tesla Motors, a company with the stated mission of "accelerating the world’s transition to sustainable transportation." You don't do that selling cars only to people in places like Palo Alto and Los Angeles and Scarsdale.
You do it selling cars to everyone.
A Fresh Face
The Model 3 is the car to do that. Autopilot features come standard, and Musk promises five-star safety ratings in all categories. Inside, the Model 3 feels just like the Model S and X---sleek and minimalist. The whole roof is glass, which makes any sunroof look like a peephole. And Tesla's trademark enormous center console screen---here 15 inches instead of the usual 17---has been flipped to sit horizontally.
"You will not be able to buy a better car for $35,000," Musk says. The first cars, produced in late 2017, will go to West Coast customers, with deliveries gradually moving east. Europe and Asia will follow, along with right-hand drive markets. Current Model S and X owners get priority. Tesla's history teaches us most customers will have to wait months, or years, to get their car. And it shows us that car is worth waiting for.
Growing Up by Driving Down
For all Musk's talk of disrupting the industry, Tesla Motors has been little more than a voluble pest. The company sold 50,580 cars last year. General Motors moves that many in a single weekend.
That explains how GM won the race to build the 200-mile, $30,000 electric car. It threw time and money and resources at a really hard problem---building an EV that delivers on those two metrics is no easy feat---and spent more than a decade solving it. And it relied upon the sprawling infrastructure and established supply chain that makes building and selling huge numbers of cars (relatively) easy.
And that is the world Tesla is entering with the Model 3. The fixed costs of the auto industry---the equipment, materials, labor, and so on---make for slim profit margins on a $35,000 car. “You need to have your different types of cost and profit levels really tightly under control for making money in such a segment,” McKinsey’s Kaas says. And you have to drive volume. To get your return on upfront investments into equipment, Kaas says, “you need scale.”
Tesla is slowly getting there, and investing $1.5 billion to do it. Battery production at the Gigafactory in Nevada should begin later this year. Things are ramping up at its automotive factory in Fremont, California, where GM and Toyota turned out half a million Vibes and Corollas and other models annually. Tesla wants to hit that number by 2020, which would make it as big as Dodge. And the company is expanding a retail network that already includes more than 200 stores in North America, Europe, China, and Japan. It's going to double the size of the Supercharger network.
The challenge is scaling up quickly enough to meet demand and make money. General Motors can afford to take a loss on the Bolt because more profitable models pad the bottom line. Tesla---which has never had a profitable year---doesn't necessarily have this luxury, especially if the 3 is to be its primary product. “They have to make sure that they make a profit,” says Rebecca Lindland, a senior analyst at Kelley Blue Book.
Profitability means using many of the tricks everyone else uses. Sharing parts between models, buying in volume from suppliers, and finding the best prices on things like wire harnesses, insulation, vents, and the myriad other parts consumers never see. “That’s where you need to save as much money as possible,” Lindland says.
It's an exceedingly tough game to play. Tesla has clearly done far better, and lasted far longer, than other upstarts (Tucker, Delorean, Fisker) that thought they could rewrite the rules. But an increasingly competitive market has killed far more established automakers. Remember Saab? How about Pontiac?
As if that weren't enough, there's another challenge to Tesla’s down-market move. The $7,500 federal tax credit that pushes the base price of the Model 3 below $30,000 won’t last forever. It only applies to the first 200,000 electric vehicles a manufacturer sells in the US. Tesla will be approaching that limit by the time the 3 hits the market late next year.
But there's some good news that will help Tesla.
The Good News
One of the biggest reasons EVs cost so much (compared to gas-powered cars) is the battery. The battery can account for one-third of the price of the car, which is why something like the Nissan Leaf or Fiat 500e costs about $30,000, while offering only about 100 miles of range. But those costs are falling, fast. Between 2010 and 2015, the average cost per kilowatt hour (kWh) dropped 65 percent, from $1,000 to $350, according to a recent report from Bloomberg New Energy Finance. “By 2022,” the report says, “the unsubsidized total cost of ownership of [battery electric vehicles] will fall below that of an internal combustion engine vehicle.”
It’s also important to remember that the Model 3 is just the start of a new line of vehicles. Musk has said Tesla will use the car’s core structure as the basis for a series of vehicles, including a small crossover. It’s a common industry move, a way to amortize the infrastructure costs over more vehicles. And taking preorders will help Tesla gauge how many cars it needs to build, avoiding the risk of producing more stock than it can sell.
Third, selling cars isn’t Tesla’s only route to the bank. California is one of 10 states that require automakers to offer at least some zero emissions vehicles. Automakers can circumvent that mandate by buying “ZEV credits” from automakers who find themselves with surplus credits. Tesla, which has a surplus of credits because it only sells electric cars, earned $51 million selling spare credits in the first quarter of 2015 alone. Those credits are slowly losing value under the complicated regulations governing them, but selling a lot more cars should make up for that.
Ultimately, though, Tesla has earned the benefit of the doubt. Musk has consistently made big promises, then proved the doubters and naysayers wrong, first with the Roadster, then with the S and the X. Bringing zero-emission motoring to the proletariat and radically remaking how people get around is Tesla's biggest promise, and Musk's greatest challenge, yet. But together they've made it this far. Musk doesn't always deliver on time or within budget, but he always delivers.
Tesla Model 3
Reliability History Reliability History The reliability charts are based on responses on hundreds of thousands of vehicles from our latest Annual Auto Survey. Consumer Reports subscribers reported on any serious problems they had with their vehicles during the past 12 months that they considered serious because of cost, failure, safety, or downtime, in any of the trouble spots included in the table below. The results are presented relative to the average model that year. Extra weight is given to the more serious areas such as major engine or transmission problems. Based on this data and further analysis, we predict reliability for the latest year. N/A indicates that we did not receive a large enough sample size to provide data for a specific year. An X indicates that the vehicle was not manufactured for a specific year. Reliability History Reliability History The reliability charts are based on responses on hundreds of thousands of vehicles from our latest Annual Auto Survey. Consumer Reports subscribers reported on any serious problems they had with their vehicles during the past 12 months that they considered serious because of cost, failure, safety, or downtime, in any of the trouble spots included in the table below. The results are presented relative to the average model that year. Extra weight is given to the more serious areas such as major engine or transmission problems. Based on this data and further analysis, we predict reliability for the latest year. N/A indicates that we did not receive a large enough sample size to provide data for a specific year. An X indicates that the vehicle was not manufactured for a specific year.
