Dow jones performance history

Dow jones performance history DEFAULT

Dow Jones Highest Closing Records

The Dow Jones Industrial Average (the Dow) is an index of the 30 top-performing U.S. companies. The most recent all-time-high record (as of this writing) was on August 16, , when it closed at 35,

On November 24, , it broke 30, for the first time, closing at 30, The highest closing record before that was on February 12, , when it closed at 29, before the recession set in and the COVID pandemic took over.

Key Takeaways

  • In August of , the Dow hit an all-time high of 35,
  • The stock market crash of began on March 9, The Dow fell a record 2, points to 23,, then fell again two more times that year—the three worst point drops in U.S. history.
  • On March 11, , the Dow closed at 23,, down % from the February 12, high. That launched a bear market and ended the year bull market that started in March
  • The Dow has set new all-time highs throughout

The stock market historically performs similarly to the economy. A bear market (prices decrease 20% or more) occurs during a recession and a bull market (prices increase) during an expansion. A bull market had been running since March 11, , when the Dow closed at 6, It hadn't fallen 20% since then until March , making it the longest-running bull market in U.S. history. However, the stock market crash and recession saw record-setting drops.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average is one of the many gauges of stock market performance. This history of the Dow since the Great Depression demonstrates how stock market fluctuations reflect the natural stages of the business cycle.

Record Highs Set in

On January 20, , the Dow hit what was, at that time, an all-time high of 31, Shortly before, on January 7, , the Dow exceeded 31, for the first time, closing at 31,

On March 10, the Dow closed above 32, for the first time, closing at 32, A week later, on March 17, the Dow closed above 33, for the first time, closing at 33, On April 15, , it broke 34, for the first time, closing at 34,

On July 23, , the Dow closed above 35, for the first time, closing at 35, Another high was set the next trading day, July 26, (35,). The Dow continued its upward trend and set another high on August 16, , closing at 35,

Record Highs Set in 

The Dow ended the year at a record high of 30, On Nov. 24, , it broke 30, and closed at 30, Its record before that was achieved on Nov. 16, , when it finished the day at 29, It also started on a high note. The Dow set a record high of 28, on Jan. 2, It set another record a week later. It then set a milestone on January 15 when it rose above 29,

Record Highs Set in 

In , the Dow hit two milestones and set 22 record closes. On July 3, the Dow hit a new high when the Trump administration announced it would resume trade negotiations with China, averting additional tariffs (taxes on imports).

The Dow responded with new highs throughout the latter part of , even though trade negotiations had broken down until November. It hit a milestone on July 11, closing above 27,, and then another on Nov. 15, closing above 28, (in the chart below, milestones are noted). 

Record Highs Set in

The Dow hit three 1,point milestones in It hit two of them in the first few weeks in January, closing above 25, on January 4. The index breached 26, on January 17, then continued on to set 15 closing records in the rest of  

The records set in the fall were the first ones since the Dow reached 26, on Jan. 26, After hitting the January 26 peak, the Dow went into free fall, dropping 4% the next week. On February 8, it entered a market correction when it fell 1, points to 23, 

Investors were encouraged by the progress made on Trump's North American Free Trade Agreement renegotiation. On Aug. 27, , the Dow ended a six-month correction (a decline of 10% or more) when it reached 26, This was 10% above its closing low of 25,, reached on March This was the longest correction since , when a correction lasted for sessions.

Record Highs Set in

The index set 70 closing records in For the first time, the Dow reached five 1,point milestones in one year. On Jan. 25, , the index closed at 20,

This high occurred only 42 trading sessions after closing above 19, That is the second-fastest rise in U.S. history (currently, the record is 24 sessions to go from 10, to 21, in ).

On March 1, , it closed above 21, which followed a day run. This was the longest such streak since the record day stretch in  When the Dow breached22, on Aug. 2, , it became the first time to hit three such milestones in one year.

The index closed above 23, on Oct. 18, ; slightly more than a month later, it broke 24, The Dow had two streaks lasting more than 10 days, which had not occurred since

The index had three nine-day runs, last occurring in (when there were four nine-day stretches). The Dow continuously moved higher eight months in a row (the last occurrence of this was in ). The year ended with five milestone records set.

Record Highs Set in

The Dow hit one milestone and had 26 closing records in Of the 26 records set that year, 17 occurred after the presidential election. The index's  closing high was 19,, set on Dec. 20,

The Dow suffered a market correction between August and April 19, , leading to a downturn. It began on January 4, when the Dow closed points lower as investors worried about a slowdown in China's economic growth.

By Jan. 7, , the Dow had fallen % to 16,, the worst yearly start ever. The next day, it dropped to 16, In that week, the Dow lost 1, points (%) with the damage continuing.

By January 20, it closed at 15,, as investors panicked over plummeting oil prices, the devaluation of the yuan, and turmoil in China's stock market. It then fell to a low of 15, on February

In July and August, the Dow rose as investors flocked to safe U.S. markets after turbulence rocked the European Union. On June 24, the Dow fell points the day after Brexit (when the United Kingdom voted to leave the EU). This threatened U.S. businesses, the U.K.'s largest investors.

A November streak occurred after Donald Trump's presidential win on November 8. Traders were confident in a business-friendly Republican president. The Dow closed above 19, on Nov. 22,  

Record Highs Set in 

The Dow hit one milestone and six closing records in After setting the record high in May , the Dow fell points on August 21, closing at 16, On August 24, Black Monday, it fell another 1, points in the first few minutes of trading to 15, 

That correction was more than 16% lower than its all-time high set in May of the same year, putting the index into a correction but not a bear market. Investors worried that China's yuan devaluation and the uncertainty over the Fed's rate increase would push the index further downward.

The market closed higher at 15, The sell-off continued on Tuesday (Aug. 25) when the Dow closed at 15,, but regained its upward momentum on Wednesday, closing at 16,

The Dow was volatile in because it was based on just a few companies. Record-low interest rates allowed firms such as Apple and IBM to borrow billions to buy back shares. These actions artificially raised their earnings per share and the prices of their remaining outstanding stocks (stocks which are still held by shareholders).

Record Highs Set in

The Dow set three milestones in and set 39 closing records. Its low for the year was 15,, reached on February 3. Share repurchases among the S&P companies were 59% higher in the first quarter of than the first quarter in In total, $ billion was spent. It was the largest amount since , right before the stock market crashed.

On April 30, the Dow surpassed 16, On July 3, it broke 17,; and on July 16, it hit a new record, before heading into a correction for two months.

The Federal Open Market Committee announced on October 31 that it wouldn't raise interest rates until Investors applauded the guarantee for lower interest rates for the remainder of  

The index closed above 18, on December 23, and then closed its high for the year at 18, on Dec. The chart below shows four of those closing records, as they increase by the thousand.

Record Highs Set in 

Two Dow milestones were achieved in  The Dow gained 3, points during , higher than any prior year on record. Its percentage increase was %.

