2 kings 23 nkjv

2 kings 23 nkjv DEFAULT

Josiah Restores the Passover

2 Kings 23

21Then the king commanded all the people, saying, h "Keep the Passover to the LORD your God, i as it is written in this Book of the Covenant."22j Such a Passover surely had never been held since the days of the judges who judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel and the kings of Judah.23But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah this Passover was held before the LORD in Jerusalem.

24Moreover Josiah put away those who consulted mediums and spiritists, the household gods and idols, all the abominations that were seen in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, that he might perform the words of k the law which were written in the book l that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD.25m Now before him there was no king like him, who turned to the LORD with all his heart, with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the Law of Moses; nor after him did any arise like him.

26Nevertheless the LORD did not turn from the fierceness of His great wrath, with which His anger was aroused against Judah, n because of all the provocations with which Manasseh had provoked Him.27And the LORD said, "I will also remove Judah from My sight, as o I have removed Israel, and will cast off this city Jerusalem which I have chosen, and the house of which I said, p 'My name shall be there.' "

  1. Cross References
    Numbers
    And they kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the first month, at twilight, in the Wilderness of Sinai; according to all that the LORD commanded Moses, so the children of Israel did.
    Joshua
    Now the children of Israel camped in Gilgal, and kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight on the plains of Jericho.
    2 Chronicles
    Now Josiah kept a Passover to the LORD in Jerusalem, and they slaughtered the Passover lambs on the fourteenth day of the first month.
  2. Cross References
    Exodus
    Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying: 'On the tenth of this month every man shall take for himself a lamb, according to the house of his father, a lamb for a household.
    Leviticus
    On the fourteenth day of the first month at twilight is the LORD's Passover.
    Numbers
    Let the children of Israel keep the Passover at its appointed time.
    Deuteronomy - 8
    Therefore you shall sacrifice the Passover to the LORD your God, from the flock and the herd, in the place where the LORD chooses to put His name.
  3. Cross References
    2 Chronicles
    There had been no Passover kept in Israel like that since the days of Samuel the prophet; and none of the kings of Israel had kept such a Passover as Josiah kept, with the priests and the Levites, all Judah and Israel who were present, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
    2 Chronicles
    In the eighteenth year of the reign of Josiah this Passover was kept.
  4. Cross References
    Leviticus
    Give no regard to mediums and familiar spirits; do not seek after them, to be defiled by them: I am the LORD your God.
    Leviticus
    'A man or a woman who is a medium, or who has familiar spirits, shall surely be put to death; they shall stone them with stones. Their blood shall be upon them.'"
    Deuteronomy
    Or one who conjures spells, or a medium, or a spiritist, or one who calls up the dead.
  5. Cross References
    2 Kings
    Then Hilkiah the high priest said to Shaphan the scribe, "I have found the Book of the Law in the house of the LORD." And Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan, and he read it.
  6. Cross References
    2 Kings
    He trusted in the LORD God of Israel, so that after him was none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor who were before him.
  7. Cross References
    2 Kings
    Because Manasseh king of Judah has done these abominations ( he has acted more wickedly than all the Amorites who were before him, and has also made Judah sin with his idols).
    2 Kings
    Therefore thus says the LORD God of Israel: 'Behold, I am bringing such calamity upon Jerusalem and Judah, that whoever hears of it, both his ears will tingle.
    2 Kings
    Surely at the commandment of the LORD this came upon Judah, to remove them from His sight because of the sins of Manasseh, according to all that he had done.
    2 Kings
    And also because of the innocent blood that he had shed; for he had filled Jerusalem with innocent blood, which the LORD would not pardon.
    Jeremiah
    I will hand them over to trouble, to all kingdoms of the earth, because of Manasseh the son of Hezekiah, king of Judah, for what he did in Jerusalem.
  8. Cross References
    2 Kings
    Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them from His sight; there was none left but the tribe of Judah alone.
    2 Kings
    And the LORD rejected all the descendants of Israel, afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of plunderers, until He had cast them from His sight.
    2 Kings
    Then the king of Assyria carried Israel away captive to Assyria, and put them in Halah and by the Habor, the River of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.
    2 Kings
    And I will stretch over Jerusalem the measuring line of Samaria and the plummet of the house of Ahab; I will wipe Jerusalem as one wipes a dish, wiping it and turning it upside down.
  9. Cross References
    1 Kings
    That Your eyes may be open toward this temple night and day, toward the place of which You said, 'My name shall be there,' that You may hear the prayer which Your servant makes toward this place.
    1 Kings
    And the LORD said to him: "I have heard your prayer and your supplication that you have made before Me; I have consecrated this house which you have built to put My name there forever, and My eyes and My heart will be there perpetually.
    2 Kings
    He also built altars in the house of the LORD, of which the LORD had said, "In Jerusalem I will put My name.
    2 Kings
    He even set a carved image of Asherah that he had made, in the house of which the LORD had said to David and to Solomon his son, "In this house and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, I will put My name forever.
New King James Version (NKJV) Copyright &#; by Thomas Nelson, Inc.