Tesla Model 3
All-electric four-door compact sedan
"Model 3" redirects here. For other uses, see Model 3 (disambiguation).
|Tesla Model 3|
2019 Performance AWD
|Production||July 2017 – present|
|Designer||Franz von Holzhausen|
|Class||Compact executive car (D)|
|Body style||4-door fastbacksedan|
|Electric motor||Permanent magnet synchronous reluctance motor|
|Transmission||1-speed fixed gear 9:1 ratio|
|Battery||54, 62, 75 or 82 kWh (190, 220, 270 or 300 MJ) lithium ion Discontinued: 62 and 75 kWh lithium ion|
|Wheelbase||113.2 in (2,875 mm)|
|Length||184.8 in (4,694 mm)|
|Width||72.8 in (1,849 mm)|
|Height||56.8 in (1,443 mm)|
The Model 3 is an electricfastbackmid-sizefour-door sedan developed by Tesla. The Model 3 Standard Range Plus version delivers an EPA-rated all-electric range of 262 miles (422 km) and the Long Range version delivers 353 miles (568 km). According to Tesla, the Model 3 carries full self-driving hardware, with periodic software updates adding functionality.
Limited production of the Model 3 began in mid-2017, with the first production vehicle rolling off the assembly line on July 7, 2017. The official launch and delivery of the first 30 cars took place on July 28.
The Model 3 was marketed as being more affordable to more people than some other models by Tesla. Since early 2020, the Model 3 is the world's best-selling electric car in history, and, in June 2021, became the first electric car to pass the 1 million global sales milestone. The Model 3 has been the world's top selling plug-in electric car (PEV) for three years running, from 2018 to 2020. It has also been the best-selling PEV in the United States for three consecutive years, 2018 to 2020, the top selling PEV in Europe in 2019, and the best-selling PEV in China in 2020.
In an interview for Wired Science recorded during 2006, Elon Musk presented the Model 3 as likely being affordable by most people able to purchase new cars. In 2008 the car was stated to be a family car. In 2017 Tesla added that the Standard Range version of the all-electric car would have an estimated EPA-rated range of 215 miles (346 km), a five-passenger seating capacity, front and rear trunks, and promised sports-car levels of acceleration performance.[better source needed] Tesla said it would have a 5-Star safety rating and have a drag coefficient of Cd=0.23. This is lower than the Tesla Model S drag coefficient of Cd=0.24, which, in 2014, was the lowest among the production cars of the time.
Within a week of unveiling the Model 3 in 2016, Tesla revealed they had taken 325,000 reservations for the car. These reservations represented potential sales of over US$14 billion. By August 2017, there were 455,000 net reservations.
Industry experts were dubious when, in May 2016, Tesla announced its decision to advance its 500,000-total-unit build plan (combined for Model S, Model X, and Model 3) to 2018, two years earlier than previously planned, in order to accelerate its target for Model 3 output. As predicted, there were "production bottlenecks" and "production hell". In May 2016, Tesla issued US$2 billion in new shares to the stock market to finance the plan.
The company plans for the Model 3 are part of Tesla's three-step strategy to start with a high-price vehicle and move progressively towards lower-cost vehicles, while the battery and electric drivetrain were improved and paid for through the sales of the Roadster, Model S, and Model X vehicles.
On April 18, 2018, Tesla updated its production target to 6,000 vehicles per week by the end of June 2018, an increase from its previous target of 5,000 vehicles per week which was previously promised at earlier dates. On July 1, 2018, Elon Musk announced that Tesla had met its production goal of 5,000 cars in a week.
On February 28, 2019, Tesla announced the availability of the lower-cost, highly anticipated, $35,000, Standard Range trim. However, on April 12, 2019, Tesla announced that the Standard Range model would no longer be available for ordering online, but only over the phone or in stores. Autopilot, previously a $3000 option, was included in all versions of the Model 3 except for the Standard Range, while each version's price only increased by $2,000. In February 2019, the Model 3 passed the Chevrolet Volt to become the all-time best-selling plug-in electric car in the U.S. Model 3 sales surpassed the Nissan Leaf in early 2020 to become the world's all-time top selling plug-in electric car.
During an interview recorded in 2006 Musk referred to "Model 2" (later Tesla Model S), and to "Model 3". The Model 3 was codenamed Tesla "BlueStar" in the original business plan in 2007. An intended name of "Model E" was not used owing to Ford's trademark for an electric vehicle expected to be released by Ford in early 2019.Model 3, originally stylized as "Model ☰", was announced on Musk's Twitter account on July 16, 2014. A 2015-presentation by JB Straubel used the name "Model III". As of 2016[update] Musk had wanted the three models to spell SEX, but settled for "S3X". In early 2017, after trademark opposition regarding Adidas's three stripes logo, the triplicate horizontal-bar stylization was abandoned and changed to a numeric "3".
In September 2015, Tesla announced that the Model 3 would be unveiled in March 2016. In January 2016, Musk said that the first official pictures of the car will be revealed at the end of March 2016. Delivery would begin in late 2017 first on the U.S.'s west coast and then move eastwards. Potential customers were first able to reserve a car at Tesla stores or online on March 31 with a refundable deposit of US$1000. In February 2016, Tesla indicated that the unveiling would be on March 31, 2016. Employees of Tesla and SpaceX were given early access to Model 3 reservations, and about 10,000 signed up without discount, scheduled to receive the first batch of cars. Current owners of Tesla vehicles got priority sales after employees but before the general public, as a reward for helping pay for the development of the Model 3. (Employees and current owners were likely to be more tolerant of early production flaws: both the Model S and the Model X had several problems at the start of their production, and have since improved.)