The index recovered from the Great Recession on March 5, , closing at 14, It took five years to surpass its previous record of 14,set on Oct. 9,

The Dow rose above 15, for the first time on May 7. There were 52 closing records for the year. The chart below shows 12 of those records:

Dow Jones Activity from to

The Dow's activity broke new records in terms of downward movement in While it wasn't as dramatic as the Great Depression, the drop happened much more quickly. After recovering from its Great Depression level, the Dow continued to be affected by several recessionary periods and crises leading up to the downturn.

– Recession

The stock market crash was more dramatic than any other downturn in U.S. history. The market fell more than 50% in just 17 months. This was less than the 90% drop during the Great Depression. It took almost four years for the market to bottom out at that time.

On Oct. 9, , the Dow closed at its all-time high (pre-recession) of 14, Fourth-quarter gross domestic product growth (GDP) contracted 1%, announcing the start of the recession (it was later re-estimated at a positive %).

The Dow started to gradually decline. After the failure of Bear Stearns in April  and a negative GDP report in Q2 , the Dow dropped to 11, Many analysts felt that this 20% decline was the market bottom—it wasn't.

On Monday, Sept. 15, , Lehman Brothers Holding, Inc. (an investment bank) declared bankruptcy. On Wednesday, panicky bankers withdrew $ billion from money market funds, almost causing a collapse.

On Sept. 29, , the Dow fell  points. This was its most significant single-day point drop ever. Investors were stunned when the U.S. House of Representatives rejected a $ billion bailout bill to save failing banks.

The Senate reintroduced the bailout as the Troubled Asset Relief Program on Oct. 3. Yet, the Dow plummeted 13% in October. By Nov. 20, , it fell to 7,, a new low.

This was still not the real market bottom. The Dow climbed to 9, on Jan. 2, , before screeching down to 6,on March 5,

On July 24, , the Dow finally reversed course. It beat its January high, rising to 9, by the close of the day.

Stock market gains since the financial crisis were mediocre in volume. Only three days traded more than million shares, a level similar to the late s. Volume fell after the recession and didn't return.

Recession

The Dow peaked on Jan. 14, , closing at 11,, thanks to the boom in internet businesses. It was the end of one of the greatest bull markets in U.S. history. The Dow had risen 1,% since its close on Aug. 12,

It started falling soon afterward, hitting its first bottom of 9, on March 7, It regained an upward momentum, hitting 11, on April 25, It bounced around in this range until March 14, , when it dropped to 9, This began the  recession. The Dow bounced around until the markets closed following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. When the markets reopened on Sept. 17, , the Dow dropped to 8,

The threat of war drove the Dow down until Oct. 9, On that day, it closed at 7,, a % decline from its peak. The recession ended in November. No one knew if a new bull market had begun until the Dow hit a higher low on March 11, , closing at 7,

Currency Crisis

On July 2, , Thailand cut its peg to the dollar after failing to defend its currency from speculative attacks.

Currency values fell throughout Southeast Asia. On Oct. 27, , the Dow fell points for its biggest point loss ever at that time. It closed at 7,, a 7% loss, resulting in the U.S. stock market suspending trading.​

On Aug. 17, , Russia devalued the ruble and defaulted on its bonds. By Aug. 31, the Dow had fallen 13%, from 8, on Aug. 18 to 7, on Aug. The Long-Term Capital Management hedge fund almost collapsed, threatening to push its banking investors into bankruptcy. Former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan convinced them to support the hedge fund, averting further disaster.

– Recession

On Aug. 2, , Iraq invaded Kuwait. The Dow fell 17% in three months, from 2, on Aug. 2 to 2, on Oct. 11, 

Stock Market Crash

On Oct. 19, , the Dow fell 23%, from 2, to 1, The Black Monday stock market crash may have been caused by computer trading that forced sell orders when the market turned down. The Dow didn't regain its Aug. 25, , peak of 2, for two years. The loss of liquidity from this crash led to the savings and loan crisis in

– Recession

The Dow dropped 16%, from a high of on Feb. 13, , to a low of on April 21,  The Federal Reserve, under Paul Volcker, lowered the federal funds rate (the interest rate for banks to loan money overnight to each other) to % in response.

The Dow rose to 1, on April 27, The Fed then raised rates to combat inflation, which reduced business spending. By Aug, , the Dow had dropped % to

– Recession

On Dec. 4, , the Dow closed at  It had fallen 45% from its peak of 1, on Jan. 11,  President Nixon helped create this recession by ending the gold standard.

Recession

The Dow dropped 30% between Dec. 3, , and May 26, It fell from a high of to a low of 

Cuban Missile Crisis

The United States launched a trade embargo against Cuba on Feb. 7, The Dow dropped % from its post-election height of on Dec. 1, , to its June 26, , low of Tensions escalated on Oct. 14, , when U.S. spy satellites discovered Soviet nuclear missile bases in Cuba.

President John F. Kennedy demanded the removal of the weapons and launched a day naval quarantine to prevent ships from reaching Cuba, which may have held weapons from the Soviets.

An agreement was finally reached between the Soviet Union and the United States, in which Kennedy agreed to remove all nuclear missiles set in Turkey on the border of the Soviet Union in exchange for Khrushchev removing all missiles from Cuba. The Dow dropped 2% the day after JFK's Oct. 22 speech. The crisis ended on Oct. 28,

Recession

The Dow fell % from on Dec. 31, , to on Nov. 1,  It closely followed the economic downturn of the recession, which started in April It lasted 10 months, until Feb. when President Kennedy used stimulus spending to end it.

Recession of

The Dow dropped %, from on Aug. 1, , to on Nov. 1,  The drop corresponded to the eight-month recession, a period from Aug. to April , as a result of the Fed's contractionary monetary policy.

Recession of

The Dow fell % from on Jan. 2, , to on Sept. 1,  On Nov. 23, , the Dow hit a new high of It had taken 25 years for it to beat the pre-Depression high of , set on Sept. 3,

The downturn reflected a month recession, from July to May , during the military demobilization following the Korean War.

Recession

The Dow dropped 16% from on June 15, , to on June 13,  It did so in relation to an month period between November  and October , when the economy began its adjustment to peacetime production levels.

Recession

The Dow rose % during this recession, which lasted between February and October It was at on Feb. 1, , and rose to on Oct. 1,  The economy contracted % because government spending dropped when World War II ended. But business spending was robust, which boosted stock market performance.

The Great Depression

The Dow fell 90% in less than four years during The Great Depression. It was at on Sept. 3, By July 8, , it was just The kickoff to the Dow's slide was the stock market crash of , but the Great Depression had already started in Aug. , when the economy contracted. 

The market crash began on Oct. 24, Black Thursday, and continued until Black Tuesday. Stock prices fell 23%, causing investors to lose $30 billion (the equivalent of $ billion today). The public was terrified because that was more than the entire cost of World War I. It took 25 years for the Dow to regain its September high.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How do you invest in the Dow Jones Industrial Average?

The easiest way to invest in the Dow is to buy shares in State Street Global Advisors' Dow Jones Industrial Average ETF, which trades under the ticker symbol DIA.

What are the 30 stocks in the Dow Jones?