Notes

Sours: https://ebible.com/nkjv/section/

2 Kings 23

New King James Version

Josiah Restores True Worship(A)

23 Now (B)the king sent them to gather all the elders of Judah and Jerusalem to him. The king went up to the house of the Lord with all the men of Judah, and with him all the inhabitants of Jerusalem—the priests and the prophets and all the people, both small and great. And he (C)read in their hearing all the words of the Book of the Covenant (D)which had been found in the house of the Lord.

Then the king (E)stood by a pillar and made a (F)covenant before the Lord, to follow the Lord and to keep His commandments and His testimonies and His statutes, with all his heart and all his soul, to perform the words of this covenant that were written in this book. And all the people took a stand for the covenant. And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, the (G)priests of the second order, and the doorkeepers, to bring (H)out of the temple of the Lord all the articles that were made for Baal, for Asherah, and for all the host of heaven; and he burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried their ashes to Bethel. Then he removed the idolatrous priests whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense on the high places in the cities of Judah and in the places all around Jerusalem, and those who burned incense to Baal, to the sun, to the moon, to the constellations, and to (I)all the host of heaven. And he brought out the (J)wooden image from the house of the Lord, to the Brook Kidron outside Jerusalem, burned it at the Brook Kidron and ground it to (K)ashes, and threw its ashes on (L)the graves of the common people. Then he tore down the ritualbooths (M)of the perverted persons that were in the house of the Lord, (N)where the (O)women wove hangings for the wooden image. And he brought all the priests from the cities of Judah, and defiled the high places where the priests had burned incense, from (P)Geba to Beersheba; also he broke down the high places at the gates which were at the entrance of the Gate of Joshua the governor of the city, which were to the left of the city gate. (Q)Nevertheless the priests of the high places did not come up to the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem, (R)but they ate unleavened bread among their brethren.

10 And he defiled (S)Topheth, which is in (T)the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, (U)that no man might make his son or his daughter (V)pass through the fire to Molech. 11 Then he removed the horses that the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun, at the entrance to the house of the Lord, by the chamber of Nathan-Melech, the officer who was in the court; and he burned the chariots of the sun with fire. 12 The altars that were(W)on the roof, the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars which (X)Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the Lord, the king broke down and pulverized there, and threw their dust into the Brook Kidron. 13 Then the king defiled the high places that were east of Jerusalem, which were on the south of the Mount of Corruption, which (Y)Solomon king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Sidonians, for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the people of Ammon. 14 And he (Z)broke in pieces the sacred pillars and cut down the wooden images, and filled their places with the bones of men.

15 Moreover the altar that was at Bethel, and the high place (AA)which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel sin, had made, both that altar and the high place he broke down; and he burned the high place and crushed it to powder, and burned the wooden image. 16 As Josiah turned, he saw the tombs that were there on the mountain. And he sent and took the bones out of the tombs and burned them on the altar, and defiled it according to the (AB)word of the Lord which the man of God proclaimed, who proclaimed these words. 17 Then he said, “What gravestone is this that I see?”

So the men of the city told him, “It is(AC)the tomb of the man of God who came from Judah and proclaimed these things which you have done against the altar of Bethel.”

18 And he said, “Let him alone; let no one move his bones.” So they let his bones alone, with the bones of (AD)the prophet who came from Samaria.