On the morning of March 31, 2016, tens of thousands of people waited in lines to place the refundable deposit to reserve a Model 3 for 2017 delivery. During the Model 3 unveiling event, Tesla said that over 115,000 people had reserved the Model 3 in less than 24 hours prior; more cars than Tesla had sold by that time. Twenty-four hours after opening reservations, Tesla had advanced orders for over 180,000 cars. Two days later, Tesla said they had 232,000 reservations.
One week after the unveiling, Tesla said it had over 325,000 reservations, more than triple the number of Model S sedans sold by the end of 2015. Musk said that 5% of reservations correspond to the maximum of two vehicles allowed per customer, "suggesting low levels of speculation", and that 93% of Model 3 reservations are from new buyers who do not currently own a Tesla. The previous record for advance deposits on a car was the 1955 Citroën DS that had 80,000 deposits during the ten days of the Paris Auto Show, while the Model 3 had 232,000 reservations in two days.
According to Tesla's global vice-president Robin Ren, China is the second-largest market for the Model 3 after the US. Tesla said the number of net reservations totaled about 373,000 as of May 15, 2016[update], after about 8,000 customer cancellations and about 4,200 reservations canceled by the automaker because these appeared to be duplicates from speculators. Upon its release in July 2017, there had been over 500,000 reservations for the Model 3, with Musk later clarifying there were a net of 455,000 reservations outstanding, and an average of 1,800 reservations were being added per day.
In 2013 design chief Franz von Holzhausen said that the Model 3 will "be an Audi A4, BMW 3 Series, Mercedes-Benz C-Class type of vehicle that will offer everything: range, affordability, and performance" that is targeted toward the mass market. While technology from Tesla's Model S will be used in the Model 3, it will be 20% smaller than the Model S and have its own unique design.
According to Tesla's CTO, JB Straubel, in October 2015, most Tesla engineers were working on the 3 rather than S or X. Since electric cars have lower cooling needs than combustion cars, the Model 3 does not have nor need a front grille. Musk intended for the final design to be released on June 30, 2016 but when the design was finished on July 27, it was not publicly released. After the final design of the first Model 3, any further changes would be included in future versions of the Model 3. The standard glass roof developed by Tesla Glass is made of the same glass used for Tesla's roof tiles.
In November 2020, the Model 3 was refreshed with cosmetic and internal changes, many carried over from the Model Y. The refreshed Model 3 replaced the chrome door handles, side mirror trim, window trim, and camera covers with a black finish. Double-paned front window glass, a powered trunk, new center console, and minor performance upgrades were added to all Model 3 trim levels. The car's engineering was updated to reflect Tesla's advances with the Model Y, including the introduction of a heat pump and proprietary octovalve that increases the car's heating and cooling efficiency.
As of December 2016[update], Tesla planned to increase the size of the Tesla Factory in Fremont, California, to accommodate Model 3 production.[needs update]
In a 2013 interview, Jerome Guillen discussed "BlueStar" (codename for the Model 3 project), stating that Tesla was expecting to eventually produce 400,000 cars per year.
In May 2016 Tesla told its suppliers that it intended to double earlier-announced[clarification needed] Model 3 production targets to 100,000 in 2017 and 400,000 in 2018 due to demand, which suppliers and many experts viewed as unattainable. In the Tesla Factory, paint lines for 500,000 automobiles commenced in 2015, and some stamping equipment for the Model 3 was operational by August 2016. Tesla bought Grohmann Engineering, experienced in automated manufacturing, in January 2017. This acquisition launched Tesla Advanced Automation Germany, which Tesla said would develop manufacturing processes to be used initially in Model 3 production. According to Tesla in late 2016, the company expected to invest between US$2 billion and US$2.5 billion in capital expenditures ahead of the start of Model 3 production.
After the two Alpha prototypes were shown (silver and black; red was a shell) in April 2016, Tesla finished the design in late July 2016. Tesla ordered parts equivalent to 300 Beta prototypes in August 2016, preparing for development of the assembly line. As of August 2016, the company intended to make release candidates for testing prior to actual production. Tesla began building Model 3 prototypes in early February 2017 as part of the testing of the vehicle design and manufacturing processes. Tesla said in late 2016 that initial crash test results had been positive. Crash test results in mid-2019 were scored at 96% for protection of adults; 86% for protection of children and 74% for the way it handles "vulnerable road users" such as pedestrians. In addition, the Model 3's "safety assist" mode scored 94%.
In October 2016 Tesla said its production timeline was on schedule. Again in February 2017, Tesla said that vehicle development, supply chain and manufacturing are on track to support volume deliveries of the Model 3 in the second half of 2017. Limited vehicle production began in July 2017 and volume production was scheduled at that time to start by September 2017. As of February 2017, Tesla planned to ramp up production to exceed 5,000 vehicles per week in Q4 2017 and reach 10,000 vehicles per week in 2018. However, Tesla missed their Q4 production target by a wide amount, as only 2,425 vehicles were produced during the entire 3-month period. Five months before, Musk claimed on Twitter that Tesla would be able to produce 20,000 Model 3 per month by December 2017. Tesla's actual production numbers were therefore 93% lower than his prediction.[dubious – discuss]
Giga Nevada had been intended to produce battery packs for Model 3 and it was announced in January 2017 that Tesla would also manufacture drive units[clarification needed] at Giga Nevada. In February 2017, Tesla said that installation of Model 3 manufacturing equipment was underway in the Fremont factory and at Giga Nevada, where in January, production of battery cells for energy-storage products began, which have the same form factor as the cells that will be used in Model 3.