As of July , the 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average are (in order of index weighting): UnitedHealth Group, Goldman Sachs, Home Depot, Microsoft, Visa, McDonald's, Salesforce, Amgen, Honeywell, Boeing, Caterpillar, 3M, Disney, Johnson & Johnson, American Express, Nike, JP Morgan Chase, Travelers Companies, Apple, Procter & Gamble, Walmart, IBM, Chevron, Merck & Co., Dow Inc., Coca-Cola, Verizon, Cisco, Intel, and Walgreens Boots Alliance.

What are the areas of focus for Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes?

There are roughly two dozen different Dow Jones indexes that apply some sort of environmental, societal, and governance (ESG) screening. Some exclude certain industries from a region or index, such as gambling and weapons. Others apply S&P Global's Corporate Sustainability Assessment to geographic regions.

Sours: https://www.thebalance.com/dow-jones-closing-history-top-highs-and-lows-since

Markets

Stocks: Real-time U.S. stock quotes reflect trades reported through Nasdaq only; comprehensive quotes and volume reflect trading in all markets and are delayed at least 15 minutes. International stock quotes are delayed as per exchange requirements. Fundamental company data and analyst estimates provided by FactSet. Copyright © FactSet Research Systems Inc. All rights reserved. Source: FactSet

Indexes: Index quotes may be real-time or delayed as per exchange requirements; refer to time stamps for information on any delays. Source: FactSet

Markets Diary: Data on U.S. Overview page represent trading in all U.S. markets and updates until 8 p.m. See Closing Diaries table for 4 p.m. closing data. Sources: FactSet, Dow Jones

Stock Movers: Gainers, decliners and most actives market activity tables are a combination of NYSE, Nasdaq, NYSE American and NYSE Arca listings. Sources: FactSet, Dow Jones

ETF Movers: Includes ETFs & ETNs with volume of at least 50, Sources: FactSet, Dow Jones

Bonds: Bond quotes are updated in real-time. Sources: FactSet, Tullett Prebon

Currencies: Currency quotes are updated in real-time. Sources: FactSet, Tullett Prebon

Commodities & Futures: Futures prices are delayed at least 10 minutes as per exchange requirements. Change value during the period between open outcry settle and the commencement of the next day's trading is calculated as the difference between the last trade and the prior day's settle. Change value during other periods is calculated as the difference between the last trade and the most recent settle. Source: FactSet

Data are provided 'as is' for informational purposes only and are not intended for trading purposes. FactSet (a) does not make any express or implied warranties of any kind regarding the data, including, without limitation, any warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use; and (b) shall not be liable for any errors, incompleteness, interruption or delay, action taken in reliance on any data, or for any damages resulting therefrom. Data may be intentionally delayed pursuant to supplier requirements.

Mutual Funds & ETFs: All of the mutual fund and ETF information contained in this display, with the exception of the current price and price history, was supplied by Lipper, A Refinitiv Company, subject to the following: Copyright © Refinitiv. All rights reserved. Any copying, republication or redistribution of Lipper content, including by caching, framing or similar means, is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Lipper. Lipper shall not be liable for any errors or delays in the content, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon.

Cryptocurrencies: Cryptocurrency quotes are updated in real-time. Sources: CoinDesk (Bitcoin), Kraken (all other cryptocurrencies)

Calendars and Economy: 'Actual' numbers are added to the table after economic reports are released. Source: Kantar Media

Sours: https://www.wsj.com/market-data/quotes/index/DJIA
  1. Conjugation chart spanish
  2. Bear cabin hocking hills
  3. Windows 10 update client
  4. Craig tracy for sale

Markets

Stocks: Real-time U.S. stock quotes reflect trades reported through Nasdaq only; comprehensive quotes and volume reflect trading in all markets and are delayed at least 15 minutes. International stock quotes are delayed as per exchange requirements. Fundamental company data and analyst estimates provided by FactSet. Copyright © FactSet Research Systems Inc. All rights reserved. Source: FactSet

Indexes: Index quotes may be real-time or delayed as per exchange requirements; refer to time stamps for information on any delays. Source: FactSet

Markets Diary: Data on U.S. Overview page represent trading in all U.S. markets and updates until 8 p.m. See Closing Diaries table for 4 p.m. closing data. Sources: FactSet, Dow Jones

Stock Movers: Gainers, decliners and most actives market activity tables are a combination of NYSE, Nasdaq, NYSE American and NYSE Arca listings. Sources: FactSet, Dow Jones

ETF Movers: Includes ETFs & ETNs with volume of at least 50, Sources: FactSet, Dow Jones

Bonds: Bond quotes are updated in real-time. Sources: FactSet, Tullett Prebon

Currencies: Currency quotes are updated in real-time. Sources: FactSet, Tullett Prebon

Commodities & Futures: Futures prices are delayed at least 10 minutes as per exchange requirements. Change value during the period between open outcry settle and the commencement of the next day's trading is calculated as the difference between the last trade and the prior day's settle. Change value during other periods is calculated as the difference between the last trade and the most recent settle. Source: FactSet

Data are provided 'as is' for informational purposes only and are not intended for trading purposes. FactSet (a) does not make any express or implied warranties of any kind regarding the data, including, without limitation, any warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use; and (b) shall not be liable for any errors, incompleteness, interruption or delay, action taken in reliance on any data, or for any damages resulting therefrom. Data may be intentionally delayed pursuant to supplier requirements.

Mutual Funds & ETFs: All of the mutual fund and ETF information contained in this display, with the exception of the current price and price history, was supplied by Lipper, A Refinitiv Company, subject to the following: Copyright © Refinitiv. All rights reserved. Any copying, republication or redistribution of Lipper content, including by caching, framing or similar means, is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Lipper. Lipper shall not be liable for any errors or delays in the content, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon.

Cryptocurrencies: Cryptocurrency quotes are updated in real-time. Sources: CoinDesk (Bitcoin), Kraken (all other cryptocurrencies)

Calendars and Economy: 'Actual' numbers are added to the table after economic reports are released. Source: Kantar Media

Sours: https://www.wsj.com/market-data/quotes/index/DJIA/historical-prices

Dow Jones Industrial Average

American stock market index

"Dow Jones index" redirects here. For other indices, see Dow Jones.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), Dow Jones, or simply the Dow (), is a price-weighted measurement stock market index of 30 prominent companies listed on stock exchanges in the United States.

Although the DJIA is one of the oldest and the most commonly followed equity indices, many professionals consider the Dow to be an inadequate representation of the overall U.S. stock market compared to broader market indices such as the S&P or Russell Index. The DJIA includes only 30 large companies and is a price-weighted index, unlike later stock indices which use market capitalization. Furthermore, the DJIA does not use a weighted arithmetic mean.[4][5][6][7]

The value of the index is the sum of the stock prices of the companies included in the index, divided by a factor which is currently (as of September&#;[update]) approximately The factor is changed whenever a constituent company undergoes a stock split so that the value of the index is unaffected by the stock split.