19 Now Josiah also took away all the shrines of the high places that were(AE)in the cities of Samaria, which the kings of Israel had made to provoke the Lord to anger; and he did to them according to all the deeds he had done in Bethel. 20 (AF)He (AG)executed all the priests of the high places who were there, on the altars, and (AH)burned men’s bones on them; and he returned to Jerusalem.

21 Then the king commanded all the people, saying, (AI)“Keep the Passover to the Lord your God, (AJ)as it is written in this Book of the Covenant.” 22 (AK)Such a Passover surely had never been held since the days of the judges who judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel and the kings of Judah. 23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah this Passover was held before the Lord in Jerusalem. 24 Moreover Josiah put away those who consulted mediums and spiritists, the household gods and idols, all the abominations that were seen in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, that he might perform the words of (AL)the law which were written in the book (AM)that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the Lord. 25 (AN)Now before him there was no king like him, who turned to the Lord with all his heart, with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the Law of Moses; nor after him did any arise like him.

Impending Judgment on Judah

26 Nevertheless the Lord did not turn from the fierceness of His great wrath, with which His anger was aroused against Judah, (AO)because of all the provocations with which Manasseh had provoked Him. 27 And the Lord said, “I will also remove Judah from My sight, as (AP)I have removed Israel, and will cast off this city Jerusalem which I have chosen, and the house of which I said, (AQ)‘My name shall be there.’ ”

Josiah Dies in Battle(AR)

28 Now the rest of the acts of Josiah, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? 29 (AS)In his days Pharaoh Necho king of Egypt went to the aid of the king of Assyria, to the River Euphrates; and King Josiah went against him. And Pharaoh Necho killed him at (AT)Megiddo when he (AU)confronted him. 30 (AV)Then his servants moved his body in a chariot from Megiddo, brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own tomb. And (AW)the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, anointed him, and made him king in his father’s place.

The Reign and Captivity of Jehoahaz(AX)

31 (AY)Jehoahaz was twenty-three years old when he became king, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was(AZ)Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. 32 And he did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that his fathers had done. 33 Now Pharaoh Necho put him in prison (BA)at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and he imposed on the land a tribute of one hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold. 34 Then (BB)Pharaoh Necho made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in place of his father Josiah, and (BC)changed his name to (BD)Jehoiakim. And Pharaoh took Jehoahaz (BE)and went to Egypt, and he died there.

Jehoiakim Reigns in Judah(BF)

35 So Jehoiakim gave (BG)the silver and gold to Pharaoh; but he taxed the land to give money according to the command of Pharaoh; he exacted the silver and gold from the people of the land, from every one according to his assessment, to give it to Pharaoh Necho. 36 (BH)Jehoiakim was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Zebudah the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. 37 And he did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that his fathers had done.