In February 2016 Tesla expected to repeat the delivery schedule of the S and X models: selling at first the highest-optioned cars with higher margins, to help pay for production equipment. However, after the lessons learned from the complicated Model X production, Tesla changed its delivery schedule in early 2017 to produce relatively simpler cars initially, in order to reduce production risk. The first mass-produced Model 3 cars were rear-wheel drive with the long-range battery. Deliveries began in the second half of 2017 as predicted, but not in the numbers Tesla had hoped. As industry experts had predicted, Tesla did not meet the announced delivery targets.[clarification needed] The first delivery was on July 7, 2017, to Musk himself and the first 30 production units were delivered on July 28, 2017.
|Quarter||Model 3 vehicles produced|
|Quarter||Model 3/Y vehicles produced|
In early July 2017 Musk forecast at least six months of serious production difficulties. Tesla's announced goal at that time was to produce 1,500 units in the third quarter of 2017, increasing to 5,000 per week by end of December 2017, but only 260 vehicles were manufactured during the third quarter. The company blamed production bottlenecks, but said there were "no fundamental issues with the Model 3 production or supply chain" and expressed confidence about its ability to resolve the bottlenecks in the near future.
Tesla delivered just 1,542 Model 3 cars in the fourth quarter of 2017, about 2,900 less than Wall Street estimations, which were already halved previously after Tesla published the company's third quarter report. By early November 2017, Musk had postponed the target date for manufacturing 5,000 of the vehicles per week from December 2017 to March 2018. An analyst with Cowan and Company, an investment banking firm, said in November 2017 that "Elon Musk needs to stop over-promising and under-delivering". Customer deliveries totaled 1,764 units in 2017.
Prior to a planned shutdown in mid-April 2018 to further increase production, Tesla produced more than 2,000 Model 3 vehicles for three straight weeks. Global deliveries passed the 100,000 unit milestone in October 2018. U.S. Model 3 sales reached the 100,000 unit mark in November 2018, hitting this milestone quicker than any previous plug-in electric model sold in the country.
During the first half of 2018, the Model 3 was the top-selling alternative fuel vehicle in California with 12,674 units, followed by the Toyota Prius conventional hybrid (10,043). The Model 3 was the top-selling plug-in electric car in the U.S. for 12 months in a row since January 2018, ending 2018 as the best-selling plug-in with an estimated all-time record of 139,782 units delivered, the first time a plug-in car sold more than 100,000 units in one year. Additionally, the Model 3 ranked as the best-selling luxury vehicle in the American market in 2018. The Model 3 also topped plug-in electric car sales in California in 2018, with 51,293 units registered, as well as the state's best selling car in the near luxury category.
The Model 3 listed as the world's best selling plug-in electric car in 2018. In 2018, Elon Musk predicted that eventual global demand would likely be between 500,000 and 1 million Model 3 cars per year— ranking in between the BMW 3 Series and the Volkswagen Golf.
Retail deliveries in Europe and China began in February 2019. Delivery of the first right-hand drive vehicles began in June 2019, starting with the UK and later in Australia and New Zealand. Similarly to how the first US-made Model 3s were delivered to employees in July 2017, the first Chinese-made Model 3 cars were delivered to employees at the end of 2019.
In January 2019 the Model 3 overtook the Model S to become the U.S. all-time best selling all-electric car, and, the next month, also passed the Chevrolet Volt to become the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in the U.S.
The Tesla Model 3 ended 2019 as the world's best selling plug-in electric car for the second consecutive year, with just over 300,000 units delivered. The electric car also topped annual plug-in car sales in the U.S. (158,925) and California (59,514) markets for the second time in a row. And again listed as the California's best selling car in the near luxury category in 2019.
The Model 3 also ranked as the best selling plug-in car in Europe in 2019, with over 95,000 units delivered in its first year in that market, and outselling other key premium models. Also set records in Norway and the Netherlands, listing in both countries not only as the top selling plug-in car but also as the best selling passenger car model in the overall market. The sales volume achieved by the Model 3 in 2019 (15,683) is the third largest in Norwegian history, exceeded only by the Volkswagen Bobla (Beetle) in 1969 (16,706), and Volkswagen Golf in 2015 (16,388). The Model 3 set a new record in the Netherlands for the highest registrations in one month (22,137) for any single plug-in vehicle in Europe.
The Model 3 also was the top selling plug-in car in Canada, Spain, Belgium, Denmark, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan and Mexico.
Until 2019, the Nissan Leaf was the world's all-time top selling highway legal plug-in electric car, with global sales of 450,000 units by December 2019. The Tesla Model 3 surpassed Leaf sales in early 2020 to become the world's best selling plug-in electric car ever. Global sales since inception totaled about 814,000 units up to December 2020. The Model 3, with 365,240 global deliveries, listed as the world's best selling plug-in passenger car in 2020 for the third consecutive year, from 2018 to 2020.
In 2020, the Model 3 was the best-selling plug-in car in China (137,459) and the U.S. (95,135). The Model 3 also was the most popular plug-in electric car in California in 2020 (38,580), as well as the state's best selling car in the near luxury category. The Model 3 has topped both California's and the U.S. national plug-in car sales for three years in-a-row, from 2018 to 2020,
In 2021, the Model 3 became the all-time best-selling electric vehicle in the Netherlands with over 78,996 cars registered at the end of June 2021. The Model 3 became the first electric car to sell over 1 million units globally in June 2021.
In May 2018 Consumer Reports found "big flaws, such as long stopping distances in our emergency braking test and difficult-to-use controls", finding the braking distance was worse than a Ford F-150 full-size truck, and branding the Model 3 "not recommended". Tesla responded to the claims with concern and, over the next weekend, released an OTA update for the anti-lock braking algorithm. Consumer Reports, impressed with the prompt OTA update, verified the improved braking performance and changed their rating to a recommended model.