First calculated on May 26, ,[2] the index is the second-oldest among the U.S. market indices (after the Dow Jones Transportation Average). It was created by Charles Dow, the editor of The Wall Street Journal and the co-founder of Dow Jones & Company, and named after him and his business associate, statistician Edward Jones. The word industrial in the name of the index initially emphasized the heavy industry sector, but over time stocks from many other types of companies have been added to the DJIA.

The index is maintained by S&P Dow Jones Indices, an entity majority-owned by S&P Global. Its components are selected by a committee. The ten components with the largest dividend yields are commonly referred to as the Dogs of the Dow. As with all stock prices, the prices of the constituent stocks and consequently the value of the index itself are affected by the performance of the respective companies as well as macroeconomic factors.

Components[edit]

As of August&#;31, ,[update] the Dow Jones Industrial Average consists of the following companies, with a weighting as of August&#;26, ,[update] as shown:[8]

Former components[edit]

Main article: Historical components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average

As of August 31, , the components of the DJIA have changed 55 times since its beginning on May 26, General Electric had the longest continuous presence on the index, beginning in the original index in and ending in Changes to the index since are as follows:

  • On May 6, , Caterpillar Inc., J.P. Morgan Chase, and the Walt Disney Company replaced American Can, Navistar, and U.S. Steel.[9]
  • On March 17, , Travelers Inc., Hewlett-Packard, Johnson & Johnson, and Walmart replaced Westinghouse Electric, Texaco, Bethlehem Steel, and F. W. Woolworth Company.[10]
  • On November 1, , Microsoft, Intel, SBC Communications, and Home Depot replaced Goodyear Tire, Sears Roebuck, Union Carbide, and Chevron Corporation.[11] Intel and Microsoft became the first and second companies traded on the NASDAQ to be part of the Dow.[11]
  • On April 8, , American International Group, Pfizer, and Verizon Communications replaced AT&T Corporation, Kodak, and International Paper.[12]
  • On February 19, , Chevron Corporation and Bank of America replaced Altria Group and Honeywell. Chevron was previously a Dow component from July 18, to November 1, During Chevron's absence, its split-adjusted price per share went from $44 to $85, while the price of petroleum rose from $24 to $ per barrel.[13]
  • On September 22, , Kraft Foods Inc. replaced American International Group (AIG) in the index.[14][15]
  • On June 8, , The Travelers Companies and Cisco Systems replaced Motors Liquidation Company (formerly General Motors) and Citigroup. Cisco became the third company traded on the NASDAQ to be part of the Dow.[16]
  • On September 24, , UnitedHealth Group replaced Kraft Foods Inc. following Kraft's split into Mondelez International and Kraft Foods.
  • On September 20, , Goldman Sachs, Nike, Inc., and Visa Inc. replaced Alcoa, Bank of America, and Hewlett-Packard. Visa replaced Hewlett-Packard because of the split into HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise.[17][18][19]
  • On March 19, , Apple Inc. replaced AT&T, which had been a component of the DJIA since November [20][21] Apple became the fourth company traded on the NASDAQ to be part of the Dow.
  • On September 1, , DowDuPont replaced DuPont. DowDuPont was formed by the merger of Dow Chemical Company with DuPont.[22]
  • On June 26, , Walgreens Boots Alliance replaced General Electric, which had been a component of the DJIA since November , after being part of the inaugural index in May and much of the to period.[23][24][25]
  • On April 2, , Dow Inc. replaced DowDuPont. Dow, Inc. is a spin-off of DowDuPont, itself a merger of Dow Chemical Company and DuPont.[26][27][28]
  • On April 6, , Raytheon Technologies replaced United Technologies. Raytheon is the name of the combination of United Technologies and the Raytheon Company, which merged as of April 3, The newly combined conglomerate does not include previous subsidiaries Carrier Global or Otis Worldwide[29]
  • On August 31, , Amgen, Honeywell, and Salesforce.com replaced ExxonMobil, Pfizer, and Raytheon Technologies.

Investment methods[edit]

Investing in the DJIA is possible via index funds as well as via derivatives such as option contracts and futures contracts.

Mutual and exchange-traded funds[edit]

Index funds, including mutual funds and exchange-traded funds, that replicate, before fees and expenses, the performance of the index by holding the same stocks as the index in the same proportions can be purchased via any electronic trading platform or stockbroker. An exchange-traded funds (ETF) that replicates the performance of the index is issued by State Street Corporation (NYSE&#;Arca:&#;DIA).[30]

ProShares offers leveraged ETFs that attempt to produce 3x the daily result of either investing in (NYSE&#;Arca:&#;UDOW) or shorting (NYSE&#;Arca:&#;SDOW) the Dow Jones Industrial Average.[31]

Futures contracts[edit]

In the derivatives market, the CME Group through its subsidiaries the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) and the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), issues Futures Contracts; the E-mini Dow ($5) Futures (YM), which track the average and trade on their exchange floors respectively. Trading is typically carried out in an open outcry auction, or over an electronic network such as CME's Globex platform.

Options contracts[edit]

The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) issues option contracts on the Dow through the root symbol DJX. Options on various Dow-underlying ETFs are also available for trading.[32]

Annual returns[edit]

The following table shows the annual development of the Dow Jones Index, which was calculated back to [33][34]

Year Closing value Change in points Change in percent
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
2,
2,
3,
3,
3,
3,
5,1,
6,1,
7,1,
9,1,
11,2,
10,
10,
8,−1,
10,2,
10,
10,
12,1,
13,
8,−4,
10,1,
11,1,
12,
13,
16,3,
17,1,
17,
19,2,
24,4,
23,−1,
28, 5,
30, 2,

History[edit]

See also: Closing milestones of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and List of largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average

Precursor[edit]

DJIA monthly trading volume in shares from to

In , Charles Dow composed his first stock average, which contained nine railroads and two industrial companies that appeared in the Customer's Afternoon Letter, a daily two-page financial news bulletin which was the precursor to The Wall Street Journal. On January 2, , the number of stocks represented in what is now the Dow Jones Transportation Average dropped from 14 to 12, as the Central Pacific Railroad and Central Railroad of New Jersey were removed. Though comprising the same number of stocks, this index contained only one of the original twelve industrials that would eventually form Dow's most famous index.[35]

Initial components[edit]

Dow calculated his first average purely of industrial stocks on May 26, , creating what is now known as the Dow Jones Industrial Average. None of the original 12 industrials still remain part of the index.[36]

  • American Cotton Oil Company, a predecessor company to Hellmann's and Best Foods, now part of Unilever.[37]
  • American Sugar Refining Company, became Domino Sugar in , now Domino Foods, Inc.[37]
  • American Tobacco Company, broken up in a antitrust action.
  • Chicago Gas Company, bought by Peoples Gas Light in , was an operating subsidiary of the now-defunct Integrys Energy Group until [37]
  • Distilling & Cattle Feeding Company, now Millennium Chemicals, formerly a division of LyondellBasell.[38][37]
  • General Electric, still in operation, removed from the Dow Jones Industrial Average in [37]
  • Laclede Gas Company, still in operation as Spire Inc, removed from the Dow Jones Industrial Average in [37]
  • National Lead Company, now NL Industries, removed from the Dow Jones Industrial Average in [37]
  • North American Company, an electric utilityholding company, broken up by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in [37]
  • Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company in Birmingham, Alabama, bought by U.S. Steel in ; U.S. Steel was removed from the Dow Jones Industrial Average in [37]
  • United States Leather Company, dissolved in [37]
  • United States Rubber Company, changed its name to Uniroyal in , merged with private Goodrich Corporation in , tire business bought by Michelin in [37] (The remainder of Goodrich remained independent several more years but was acquired by United Technologies in and became a part of UTC Aerospace Systems, now Collins Aerospace, a Raytheon Technologies subsidiary.)