Cross references

  1. 2 Kings : 2 Chr. —
  2. 2 Kings : 2 Sam. ; 2 Chr. , 30
  3. 2 Kings : Deut. –13
  4. 2 Kings : 2 Kin.
  5. 2 Kings : 2 Kin.
  6. 2 Kings : 2 Kin.
  7. 2 Kings : 2 Kin. ; Jer.
  8. 2 Kings : 2 Kin. –7
  9. 2 Kings : 2 Kin.
  10. 2 Kings : 2 Kin.
  11. 2 Kings : Ex.
  12. 2 Kings : 2 Chr.
  13. 2 Kings : 1 Kin. ;
  14. 2 Kings : Ex. , 26; Ezek.
  15. 2 Kings : Ex.
  16. 2 Kings : Josh. ; 1 Kin.
  17. 2 Kings : [Ezek. –14]
  18. 2 Kings : 1 Sam.
  19. 2 Kings : Is. ; Jer. , 32
  20. 2 Kings : Josh.
  21. 2 Kings : [Lev. ; Deut. ]; Ezek. –39
  22. 2 Kings : 2 Kin.
  23. 2 Kings : Jer. ; Zeph.
  24. 2 Kings : 2 Kin. ; 2 Chr.
  25. 2 Kings : 1 Kin. –7
  26. 2 Kings : [Ex. ; Deut. –25]
  27. 2 Kings : 1 Kin. –33
  28. 2 Kings : 1 Kin.
  29. 2 Kings : 1 Kin. , 30, 31
  30. 2 Kings : 1 Kin. , 31
  31. 2 Kings : 2 Chr. , 7
  32. 2 Kings : 1 Kin.
  33. 2 Kings : [Ex. ]; 1 Kin. ; 2 Kin. ;
  34. 2 Kings : 2 Chr.
  35. 2 Kings : Num. ; Josh. ; 2 Chr.
  36. 2 Kings : Ex. ; Lev. ; Num. ; Deut. –8
  37. 2 Kings : 2 Chr. , 19
  38. 2 Kings : [Lev. ; ]; Deut.
  39. 2 Kings : 2 Kin.
  40. 2 Kings : 2 Kin.
  41. 2 Kings : 2 Kin. , 12; , 4; Jer.
  42. 2 Kings : 2 Kin. , 20; ;
  43. 2 Kings : 1 Kin. ; ; 2 Kin. , 7
  44. 2 Kings : 2 Chr. —
  45. 2 Kings : 2 Chr. ; Jer. ;
  46. 2 Kings : Judg. ; Zech.
  47. 2 Kings : 2 Kin.
  48. 2 Kings : 2 Chr. ; 2 Kin.
  49. 2 Kings : 2 Chr. –4
  50. 2 Kings : 2 Chr. –4
  51. 2 Kings : 1 Chr. ; Jer.
  52. 2 Kings : 2 Kin.
  53. 2 Kings : 2 Kin. ; Jer.
  54. 2 Kings : 2 Chr.
  55. 2 Kings : 2 Kin. ; Dan.
  56. 2 Kings : Matt.
  57. 2 Kings : Jer. , 12; Ezek. , 4
  58. 2 Kings : 2 Chr. –8
  59. 2 Kings : 2 Kin.
  60. 2 Kings : 2 Chr. ; Jer. , 19;
Sours: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2%20Kings%&version=NKJV
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2 Kings New King James Version

231 Now the king sent them to gather all the elders of Judah and Jerusalem to him. 2 The king went up to the house of the Lord with all the men of Judah, and with him all the inhabitants of Jerusalem--the priests and the prophets and all the people, both small and great. And he read in their hearing all the words of the Book of the Covenant which had been found in the house of the Lord. 3 Then the king stood by a pillar and made a covenant before the Lord, to follow the Lord and to keep His commandments and His testimonies and His statutes, with all his heart and all his soul, to perform the words of this covenant that were written in this book. And all the people took a stand for the covenant.

Josiah's Reforms

4 And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, the priests of the second order, and the doorkeepers, to bring out of the temple of the Lord all the articles that were made for Baal, for Asherah, and for all the host of heaven; and he burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried their ashes to Bethel 5 Then he removed the idolatrous priests whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense on the high places in the cities of Judah and in the places all around Jerusalem, and those who burned incense to Baal, to the sun, to the moon, to the constellations, and to all the host of heaven. 6 And he brought out the wooden image from the house of the Lord, to the Brook Kidron outside Jerusalem, burned it at the Brook Kidron and ground it to ashes, and threw its ashes on the graves of the common people. 7 Then he tore down the ritual booths of the perverted persons that were in the house of the Lord, where the women wove hangings for the wooden image. 8 And he brought all the priests from the cities of Judah, and defiled the high places where the priests had burned incense, from Geba to Beersheba; also he broke down the high places at the gates which were at the entrance of the Gate of Joshua the governor of the city, which were to the left of the city gate. 9 Nevertheless the priests of the high places did not come up to the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem, but they ate unleavened bread among their brethren. 10 And he defiled Topheth, which is in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter pass through the fire to Molech. 11 Then he removed the horses that the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun, at the entrance to the house of the Lord, by the chamber of Nathan-Melech, the officer who was in the court; and he burned the chariots of the sun with fire. 12 The altars that were on the roof, the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars which Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the Lord, the king broke down and pulverized there, and threw their dust into the Brook Kidron. 13 Then the king defiled the high places that were east of Jerusalem, which were on the south of the Mount of Corruption, which Solomon king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Sidonians, for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the people of Ammon. 14 And he broke in pieces the sacred pillars and cut down the wooden images, and filled their places with the bones of men 15 Moreover the altar that was at Bethel, and the high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel sin, had made, both that altar and the high place he broke down; and he burned the high place and crushed it to powder, and burned the wooden image. 16 As Josiah turned, he saw the tombs that were there on the mountain. And he sent and took the bones out of the tombs and burned them on the altar, and defiled it according to the word of the Lord which the man of God proclaimed, who proclaimed these words. 17 Then he said, "What gravestone is this that I see?" So the men of the city told him, "It is the tomb of the man of God who came from Judah and proclaimed these things which you have done against the altar of Bethel." 18 And he said, "Let him alone; let no one move his bones." So they let his bones alone, with the bones of the prophet who came from Samaria. 19 Now Josiah also took away all the shrines of the high places that were in the cities of Samaria, which the kings of Israel had made to provoke the Lord to anger; and he did to them according to all the deeds he had done in Bethel 20 He executed all the priests of the high places who were there, on the altars, and burned men&#;s bones on them; and he returned to Jerusalem.