In February 2019 Consumer Reports revoked the Model 3 recommendation because "many customers have reported problems with the [car], including loose body trim and glass defects." As with Model S and Model X, Model 3 production flaws were reduced over time. In November 2019 Consumer Reports reinstated the Model 3 recommendation, claiming it was the fifth-most reliable of twelve compact luxury cars.
During long-term testing of a Model 3 in December 2019, Car and Driver experienced a rear invertershort after 5,286 miles (8,507 km) and 3 months of ownership. It was their first long-term vehicle to suffer such a major failure while parked.
In 2020, due to the coronavirus outbreak, closure of the Shanghai factory at the end of January, and supply chain issues, Tesla used the 2.5 version processor instead of the 3.0 processor that Chinese users expected to find in their vehicles. This led to mass complaints. Tesla promised to upgrade the hardware free of charge once the supply chain is restored.
The 2021 Tesla Model 3 vehicles built on or after April 27, 2021 had a modification made to some of its safety features such as Forward Collision Warning (FCW) and Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB), this has resulted in a lower Consumer Reports and Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) score. The feature change is a move from using Radar to Camera technology called Tesla Vision. 
Engineering and changes
As production began in 2017, the base Model 3 was announced to have a 50-kWh battery with a range of about 220 miles (350 km) while the optional 75-kWh battery would have a range of about 310 miles (500 km). Tesla did not produce base Model 3s in 2017 or 2018. The battery uses 2170-size lithium-ion cells.
The 350-volt (nominal, 400v max) Model 3 battery packs are made of four longitudinal modules each containing the groups (bricks). The Standard Range version carries 2,976 cells arranged in 96 groups of 31. The Long Range version carries 4,416 cells arranged in 96 groups of 46, and weighs 1,060 pounds (480 kg) in a 0.40 m³ volume; a density of 150 Wh/kg.
Tesla continues to improve the design of the 2170 battery cell and introduces incremental improvements into the manufacturing line periodically. Tesla began manufacture of the "lighter, better, cheaper" 2170 cell during 2018, with a company goal of reducing the cost of assembled battery packs to US$100 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) by December 2018, and moving the new cell into volume production at Giga Nevada during the first quarter of 2019. Electrek reported in late 2018 that the improved battery cell design was needed to further reduce battery costs as Tesla was planning to begin to deliver the Model 3 Standard Range for the promised base price of US$35,000 the following year.[needs update]
The inverter for the Model 3 drive unit uses 24 pairs of silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET chips rated for 650 volts[clarification needed] each.
In July 2018 media reported that a Model 3 prototype was seen in California and Nevada while towing a trailer in an apparent evaluation of a tow bar. In May 2019 Tesla started offering an optional tow bar rated for 2,000 pounds (910 kg) available with Standard Range Plus and Long Range for the European Model 3. Towing a trailer may increase consumption by 40%.
The Model 3 uses regenerative braking, which was tweaked and improved in October 2018 via a software update.
In October 2019 Tesla released a software update including a 5% power upgrade and peak power optimization to owners of the Model 3, via software version 2019.36.2.1, which showed noticeable improvements in acceleration and overall speed. In December 2019, Tesla offered Long Range dual-motor Model 3 owners who had software version 2019.40.2 the option to purchase a US$2000 "Acceleration Boost" software upgrade enabling a Sport driving mode, advertised to reduce 0-60 mph time from 4.4s to 3.9s. Road testing confirmed better-than-expected acceleration with drivers in Sport mode reaching 0-60 mph in 3.67s from standstill and 3.47s with a 1 foot rollout.
The Model 3 is mostly steel, with some aluminum. The 185 cm (6.07 ft) width was chosen to fit with automated parking systems in Japan. Due to its smaller size, the Model 3 is expected to consume less energy than the Model Y, and thus have longer range.
Traditional stability control is not made for dual-motor control or the faster response time in electric motors, and Tesla modified the control unit. The motors have magnets arranged in a Halbach array. The cooling system is integrated to reduce size and cost.
|Special Request only||Discontinued||Current|
|Battery||Standard Range||Standard Range Plus||Mid Range||Long Range|
|Production||March 2019 – November 2020||March 2019 - present||October 2018 – March 2019||March 2019 – June 2019|
(previously July 2017 – November 2018)
|July 2018 – present|
|Base price (US market)||US$35,400 (call or in-store order only)||US$39,990 (Autopilot Included)||(was US$40,000)||(was US$46,500) (call or in-store order only)||US$49,990 (Autopilot Included)||US$56,990 (Autopilot Included)|
220 miles (354 km)
263 miles (423 km)
264 miles (425 km) combined
270 miles (430 km) city
248 miles (399 km) highway
325 miles (523 km) combined
332 miles (534 km) city
318 miles (512 km) highway
353 miles (568 km) combined
319 miles (513 km) city
296 miles (476 km) highway
315 miles (507 km) combined
319 miles (513 km) city
296 miles (476 km) highway
|Efficiency||26 kWh/100 miles (16 kWh/100 km)|
|24 kWh/100 miles (15 kWh/100 km)|
|27 kWh/100 miles (17 kWh/100 km)|