Early years[edit]

When it was first published in the mids, the index stood at a level of It reached a peak of during the summer of , but ended up hitting its all-time low of in the summer of during the Panic of Many of the biggest percentage price moves in the Dow occurred early in its history, as the nascent industrial economy matured. In the s, the Dow halted its momentum as it worked its way through two financial crises: the Panic of and the Panic of The Dow remained stuck in a range between 53 and points until late The negativity surrounding the San Francisco earthquake did little to improve the economic climate; the index broke for the first time in [39]

At the start of the s, the Panic of – stifled economic growth. On July 30, , as the average stood at a level of , a decision was made to close down the New York Stock Exchange, and suspend trading for a span of four and a half months. Some historians believe the exchange was closed because of a concern that markets would plunge as a result of panic over the onset of World War I. An alternative explanation is that the United States Secretary of the Treasury, William Gibbs McAdoo, closed the exchange to conserve the U.S. gold stock in order to launch the Federal Reserve System later that year, with enough gold to keep the United States on par with the gold standard. When the markets reopened on December 12, , the index closed at , a gain of %. This is frequently reported as a large drop, due to using a later redefinition. Reports from the time say that the day was positive.[40] Following World War I, the United States experienced another economic downturn, the Post–World War I recession. The Dow's performance remained unchanged from the closing value of the previous decade, adding only %, from points at the beginning of , to a level of points at the end of [41]

The Dow experienced a long bull run from to late when it rose from 73 to points.[42] In , the components of the Dow were increased to 30 stocks near the economic height of that decade, which was nicknamed the Roaring Twenties. This period downplayed the influence of the Depression of –21 and certain international conflicts such as the Polish–Soviet War, the Irish Civil War, the Turkish War of Independence and the initial phase of the Chinese Civil War. After a peak of on September 3, , the bottom of the crash came just 2 months later on November 13, , at intraday, closing slightly higher at [43] The Wall Street Crash of and the ensuing Great Depression over the next several years returned the average to its starting point, almost 90% below its peak. Overall for the s decade, the Dow still ended with a healthy % gain, from to points at the end of [42] In inflation-adjusted numbers, the high of on September 3, was not surpassed until

Marked by global instability and the Great Depression, the s contended with several consequential European and Asian outbreaks of war, leading up to catastrophic World War II in Other conflicts during the decade which affected the stock market included the – Spanish Civil War, the – Second Italo-Abyssinian War, the Soviet-Japanese Border War of , and the Second Sino-Japanese War of The United States experienced the Recession of –, which temporarily brought economic recovery to a halt. The largest one-day percentage gain in the index happened in the depths of the s bear market on March 15, , when the Dow gained % to close at However, as a whole throughout the Great Depression, the Dow posted some of its worst performances, for a negative return during most of the s for new and old stock market investors. For the decade, the Dow Jones average was down from points at the beginning of , to a stable level of points at the end of , a loss of about 40%.[44]

s[edit]

Post-war reconstruction during the s, along with renewed optimism of peace and prosperity, brought about a 39% surge in the Dow from around the level to The strength in the Dow occurred despite the Recession of and various global conflicts.

s[edit]

During the s, the Korean War and the Cold War did not stop the Dow's climb higher. A % increase in the average from a level of to ensued over the course of that decade.

s[edit]

The Dow began to stall during the s as the markets trudged through the Kennedy Slide of , but still managed a respectable 30% gain from the level to

s[edit]

The s marked a time of economic uncertainty and troubled relations between the U.S. and certain Middle-Eastern countries. The s energy crisis was a prelude to a disastrous economic climate along with stagflation, the combination of high unemployment and high inflation. However, on November 14, , the average closed at 1,, above the 1, mark for the first time, during a brief relief rally in the midst of a lengthy bear market.[39] Between January and December , the average lost 48% of its value in what became known as the – stock market crash, closing at on December 4, In , the index reached 1, several times and it closed the year at 1, Although the Vietnam War ended in , new tensions arose towards Iran surrounding the Iranian Revolution in Performance-wise for the s, the index remained virtually flat, rising less than 5% from about the level to

s[edit]

The Dow fell % on Black Monday ()from about the 2, level to around 1, Two days later, it rose % above the 2, level for a mild recovery attempt.

The s began with the early s recession. In early , the index broke above 1, several times, but then retreated. After closing above 2, in January ,[39] the largest one-day percentage drop occurred on Black Monday, October 19, , when the average fell %. There were no clear reasons given to explain the crash.

On October 13, , the Friday the 13th mini-crash, which initiated the collapse of the junk bond market, resulted in a loss of almost 7% of the index in a single day.[45]

During the s, the Dow increased % from level to 2,; despite the market crashes, Silver Thursday, an early s recession, the s oil glut, the Japanese asset price bubble, and other political distractions. The index had only two negative years in the s: in and

s[edit]

The s brought on rapid advances in technology along with the introduction of the dot-com era. The markets contended with the oil price shock compounded with the effects of the early s recession and a brief European situation surrounding Black Wednesday.[citation needed] Certain influential foreign conflicts such as the Soviet coup d'état attempt which took place as part of the initial stages of the Dissolution of the Soviet Union and the Revolutions of ; the First Chechen War and the Second Chechen War, the Gulf War, and the Yugoslav Wars failed to dampen economic enthusiasm surrounding the ongoing Information Age and the "irrational exuberance" (a phrase coined by Alan Greenspan[46]) of the dot-com bubble.[citation needed] Between late and early , the Dow staggered through the 3, level making only modest gains as the biotechnology sector suffered through the downfall of the Biotech Bubble; as many biotech companies saw their share prices rapidly rise to record levels and then subsequently fall to new all-time lows.[citation needed]

The Dow soared from to between January to July [39] In October , the events surrounding the Asian financial crisis plunged the Dow into a point loss to a close of 7,; a retrenchment of % in what became known as the October 27, mini-crash.

However, the Dow continued climbing past despite negativity surrounding the Russian financial crisis along with the subsequent fallout from the collapse of Long-Term Capital Management due to bad bets placed on the movement of the Russian ruble.[47]

On March 29, , the average closed at 10,, its first close above 10, This prompted a celebration on the trading floor, complete with party hats.[48] Total gains for the decade exceeded %; from the 2, level to 11,, which equates to % annually.