The Passover Kept

21 Then the king commanded all the people, saying, "Keep the Passover to the Lord your God, as it is written in this Book of the Covenant. 22 Such a Passover surely had never been held since the days of the judges who judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel and the kings of Judah. 23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah this Passover was held before the Lord in Jerusalem.

The LORD's Persistent Anger against Judah

24 Moreover Josiah put away those who consulted mediums and spiritists, the household gods and idols, all the abominations that were seen in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, that he might perform the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the Lord.

25 Now before him there was no king like him, who turned to the Lord with all his heart, with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the Law of Moses; nor after him did any arise like him. 26 Nevertheless the Lord did not turn from the fierceness of His great wrath, with which His anger was aroused against Judah, because of all the provocations with which Manasseh had provoked Him. 27 And the Lord said, "I will also remove Judah from My sight, as I have removed Israel, and will cast off this city Jerusalem which I have chosen, and the house of which I said, &#;My name shall be there.&#; "

The Death of Josiah

28 Now the rest of the acts of Josiah, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? 29 In his days Pharaoh Necho king of Egypt went to the aid of the king of Assyria, to the River Euphrates; and King Josiah went against him. And Pharaoh Necho killed him at Megiddo when he confronted him. 30 Then his servants moved his body in a chariot from Megiddo, brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own tomb. And the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, anointed him, and made him king in his father&#;s place.

The Reign and Dethronement of Jehoahaz

31 Jehoahaz was twenty-three years old when he became king, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. His mother&#;s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. 32 And he did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that his fathers had done. 33 Now Pharaoh Necho put him in prison at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and he imposed on the land a tribute of one hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold. 34 Then Pharaoh Necho made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in place of his father Josiah, and changed his name to Jehoiakim. And Pharaoh took Jehoahaz and went to Egypt, and he died there. 35 So Jehoiakim gave the silver and gold to Pharaoh; but he taxed the land to give money according to the command of Pharaoh; he exacted the silver and gold from the people of the land, from every one according to his assessment, to give it to Pharaoh Necho.

The Reign of Jehoiakim

36 Jehoiakim was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother&#;s name was Zebudah the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah 37 And he did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that his fathers had done.

241 In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his vassal for three years. Then he turned and rebelled against him. 2 And the Lord sent against him raiding bands of Chaldeans, bands of Syrians, bands of Moabites, and bands of the people of Ammon; He sent them against Judah to destroy it, according to the word of the Lord which He had spoken by His servants the prophets. 3 Surely at the commandment of the Lord this came upon Judah, to remove them from His sight because of the sins of Manasseh, according to all that he had done, 4 and also because of the innocent blood that he had shed; for he had filled Jerusalem with innocent blood, which the Lord would not pardon. 5 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? 6 So Jehoiakim rested with his fathers. Then Jehoiachin his son reigned in his place. 7 And the king of Egypt did not come out of his land anymore, for the king of Babylon had taken all that belonged to the king of Egypt from the Brook of Egypt to the River Euphrates.