|26 kWh/100 miles (16 kWh/100 km)|
|29 kWh/100 miles (18 kWh/100 km)|
|Battery capacity||54 kWh (190 MJ)||62 kWh (220 MJ)||2020 and earlier: 75 kWh (270 MJ)|
2021: 82 kWh (300 MJ)
|DC charging||130 miles (209 km) range available after 30 minutes||up to 170 kW (V3 Supercharger)||up to 200 kW (V3 Supercharger)||up to 75 mi (121 km) in 5 minutes and 180 mi (290 km) in 15 minutes (250 kW V3 Supercharger)|
|AC charging||29.5 miles (47.5 km) range per hour (240 V 32 A)||32 miles (51 km) range per hour (240 V 32 A)||28.4 miles (45.7 km) range per hour (240 V 32 A)||44.3 miles (71.3 km) range per hour (240 V 48 A)||39.7 miles (63.9 km) range per hour (240 V 48 A)|
|Full AC charge time (10% -> 90%)||6 hours||6.25 hours||7.5 hours||6 hours||6.5 hours|
|Powertrain||Single-motor rear-wheel drive||Dual-motor all-wheel drive|
|Motor||Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) synchronous machine||Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) synchronous rear & induction motor front|
|Curb Weight||3,552 lb (1,611 kg)||3,627 lb (1,645 kg)||3,686 lb (1,672 kg)||3,805 lb (1,726 kg)||4,072 lb (1,847 kg)|
|Power (peak)||211 kW (283 hp)||211 kW (283 hp)||211 kW (283 hp)||211 kW (283 hp)||258 kW (346 hp)||340 kW (450 hp)|
|Power-to-weight||131 W/kg (12.6 lb/hp)||128 W/kg (12.8 lb/hp)||126 W/kg (13.0 lb/hp)||122 W/kg (13.4 lb/hp)||166 W/kg (9.9 lb/hp)||191 W/kg (8.6 lb/hp)|
|Torque (peak)||450 N⋅m (330 lb⋅ft)||450 N⋅m (330 lb⋅ft)||450 N⋅m (330 lb⋅ft)||450 N⋅m (330 lb⋅ft)||510 N⋅m (376 lb⋅ft)||639 N⋅m (471 lb⋅ft)|
|Acceleration||0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) |
5.3 seconds advertised
|0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) |
5.3 seconds advertised
0–100 km/h (0–62 mph)
|0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) |
5.2 seconds advertised (4.9 seconds tested)
|0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) |
5.0 seconds advertised
(4.6 seconds tested)
|0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) |
4.2 seconds advertised
(4.0 seconds tested)
0–100 km/h (0–62 mph)
Optional Sport Mode:
0–60 mph (0–97 km/h)
3.9 seconds advertised
(3.7 seconds tested)
0–100 km/h (0–62 mph)
4.0 seconds advertised
|0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) |
3.1 seconds advertised
(3.0 seconds tested)
0–100 km/h (0–62 mph)
|Quarter Mile||TBD||13.5 sec @ 104.9 mph||TBD||13.6 sec @ 101.9 mph||12.5 sec @ 113.1 mph |
Optional Sport Mode:
11.9 sec @ 116.2 mph
|11.5 sec @ 116.5 mph|
|Top speed||130 mph (209 km/h)||140 mph (225 km/h)||140 mph (225 km/h)||140 mph (225 km/h)||145 mph (233 km/h)||162 mph (261 km/h)|
|Wheels||18-inch (457 mm) diameter 8.5-inch (216 mm) width 21.3 lb (9.7 kg), aero wheel covers 2 lb (0.91 kg), 235/45R18 tires||20-inch (508 mm) 8.5-inch (220 mm) 235/35R20|
|Roof||Tinted glass roof with ultraviolet and infrared protection, with mounting points for a roof rack (sold separately). A single pane of glass extends from the center of the roof to the trunk.|
|Autonomous capability||Autopilot including TACC, autosteer, lane-keeping, lane-changing, active-safety autonomy. (All vehicles include all hardware needed for "Full Self-Driving", including 1 radar, 8 cameras, 12 sonar, and AI computer.)|
|Luggage||Rear 12 cu ft (340 L) and front 3 cu ft (85 L) trunks with 15 cu ft (425 L) (542 L EU specs) total volume|
|Rear seat||60/40-split-folding rear seat|
|Display||Single center-mounted WUXGA 15.4-inch (39 cm) LCD touchscreen in landscape orientation that combines the instrument cluster and infotainment|
|Entry||Keyless NFC keycard and Bluetooth Low Energy smartphone connection for vehicle access; optional key fob.|
|Performance Upgrade package||Not available||Performance brakes, 20" wheels, carbon fiber spoiler, aluminum pedals, 162 mph (261 km/h) max speed, Track Mode software.|
|Wheels||19-inch (480 mm) diameter 8.5-inch (220 mm) width 29.5 lb (13.4 kg), 235/40R19 tires||Not available|
|Paint||Pearl White Multi-Coat, Solid Black, Midnight Silver Metallic, Deep Blue Metallic, Red Multi-Coat (discontinued: Silver Metallic & Obsidian Black Metallic)|
|Interior||Black||Black or White|
|Standard Interior package||Standard package: tinted glass roof with ultraviolet and infrared protection; heated front seats; auto dimming, power folding, heated side mirrors; music and media over Bluetooth; custom driver profiles; basic audio; standard maps and navigation; center console with storage and 4 USB ports||Not available|
|Partial Premium Interior package||Upgradeable if delivered with software locked interior||Standard package plus: 12-way power adjustable heated front seats; upgraded audio – immersive sound; docking for 2 smartphones||Not available|
|Premium Interior package||Not available||Partial Premium Interior package plus: rear heated seats; premium audio – 14 speakers, 1 subwoofer, 2 amps, and immersive sound; LED fog lamps; satellite-view maps with live traffic visualization and navigation; In-car internet streaming music & media; internet browser. Location-aware automatic garage door opener can be added for $300.|
|Driver assistance||"Full Self-Driving" including Navigate on Autopilot, Autopark, Summon, etc. Since all vehicles include all sensor hardware, optional Full Self Driving capabilities can be enabled later if not ordered at time of vehicle purchase.|
|Safety||Airbags including front driver/passenger, knee airbag driver/passenger, torso for front passengers, and curtain airbags front/rear|
Following crash testing in 2019, the Model 3 performed very well, receiving five stars in every category from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and a 94% Euro NCAP score in active safety.