The Dow averaged a % return compounded annually for the 20th century, a record Warren Buffett called "a wonderful century"; when he calculated that to achieve that return again, the index would need to close at about 2,, by December [49]

s[edit]

The Dow fell % after the September 11 attacks. Exchanges were closed from September 12 through September 16,

On September 17, , the first day of trading after the September 11 attacks, the Dow fell %. However, the Dow began an upward trend shortly after the attacks, and quickly regained all lost ground to close above 10, for the year. In , the Dow dropped to a 4-year low of on September 24, , due to the stock market downturn of and lingering effects of the dot-com bubble. Overall, while the NASDAQ fell roughly 75% and the S&P fell roughly 50% between and , the Dow only fell 27% during the same period. In , the Dow held steady within the 7, to 9,point level and recovered to the 10, mark by year end.[50]

The Dow continued climbing and reached a record high of 14, on October 11, , a mark which was not matched until March [51] It then dropped for the next year due to the Financial crisis of

On September 15, , a wider financial crisis became evident when Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy along with the economic effect of record high oil prices which had reached almost $ per barrel two months earlier. The Dow lost more than points for the day, returning to its mid-July lows below 11,[52][53] A series of bailout packages, including the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of , proposed and implemented by the Federal Reserve and United States Department of the Treasury did not prevent further losses. After nearly six months of extreme volatility during which the Dow experienced its largest one-day point loss, largest daily point gain, and largest intraday range (of more than 1, points) at the time, the index closed at a new year low of 6, on March 9, ,[54] its lowest close since April The Dow had lost 20% of its value in only six weeks.

Towards the latter half of , the average rallied towards the 10, level amid optimism that the Lates recession, the United States housing bubble and the financial crisis of –, were easing and possibly coming to an end. For the decade, the Dow saw a rather substantial pullback for a negative return from 11, to 10,, a loss of a little over 9%.[55]

s[edit]

A graph that illustrates a trading range from the mid-7, level to the 14, level aside from a low in the mid-6, level in early The average traded at or near the 10, range for most of the s decade.
The Dow from January through February

During the first half of the s decade, aided by the Federal Reserve's loose monetary policy including quantitative easing, the Dow made a notable rally attempt. This was despite significant volatility due to growing global concerns such as the European sovereign debt crisis, the Dubai World debt standstill, and the United States debt-ceiling crisis of [citation needed]

On May 6, , the Dow lost % intra-day and regained nearly all of it within a single hour. This event, which became known as the Flash Crash, sparked new regulations to prevent future incidents.[56]

Six years after its previous high in , the Dow finally closed at a new record high on March 5, [57] It continued rising for the next several years past 17, points until a brief –16 stock market selloff in the second half of [58] It then picked up again early and climbed past 25, points on January 4, [59]

On November 9, , the day after Donald Trump's upset victory over Hillary Clinton in the U.S. presidential election, the index soared, coming within roughly 25 points of its all-time intraday high to that point.[60]

Volatility returned in when the Dow fell nearly 20%.[61][62][63] By early January , the index had quickly rallied more than 10% from its Christmas Eve low.[64]

Overall in the s decade, the Dow increased from 10, to 28, points for a substantial gain of %.[65]

s[edit]

Despite the emerging coronavirus pandemic, the Dow continued its bull run from the previous decade before peaking at 29, on February 12, (29, intraday on the same day). The index slowly retreated for the remainder of the week and into the next week, before coronavirus fears and an oil price war between Saudi Arabia and Russia sent the index into a tailspin, recording several days of losses[66] (and gains[67]) of at least 1, points, a typical symptom of a bear market[68] as previously seen in October during the financial crisis. Volatility rose high enough to trigger multiple minute trading halts.[69] In the first quarter of , the DJI fell 23%, its worst quarter since [70] The market recovered in the third quarter returning to 28, on October 12, , and peaking momentarily at a new all-time high of 29, on 9 November at ET, following the announcement, earlier in the day, of the vaccine against Coronavirus from "Pfizer". The Dow (and reported by the UPI) closed over 30, on December 31, at a record 30, On November 24, following news that the transition of President-Elect Biden was approved, the Dow increased by more than pts, closing at 30,[71]

Calculation[edit]

To calculate the DJIA, the sum of the prices of all 30 stocks is divided by a divisor, the Dow Divisor. The divisor is adjusted in case of stock splits, spinoffs or similar structural changes, to ensure that such events do not in themselves alter the numerical value of the DJIA. Early on, the initial divisor was composed of the original number of component companies; this initially made the DJIA a simple arithmetic average. The present divisor, after many adjustments, is less than one (meaning the index is larger than the sum of the prices of the components). That is:

{\text{DJIA}}={\sum p \over d}

where p are the prices of the component stocks and d is the Dow Divisor.

Events such as stock splits or changes in the list of the companies composing the index alter the sum of the component prices. In these cases, in order to avoid discontinuity in the index, the Dow Divisor is updated so that the quotations right before and after the event coincide:

{\text{DJIA}}={\sum p_{\text{old}} \over d_{\text{old}}}={\sum p_{\text{new}} \over d_{\text{new}}}.

Since June&#;3, ,[update] the Dow Divisor is [72] and every $1 change in price in a particular stock within the average equates to a (or 1 ÷ ) point movement.

Assessment[edit]

Issues with market representation[edit]

With the inclusion of only 30 stocks, critics such as Ric Edelman argue that the DJIA is an inaccurate representation of overall market performance compared to more comprehensive indexes such as the S&P Index or the Russell Index. Additionally, the DJIA is criticized for being a price-weighted index, which gives higher-priced stocks more influence over the average than their lower-priced counterparts, but takes no account of the relative industry size or market capitalization of the components. For example, a $1 increase in a lower-priced stock can be negated by a $1 decrease in a much higher-priced stock, even though the lower-priced stock experienced a larger percentage change. In addition, a $1 move in the smallest component of the DJIA has the same effect as a $1 move in the largest component of the average. For example, during September–October , former component AIG's reverse split-adjusted stock price collapsed from $ on September 8 to $ on October 27; contributing to a roughly 3,point drop in the index.[73]

As of June&#;,[update] Goldman Sachs and UnitedHealth Group are among the highest-priced stocks in the average and therefore have the greatest influence on it. Alternately, Cisco Systems and Coca-Cola are among the lowest-priced stocks in the average and have the least amount of sway in the price movement.[74] Critics of the DJIA and most securities professionals recommend the market-capitalization weightedS&P Index or the Wilshire , the latter of which includes most publicly listed U.S. stocks, as better indicators of the U.S. stock market.