Jehoiachin and the Nobles Taken Captive to Babylon

8 Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months. His mother&#;s name was Nehushta the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. 9 And he did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that his father had done. 10 At that time the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up against Jerusalem, and the city was besieged. 11 And Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came against the city, as his servants were besieging it. 12 Then Jehoiachin king of Judah, his mother, his servants, his princes, and his officers went out to the king of Babylon; and the king of Babylon, in the eighth year of his reign, took him prisoner. 13 And he carried out from there all the treasures of the house of the Lord and the treasures of the king&#;s house, and he cut in pieces all the articles of gold which Solomon king of Israel had made in the temple of the Lord, as the Lord had said. 14 Also he carried into captivity all Jerusalem: all the captains and all the mighty men of valor, ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths. None remained except the poorest people of the land. 15 And he carried Jehoiachin captive to Babylon. The king&#;s mother, the king&#;s wives, his officers, and the mighty of the land he carried into captivity from Jerusalem to Babylon. 16 All the valiant men, seven thousand, and craftsmen and smiths, one thousand, all who were strong and fit for war, these the king of Babylon brought captive to Babylon. 17 Then the king of Babylon made Mattaniah, Jehoiachin&#;s uncle, king in his place, and changed his name to Zedekiah.

The Reign of Zedekiah

18 Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother&#;s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. 19 He also did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that Jehoiakim had done. 20 For because of the anger of the Lord this happened in Jerusalem and Judah, that He finally cast them out from His presence. Then Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.

The Fall of Jerusalem

251 Now it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and all his army came against Jerusalem and encamped against it; and they built a siege wall against it all around. 2 So the city was besieged until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah. 3 By the ninth day of the fourth month the famine had become so severe in the city that there was no food for the people of the land. 4 Then the city wall was broken through, and all the men of war fled at night by way of the gate between two walls, which was by the king&#;s garden, even though the Chaldeans were still encamped all around against the city. And the king went by way of the plain. 5 But the army of the Chaldeans pursued the king, and they overtook him in the plains of Jericho. All his army was scattered from him. 6 So they took the king and brought him up to the king of Babylon at Riblah, and they pronounced judgment on him. 7 Then they killed the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, put out the eyes of Zedekiah, bound him with bronze fetters, and took him to Babylon.

The Captivity of Judah

8 And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month (which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon), Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. 9 He burned the house of the Lord and the king&#;s house; all the houses of Jerusalem, that is, all the houses of the great, he burned with fire. 10 And all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down the walls of Jerusalem all around. 11 Then Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried away captive the rest of the people who remained in the city and the defectors who had deserted to the king of Babylon, with the rest of the multitude. 12 But the captain of the guard left some of the poor of the land as vinedressers and farmers. 13 The bronze pillars that were in the house of the Lord, and the carts and the bronze Sea that were in the house of the Lord, the Chaldeans broke in pieces, and carried their bronze to Babylon. 14 They also took away the pots, the shovels, the trimmers, the spoons, and all the bronze utensils with which the priests ministered. 15 The firepans and the basins, the things of solid gold and solid silver, the captain of the guard took away. 16 The two pillars, one Sea, and the carts, which Solomon had made for the house of the Lord, the bronze of all these articles was beyond measure. 17 The height of one pillar was eighteen cubits, and the capital on it was of bronze. The height of the capital was three cubits, and the network and pomegranates all around the capital were all of bronze. The second pillar was the same, with a network. 18 And the captain of the guard took Seraiah the chief priest, Zephaniah the second priest, and the three doorkeepers. 19 He also took out of the city an officer who had charge of the men of war, five men of the king&#;s close associates who were found in the city, the chief recruiting officer of the army, who mustered the people of the land, and sixty men of the people of the land who were found in the city. 20 So Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, took these and brought them to the king of Babylon at Riblah. 21 Then the king of Babylon struck them and put them to death at Riblah in the land of Hamath. Thus Judah was carried away captive from its own land.

The Remnant Flee to Egypt

22 Then he made Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, governor over the people who remained in the land of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had left. 23 Now when all the captains of the armies, they and their men, heard that the king of Babylon had made Gedaliah governor, they came to Gedaliah at Mizpah--Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, Johanan the son of Careah, Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men. 24 And Gedaliah took an oath before them and their men, and said to them, "Do not be afraid of the servants of the Chaldeans. Dwell in the land and serve the king of Babylon, and it shall be well with you." 25 But it happened in the seventh month that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the royal family, came with ten men and struck and killed Gedaliah, the Jews, as well as the Chaldeans who were with him at Mizpah. 26 And all the people, small and great, and the captains of the armies, arose and went to Egypt; for they were afraid of the Chaldeans.