- Car-design columnist and former car designer for GMRobert Cumberford said the Model 3 "is an excellent design" and praised the front fascia skin that he thinks is superior to the black plastic simulated grille of the pre-refresh Model S. Cumberford praised the Model 3's minimalist design, and "elegant simplicity" akin to Apple products. Although he criticized the car's spoiler, he said the Model 3 has a design that would age well, and "in 10 years it will still look contemporary and beautifully understated, not old and irrelevant."
- Motor Trend said the nose was controversial and polarizing, but probably intentionally so.Vanity Fair and others compared the Model 3 to the Ford Model T for its intended affordability as a volume-produced electric vehicle and for its limited set of options, namely range, wheels and exterior color of which all but white costs extra. Automotive journalist Doug DeMuro said the Model 3 was better, though $2,000 more expensive, than the BMW 340i and that it was the "coolest car of the year," later clarifying that this was based on the "long waiting lists, obsessive interest and news stories."Alex Roy said that DeMuro's review had concentrated on hardware details and missed out on the bigger picture.
- Automotive-industry analyst Toni Sacconaghi of AllianceBernstein said after driving one of the early Tesla vehicles in November 2017 that "Overall, we found the Model 3 to be a compelling offering, and believe it is likely to further galvanize the overall Electric Vehicle category." He was less impressed with build quality of the test samples. "Fit and finish on the two demo cars we saw—perhaps not surprisingly—was relatively poor." He said that there were quality issues at first with the Model X which led to some concern. "This is going to be a much, much higher-volume car, and if there are any quality issues, that could overwhelm the service centers and undermine the Tesla brand." Nonetheless, Sacconaghi was impressed with the ride quality, performance and interior space, and concluded that the 3 "risks cannibalizing the [much more expensive] Model S going forward."
- Road & Track's Bob Sorokanich said the "Model 3 proves that Tesla is thinking far beyond the edges of the Model S and X. Stepping out of the 3, you realize that, as far as the S and X pushed the envelope, they were always meant as intermediaries, stepping stones designed to draw people away from comfortable convention and into the future of the automobile. ... The Model 3 is Tesla at its most unabashed. It's an automaker finally willing to abandon the skeuomorphism of a false radiator grille, the tradition of a driver-oriented gauge panel."
- In 2018, a Model 3 was driven 606.2 miles (975 km) on a single charge, setting a hypermiling driving record.
- In early 2019, Kelley Blue Book announced that the Tesla Model 3 was the winner of the "Best Resale Value Award" for all automobiles in the US market "with a projected 69.3% resale value after 36 months and 48.7% after 60 months."
- Popular Mechanics named the Tesla Model 3 as the magazine's 2018 Car of the Year. Model 3 was given the 2018 Design of the Year award by Automobile magazine.
- In the United Kingdom, the Model 3 was named 2019 Car of the Year by Auto Express magazine, and 2020 Car of the Year by Parkers magazine, where it was also named "Best Electric Car" and "Best Company Car", and won the "Best Safety" award for any vehicle on the market.
- The Model 3 won best mid-size car in the 2019 Das Goldene Lenkrad Golden Steering Wheel awards.
- The Model 3 was named the top-rated electric car of 2019 by Edmunds.com, as well as being named Edmunds' top-rated Luxury Electric Vehicle for 2020.
- In late 2019, the Model 3 was also named a Top Safety Pick+ by the IIHS. The Model 3 also won Car of the Year in Denmark, Car of the Year 2020 in Norway, and Swiss Car of the Year 2020.
- The Model 3 was named as UK Car of the Year 2020 by a panel of 29 motoring journalists. The director of the awards stated that the car's "technology, performance and range" were converting opinions in favour of electric vehicles.
- ^ abCumberford, Robert (January 17, 2018). "The Man Behind the Model 3: Franz von Holzhausen". Automobile. Archived from the original on January 19, 2019. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- ^Woodard, Collin (November 28, 2017). "Tesla Model 3 Owner's Manual Secrets Revealed on Reddit". Automobile. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019.
- ^ ab"Tesla Model 3 battery packs have capacities of ~50 kWh and ~75 kWh, says Elon Musk". Electrek. Archived from the original on August 8, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- ^ abLambert, Fred (November 10, 2020). "Tesla confirms new 82 kWh battery pack in Model 3, thanks to new cells". Electrek. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzaaabac"Model 3". US: Tesla. 2018. Archived from the original on June 30, 2018. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- ^ abHTSLV00.0L13-004(PDF) (Report). United States Environmental Protection Agency. July 5, 2017. pp. 1–12. Archived from the original(Certification Summary Information Report) on August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- ^Grant, Alex (November 7, 2017). "Tesla Model 3 production still far behind global demand". EV Fleet World. UK. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
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- ^Siddiqui, Faiz (July 17, 2019). "Tesla floats fully self-driving cars as soon as this year". Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 8, 2019. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
- ^"Tesla has a new Autopilot '2.5' hardware suite with more computing power for autonomous driving". Electrek. August 9, 2017. Archived from the original on December 23, 2017. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- ^"Autopilot". www.tesla.com. Archived from the original on December 5, 2017. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- ^Musk, Elon [@elonmusk] (July 2, 2017). "Model 3 passed all regulatory requirements for production two weeks ahead of schedule. Expecting to complete SN1 on Friday" (Tweet). Retrieved July 4, 2017 – via Twitter.
- ^Hawkins, Andrew (July 7, 2017). "Everything you need to know about Tesla Model 3, which is starting production today". The Verge. US. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- ^Lambert, Fred (July 8, 2017). "Tesla Model 3 – Elon Musk confirms first production unit built". Electrek. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- ^Akerstedt, Ida (July 4, 2017). "Tesla Model 3 release date 2017 – When is Tesla Model 3 coming out in the UK?". Daily Express. Archived from the original on July 4, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- ^ abcHolland, Maximilian (March 10, 2020). "Tesla Passes 1 Million EV Milestone & Model 3 Becomes All Time Best Seller". CleanTechnica. Archived from the original on April 12, 2020. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
- ^ abShahan, Zachary (August 26, 2021). "Tesla Model 3 Has Passed 1 Million Sales". CleanTechnica. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
- ^ abcdJose, Pontes (February 2, 2021). "Global Top 20 - December 2020". EVSales.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2021. Retrieved February 3, 2021. "Global sales totaled 3,124,793 plug-in passenger cars in 2020, with a BEV to PHEV ratio of 69:31, and a global market share of 4%. The world's top selling plug-in car was the Tesla Model 3 with 365,240 units delivered, and Tesla was the top selling manufacturer of plug-in passenger cars in 2019 with 499,535 units, followed by VW with 220,220."