Correlation among components[edit]

A study between the correlation of components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average compared with the movement of the index finds that the correlation is higher when the stocks are declining. The correlation is lowest in a time when the average is flat or rises a modest amount.[75]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Dow Record Book Adds Another First". Philly.com. February 24, Archived from the original on October 4,
  2. ^ abJudge, Ben (May 26, ). "26 May Charles Dow launches the Dow Jones Industrial Average". MoneyWeek. Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved October 6,
  3. ^"Dow Jones Industrial Average® Fact Sheet"(PDF). S&P Global.
  4. ^"Standard & Poor's Index – S&P ". Investopedia. Archived from the original on June 14, Retrieved September 15,
  5. ^Deporre, James (September 7, ). "Ignore the Misleading Dow Jones Industrial Average". TheStreet.com. Archived from the original on August 12, Retrieved August 12,
  6. ^Floyd, David (June 25, ). "Discover What Makes the Dow Jones Industrial Average Stupid". Investopedia. Archived from the original on August 12, Retrieved August 12,
  7. ^Dzombak, Dan (April 18, ). "Why the Dow Jones Industrial Average Is Useless". The Motley Fool. Archived from the original on August 12, Retrieved August 12,
  8. ^"Dow Jones Companies Sorted by Weight". Slickcharts. Retrieved August 26,
  9. ^"Dow Will Add Disney, Morgan and Caterpillar". Los Angeles Times. May 3, Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved September 15,
  10. ^"Dow replaces 4 components". CNN. March 12, Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved September 15,
  11. ^ ab"Dow goes more digital". CNN. October 26, Archived from the original on April 29, Retrieved September 15,
  12. ^Isidore, Chris (April 1, ). "AT&T, Kodak, IP out of Dow". CNN. Archived from the original on June 13, Retrieved September 15,
  13. ^Goldman, David (February 11, ). "Dow industrials add Bank of America, Chevron". CNN. Archived from the original on May 14, Retrieved September 15,
  14. ^Cooke, Kristina (September 18, ). "AIG bumped from Dow, replaced by Kraft". Reuters. Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved September 15,
  15. ^Browning, E.S. (September 19, ). "Kraft Is Added to DJIA, And AIG Is Subtracted". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 31, Retrieved September 15,
  16. ^Browning, E.S. (June 1, ). "Travelers, Cisco Replace Citi, GM in Dow". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 13, Retrieved August 12,
  17. ^"Goldman Sachs, Visa & Nike Set to Join the Dow Jones Industrial Average" (Press release). PR Newswire. September 10, Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved September 15,
  18. ^Barr, Collin (September 10, ). "Alcoa, H-P and Bank of America to Be Dropped from the Dow Jones". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 25, Retrieved August 12,
  19. ^"Why Alcoa, Hewlett-Packard Should Still Be in the Dow Industrial 30". TheStreet.com. Archived from the original on August 12, Retrieved October 19,
  20. ^"Apple Set to Join the Dow Jones Industrial Average" (Press release). PR Newswire. March 6, Archived from the original on April 27, Retrieved September 15,
  21. ^Shell, Adam (March 6, ). "iDow: Apple added to iconic Dow stock index". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 26, Retrieved August 26,
  22. ^"DowDuPont Set to Join Dow Jones Industrial Average" (Press release). PR Newswire. August 24, Archived from the original on December 2, Retrieved February 6,
  23. ^"Walgreens Boots Alliance Set to Join Dow Jones Industrial Average" (Press release). PR Newswire. June 19, Archived from the original on December 4, Retrieved September 15,
  24. ^Mukherjee, Supantha (June 19, ). "Walgreens to replace GE in Dow Jones Industrial Average". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 20, Retrieved September 15,
  25. ^LaVito, Angelica (June 19, ). "GE booted from the Dow, to be replaced by Walgreens". CNBC. Archived from the original on October 28, Retrieved September 15,
  26. ^"Dow Set to Join Dow Jones Industrial Average" (Press release). PR Newswire. March 26, Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved September 15,
  27. ^Kaskey, Jack (April 2, ). "Dow Inc. Jumps in Trading Debut After Split From DowDuPont". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on December 26, Retrieved April 2,
  28. ^Otani, Akane (March 26, ). "Dow Inc. to Replace DowDuPont in DJIA". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 14, Retrieved September 15,
  29. ^"Otis Worldwide and Carrier Global Set to Join S&P ; American Tower to Join S&P and Macy's to Join S&P SmallCap "(PDF) (Press release). PR Newswire. March 31, Archived from the original on April 6, Retrieved April 6,
  30. ^Johnston, Kevin (July 16, ). "Top 4 ETFs to Track the Dow". Investopedia. Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved February 9,
  31. ^"ProShares: Products". ProShares.
  32. ^"SPDR Dow Jones Industrial Average ETF (DIA) Option Chain". nasdaq.com. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved September 15,
  33. ^"Daily Closing Values of the Dow Jones Average in the United States, May 2, to Present". MeasuringWorth.com. Archived from the original on June 8, Retrieved November 10,
  34. ^"Dow Jones Industrial Average (^DJI) Historical Data - Yahoo Finance". Yahoo! Finance. Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved January 21,
  35. ^"Fool.com: History of the Dow". The Motley Fool. Archived from the original on October 4,
  36. ^Schaefer, Steve (July 15, ). "The First 12 Dow Components: Where Are They Now?". Forbes. Archived from the original on January 5, Retrieved September 15,
  37. ^ abcdefghijkPlanes, Alex (April 9, ). "What Happened to the First 12 Stocks on the Dow?". The Motley Fool. Archived from the original on November 11, Retrieved September 15,
  38. ^"Lyondell Completes Acquisition of Millennium Chemicals" (Press release). PR Newswire. December 1, Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved September 15,
  39. ^ abcd"Dow millennium marks". CNN. July 16, Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved September 15,
  40. ^"Setting the Record Straight on the Dow Drop". The New York Times. October 26, Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved February 7,
  41. ^Dow Jones Closing Prices to Archived October 5, , at the Wayback Machine. Automationinformation.com
  42. ^ abDow Jones Closing Prices to Archived October 5, , at the Wayback Machine. Automationinformation.com.
  43. ^Anderson, Benjamin (). Economics and the Public Welfare: A Financial and Economic History of the United States, –. LibertyPress (2nd ed., ). p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  44. ^Dow Jones Closing Prices to Archived October 4, , at the Wayback Machine. Automationinformation.com.
  45. ^"Dow Falls ; Drop Is Worst Since '87 Crash". Los Angeles Times. October 14, Archived from the original on July 29, Retrieved September 15,
  46. ^Greenspan, Alan (December 5, ). The Challenge of Central Banking in a Democratic Society (Speech). Archived from the original on January 4, Retrieved May 23,
  47. ^"A new Dow millennium". CNN. April 3, Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved September 15,
  48. ^"Dow 10, at last". CNN. March 29, Archived from the original on April 16, Retrieved September 15,
  49. ^Buffett, Warren (February ). "Letter to Shareholders"(PDF). Berkshire Hathaway. Archived(PDF) from the original on March 7, Retrieved March 4,
  50. ^"Dow Jones - DJIA - Year Historical Chart". MacroTrends.net. Archived from the original on August 31, Retrieved September 2,
  51. ^VOORHEES, JOSH (March 5, ). "The Dow Jones Has Never Been Higher". Slate. Archived from the original on July 29, Retrieved September 15,
  52. ^Twin, Alexandra (September 21, ). "Stocks get pummeled". CNN. Archived from the original on January 12, Retrieved September 15,
  53. ^Vigna, Paul (September 16, ). "This Day in Crisis History: Sept. , ". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on September 3, Retrieved September 15,
  54. ^Dow Jones Industrial Average Historical PricesArchived February 4, , at the Wayback Machine. Google Finance
  55. ^Farrell, Paul B. (January 5, ). "Optimist? Or pessimist? Test your strategy!". Marketwatch. Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved September 15,
  56. ^Paradis, Tim (May 6, ).Wall St. rollercoaster: Stocks fall nearly 10 pctArchived May 9, , at the Wayback Machine. Associated Press. Retrieved May 7,
  57. ^Yousuf, Hibah (March 5, ). "Dow closes at record high". CNN. Archived from the original on April 23, Retrieved June 15,
  58. ^Cheng, Evelyn (December 31, ). "Stocks close lower; worst year for S&P, Dow since ". CNBC. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved September 15,
  59. ^Isidore, Chris (January 4, ). "Dow 25, A milestone years in the making". CNN. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved September 15,
  60. ^Imbert, Fred; Cheng, Evelyn (November 9, ). "Dow closes up points; financials surge after Trump election upset". CNBC. Retrieved September 29,
  61. ^Imbert, Fred (February 4, ). "Dow plunges 1, points in wild trading session, S&P goes negative for ". CNBC. Archived from the original on February 5, Retrieved February 5,
  62. ^Egan, Matt (November 19, ). "Morgan Stanley: We are in a bear market". CNN. Archived from the original on November 20, Retrieved November 20,
  63. ^"Dow Today Plunges; Leading Stocks In Bear Market". Investor's Business Daily. November 19, Archived from the original on November 20, Retrieved November 20,
  64. ^DeCambre, Mark (January 9, ). "Dow and S&P escape correction territory after 5-day stock-market surge". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on February 3, Retrieved March 20,
  65. ^"Dow Jones - 10 Year Daily Chart". macrotrends.net. Archived from the original on January 17, Retrieved January 14,
  66. ^Imbert, Fred (March 15, ). "Dow drops nearly 3, points, as coronavirus collapse continues; worst day since '87". CNBC. Archived from the original on March 16, Retrieved March 16,
  67. ^"Dow Soars Nearly 2, Points In Rebound From Biggest Drop Since ". NPR.org. Archived from the original on March 14, Retrieved March 16,
  68. ^Imbert, Fred; Franck, Thomas (March 12, ). "Dow drops more than 8%, heads for biggest one-day plunge since market crash". CNBC. Archived from the original on March 12, Retrieved March 12,
  69. ^"Stocks plunge at market open, trading halts after Dow drops points". MSNBC. Archived from the original on May 8, Retrieved March 9,
  70. ^Stevens, Pippa (April 1, ). "Stock futures point to an opening bounce on Wall Street after second quarter's rocky start". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 2,
  71. ^Otani, Akane (November 24, ). "Dow Jones Industrial Average Crosses for First Time". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on November 25, Retrieved November 25,
  72. ^"Market Laboratory". Barrons.com. August 31, Archived from the original on August 30, Retrieved September 5,
  73. ^La Monica, Paul (September 15, ). "Toss AIG from the Dow!". CNN. Archived from the original on October 29, Retrieved September 15,
  74. ^"Index Component Weights of Stocks in the Dow Jones Industrial Average". Index Insight and Market Timing Tools: Futures, Equities, Options. Ergo Inc. Archived from the original on July 28, Retrieved July 25,
  75. ^Tobias Preis, Dror Y. Kenett, H. Eugene Stanley, Dirk Helbing and Eshel Ben-Jacob (). "Quantifying the Behavior of Stock Correlations Under Market Stress". Scientific Reports. 2: doi/srep PMC&#; PMID&#;
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dow_Jones_Industrial_Average