Jehoiachin Released and Honored in Babylon

27 Now it came to pass in the thirty-seventh year of the captivity of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, that Evil-Merodach king of Babylon, in the year that he began to reign, released Jehoiachin king of Judah from prison. 28 He spoke kindly to him, and gave him a more prominent seat than those of the kings who were with him in Babylon. 29 So Jehoiachin changed from his prison garments, and he ate bread regularly before the king all the days of his life. 30 And as for his provisions, there was a regular ration given him by the king, a portion for each day, all the days of his life.

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2 Kings


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Chapter 23

1 And the king sent, and they gathered unto him all the elders of Judah and of Jerusalem.

2 And the king went up into the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great: and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covenant which was found in the house of the LORD.

3 And the king stood by a pillar, and made a covenant before the LORD, to walk after the LORD, and to keep his commandments and his testimonies and his statutes with all their heart and all their soul, to perform the words of this covenant that were written in this book. And all the people stood to the covenant.

4 And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, and the priests of the second order, and the keepers of the door, to bring forth out of the temple of the LORD all the vessels that were made for Baal, and for the grove, and for all the host of heaven: and he burned them without Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried the ashes of them unto Bethel.

5 And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets, and to all the host of heaven.

6 And he brought out the grove from the house of the LORD, without Jerusalem, unto the brook Kidron, and burned it at the brook Kidron, and stamped it small to powder, and cast the powder thereof upon the graves of the children of the people.

7 And he brake down the houses of the sodomites, that were by the house of the LORD, where the women wove hangings for the grove.

8 And he brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah, and defiled the high places where the priests had burned incense, from Geba to Beersheba, and brake down the high places of the gates that were in the entering in of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city, which were on a man's left hand at the gate of the city.

9 Nevertheless the priests of the high places came not up to the altar of the LORD in Jerusalem, but they did eat of the unleavened bread among their brethren.

10 And he defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the children of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire to Molech.

11 And he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun, at the entering in of the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nathanmelech the chamberlain, which was in the suburbs, and burned the chariots of the sun with fire.

12 And the altars that were on the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars which Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the LORD, did the king beat down, and brake them down from thence, and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron.

13 And the high places that were before Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of the mount of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon, did the king defile.

14 And he brake in pieces the images, and cut down the groves, and filled their places with the bones of men.

15 Moreover the altar that was at Bethel, and the high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, had made, both that altar and the high place he brake down, and burned the high place, and stamped it small to powder, and burned the grove.

16 And as Josiah turned himself, he spied the sepulchres that were there in the mount, and sent, and took the bones out of the sepulchres, and burned them upon the altar, and polluted it, according to the word of the LORD which the man of God proclaimed, who proclaimed these words.

17 Then he said, What title is that that I see? And the men of the city told him, It is the sepulchre of the man of God, which came from Judah, and proclaimed these things that thou hast done against the altar of Bethel.

18 And he said, Let him alone; let no man move his bones. So they let his bones alone, with the bones of the prophet that came out of Samaria.

19 And all the houses also of the high places that were in the cities of Samaria, which the kings of Israel had made to provoke the LORD to anger, Josiah took away, and did to them according to all the acts that he had done in Bethel.

20 And he slew all the priests of the high places that were there upon the altars, and burned men's bones upon them, and returned to Jerusalem.

21 And the king commanded all the people, saying, Keep the passover unto the LORD your God, as it is written in the book of this covenant.

22 Surely there was not holden such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah;

23 But in the eighteenth year of king Josiah, wherein this passover was holden to the LORD in Jerusalem.

24 Moreover the workers with familiar spirits, and the wizards, and the images, and the idols, and all the abominations that were spied in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away, that he might perform the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD.

25 And like unto him was there no king before him, that turned to the LORD with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the law of Moses; neither after him arose there any like him.

26 Notwithstanding the LORD turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath, wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah, because of all the provocations that Manasseh had provoked him withal.

27 And the LORD said, I will remove Judah also out of my sight, as I have removed Israel, and will cast off this city Jerusalem which I have chosen, and the house of which I said, My name shall be there.

28 Now the rest of the acts of Josiah, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?

29 In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josiah went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him.