- ^ abcdeJose, Pontes (January 31, 2019). "Global Top 20 - December 2018". EVSales.com. Archived from the original on February 1, 2019. Retrieved February 2, 2019. "Global sales totaled 2,018,247 plug-in passenger cars in 2018, with a BEV:PHEV ratio of 69:31, and a market share of 2.1%. The world's top selling plug-in car was the Tesla Model 3, and Tesla was the top selling manufacturer of plug-in passenger cars in 2018, followed by BYD."
- ^ abcdJose, Pontes (January 31, 2020). "Global Top 20 - December 2019". EVSales.com. Archived from the original on December 27, 2020. Retrieved May 16, 2020. "Global sales totaled 2,209,831 plug-in passenger cars in 2019. The world's top selling plug-in car was the Tesla Model 3 with 300,075 units delivered, and Tesla was the top selling manufacturer of plug-in passenger cars in 2019 with 367,820 units, followed by BYD with 229,506."
- ^ abcMoore, C.J. (February 14, 2021). "Tesla's commanding lead in U.S. EVs illustrated by registration report". Automotive News. Retrieved February 14, 2021.According to Experian, in 2020 the top U.S. EVs by registrations were the Tesla Model 3 (95,135), Tesla Model Y (71,344), Chevrolet Bolt EV (19,664), the Tesla Model X (19,652), Tesla Model S (14,430) and the Nissan Leaf (8,972). All four Tesla models accounted for 200,561 registrations, up 16% from 2019.
- ^ abcLoveday, Steven (January 7, 2019). "December 2018 U.S. EV Sales Recap: Over 360K Secured!". Inside EVs. Archived from the original on January 9, 2019. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
- ^ abcLoveday, Steven (January 17, 2020). "FINAL UPDATE: Quarterly Plug-In EV Sales Scorecard". InsideEVs.com. Archived from the original on April 19, 2019. Retrieved May 16, 2020.See Chart: "2019 Monthly/Q4 Sales Chart : Annual" - The top selling models were the Tesla Model 3 with 158,925 units, the Toyota Prius Prime with 23,630, the Tesla Model X with 19,225, the Chevrolet Bolt EV with 16,418 and the Tesla Model S with 14,100 units.
- ^ abGauthier, Michael (February 19, 2020). "European Car Sales Climbed To 15.7 Million Units Last Year, Tesla Model 3 Is The EV Champion". Carscoops. Archived from the original on December 27, 2020. Retrieved May 16, 2020.Sales of the Tesla Model 3 in Europe totaled 94,495 units in 2019 (Europe 23) and topped sales in the region in the EV segment.
- ^ ab"Domestic EV makers rival Tesla in China, can they win?". SDchina.com. February 5, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.See table: Top 10 NEV sold in China in 2020.
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- ^LaMonica, Martin (September 24, 2008). "Tesla's 'Bluestar' to be all-electric family car". CNET. Archived from the original on September 17, 2018. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
- ^"Tesla publishes Model 3 vs. Model S specifications in employee-only handout" (Press release). Tesla. 2017. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved May 23, 2017 – via Teslarati Forum.
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- ^ ab"Press Kit" (Press release). US: Tesla. Archived
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2016 Used Tesla Model X P100DL. PERFORMANCE + LUDICROUS. Eureka Springs. Arkansas. AP/FSD: – ( Enabled) Autopilot – (Purchased) Enables your car to steer, accelerate and brake automatically for other vehicles and pedestrians within its lane. Full Self-Driving Capability – ( Purchased ) Navigate on Autopilot: automatic driving from highway on-ramp to off-ramp including interchanges and overtaking slower cars. Auto Lane Change: automatic lane changes while driving on the highway. Auto-park: both parallel and perpendicular spaces. Summon: your parked car will come find you anywhere in a parking lot. Really. Recognize and respond to traffic lights and stop signs. Automatic driving on city streets. 6 SEAT Pearl White multi-Coat Paint 20” Silver Wheels Ultra White Seats Dark Ash Wood Decor Black Headliner Carbon Fiber spoiler Red Brake calipers Technology package Towing Package Premium upgrades package Smart Air suspension Ultra High fidelity sound Subzero Weather Package Unicorn 11/16 Build Model X P100DL (Ludicrous and ludicrous +) with Full Self Driving purchased (HW3 upgraded) and transferable free unlimited supercharging and premium connectivity grandfathered for life. 289 Miles of Range, not 200 as generated ad states. 0 – 60 in 2.8 seconds. Fully Loaded with every option (White on White Six Seat Interior, Subzero Weather Package, High Fidelity Sound, Premium Upgrades Package (self presenting doors, etc.), Towing Package, air suspension, all seats heated, ventilated front seats, interactive rear spoiler, and 20 inch OEM wheels. Extended Bumper to Bumper Warranty (4 more years) through 83,500 miles (will provide exact number). Battery and Drive Train warranty of 8 years unlimited miles (since purchase date). Extras include: Taptes Red and Black seat covers and trunk/frunk covers. Tesla Pearl White Multi Coat touch up paint. Tesla Tire Repair Kit. PDR on back passenger corner (see picture). Clean Carfax. Clean History. – CARFAX AVAILABLE This vehicle has a clean history verified by a third party. *do NOT contact me with unsolicited services or offersView listing
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