History performance dow jones

Currency in USD

DateOpenHighLowClose*Adj Close**Volume
Oct 12, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Oct 11, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Oct 08, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Oct 07, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Oct 06, 34,34,33,34,34,,,
Oct 05, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Oct 04, 34,34,33,34,34,,,
Oct 01, 33,34,33,34,34,,,
Sep 30, 34,34,33,33,33,,,
Sep 29, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Sep 28, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Sep 27, 34,35,34,34,34,,,
Sep 24, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Sep 23, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Sep 22, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Sep 21, 34,34,33,33,33,,,
Sep 20, 34,34,33,33,33,,,
Sep 17, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Sep 16, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Sep 15, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Sep 14, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Sep 13, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Sep 10, 34,35,34,34,34,,,
Sep 09, 35,35,34,34,34,,,
Sep 08, 35,35,34,35,35,,,
Sep 07, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Sep 03, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Sep 02, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Sep 01, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 31, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 30, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 27, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 26, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 25, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 24, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 23, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 20, 34,35,34,35,35,,,
Aug 19, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Aug 18, 35,35,34,34,34,,,
Aug 17, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 16, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 13, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 12, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 11, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 10, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 09, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 06, 35,35,35,35,35,,,
Aug 05, 34,35,34,35,35,,,
Aug 04, 35,35,34,34,34,,,
Aug 03, 34,35,34,35,35,,,
Aug 02, 34,35,34,34,34,,,
Jul 30, 35,35,34,34,34,,,
Jul 29, 34,35,34,35,35,,,
Jul 28, 35,35,34,34,34,,,
Jul 27, 35,35,34,35,35,,,
Jul 26, 35,35,34,35,35,,,
Jul 23, 34,35,34,35,35,,,
Jul 22, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jul 21, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jul 20, 33,34,33,34,34,,,
Jul 19, 34,34,33,33,33,,,
Jul 16, 35,35,34,34,34,,,
Jul 15, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jul 14, 34,35,34,34,34,,,
Jul 13, 34,35,34,34,34,,,
Jul 12, 34,35,34,34,34,,,
Jul 09, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jul 08, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jul 07, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jul 06, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jul 02, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jul 01, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 30, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 29, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 28, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 25, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 24, 33,34,33,34,34,,,
Jun 23, 33,34,33,33,33,,,
Jun 22, 33,34,33,33,33,,,
Jun 21, 33,33,33,33,33,,,
Jun 18, 33,33,33,33,33,,,
Jun 17, 34,34,33,33,33,,,
Jun 16, 34,34,33,34,34,,,
Jun 15, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 14, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 11, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 10, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 09, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 08, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 07, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 04, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 03, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 02, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
Jun 01, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
May 28, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
May 27, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
May 26, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
May 25, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
May 24, 34,34,34,34,34,,,
May 21, 34,34,34,34,34,,,

Loading more data

Sours: https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/%5EDJI/history/
Understanding the Stock Market: The NASDAQ, S\u0026P and the Dow

Have you read poetry. - Asked a stocky girl, looking older than the rest, chubby, in hefty tarpaulins and a faded construction team smeared with stripes of past construction. Projects. - Go, get out, help Kristinka drag the solution. From "Kristinka" only the white "fish soup" of the kerchief tied at the back of the head could be seen, swaying behind the.

Similar news:

Okay, look at me, extreme. We looked at each other and smiled. And the wife scratched the tip of her nose with her little finger, she always does this after a quality fuck.



41419 41420 41421 41422 41423