30 And his servants carried him in a chariotdead from Megiddo, and brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own sepulchre. And the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and anointed him, and made him king in his father's stead.

31 Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.

32 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done.

33 And Pharaohnechoh put him in bands at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and put the land to a tribute of an hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold.

34 And Pharaohnechoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father, and turned his name to Jehoiakim, and took Jehoahaz away: and he came to Egypt, and died there.

35 And Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold to Pharaoh; but he taxed the land to give the money according to the commandment of Pharaoh: he exacted the silver and the gold of the people of the land, of every one according to his taxation, to give it unto Pharaohnechoh.

36 Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when he began to reign; and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Zebudah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah.

37 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done.

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Nkjv 2 kings 23

2 Kings 23 &#; The Reforms of Josiah

A. The covenant and the reforms of King Josiah.

1. () The covenant is renewed.

Now the king sent them to gather all the elders of Judah and Jerusalem to him. The king went up to the house of the LORD with all the men of Judah, and with him all the inhabitants of Jerusalem— the priests and the prophets and all the people, both small and great. And he read in their hearing all the words of the Book of the Covenant which had been found in the house of the LORD. Then the king stood by a pillar and made a covenant before the LORD, to follow the LORD and to keep His commandments and His testimonies and His statutes, with all his heart and all his soul, to perform the words of this covenant that were written in this book. And all the people took a stand for the covenant.

a. The king sent them to gather all the elders of Judah: Josiah heard the promise of both eventual judgment and the immediate delay of judgment. He did not respond with indifference or simple contentment that he would not see the judgment in his day. He wanted to get the kingdom right with God, and he knew that he could not do it all by himself – he needed all the elders of Judah to join in broken repentance with him.

b. And he read in their hearing all the words of the Book: The king did this himself. He was so concerned that the nation would hear the word of God that he read it to them himself.

c. The king stood by a pillar and made a covenant before the LORD, to follow the LORD: King Josiah stood before the people and publicly declared his commitment to obey the word of God to the very best of his ability (with all his heart and all his soul).

i. “[He] made a covenant is literally ‘[he] cut a covenant,’ which goes back to the practice of cutting the carcass of an animal and separating the parts so the contracting parties could seal their agreement by walking between them (cf. Genesis ; Jeremiah ).” (Dilday)

d. And all the people took a stand for the covenant: They did this in response to the example and leadership of King Josiah. We do not read of any command for the people to do this; they did it spontaneously as they followed the king’s example and leadership.

i. This kind of mass response and commitment to the LORD cannot be commanded, but that does not mean that there is no part for man to play. It was clearly the work of God among the people, but God worked through the example and leadership of King Josiah.

ii. The fact that this happened among all the people means that this was a special work of the Holy Spirit. The Bible tells us that there are times when the Holy Spirit comes upon people as a group, which is a different work than the individual filling of the Spirit. There are times when the Holy Spirit seems to work on a group, and we should pray for such moving of the Holy Spirit today.

· Acts And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.

· Acts And when they had prayed, the place where they were assembled together was shaken; and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and they spoke the word of God with boldness.

· Acts While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell upon all those who heard the word.

iii. “The ceremony compares with the basic Mizpah covenant (1 Samuel ; ) and the renewal of the covenant at Shechem (Joshua 24), both of which marked turning points in Jewish history.” (Wiseman)

2. () The extent of King Josiah’s reformation in Judah.

And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, the priests of the second order, and the doorkeepers, to bring out of the temple of the LORD all the articles that were made for Baal, for Asherah, and for all the host of heaven; and he burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried their ashes to Bethel. Then he removed the idolatrous priests whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense on the high places in the cities of Judah and in the places all around Jerusalem, and those who burned incense to Baal, to the sun, to the moon, to the constellations, and to all the host of heaven. And he brought out the wooden image from the house of the LORD, to the Brook Kidron outside Jerusalem, burned it at the Brook Kidron and ground it to ashes, and threw its ashes on the graves of the common people. Then he tore down the ritual booths of the perverted persons that were in the house of the LORD, where the women wove hangings for the wooden image. And he brought all the priests from the cities of Judah, and defiled the high places where the priests had burned incense, from Geba to Beersheba; also he broke down the high places at the gates which were at the entrance of the Gate of Joshua the governor of the city, which were to the left of the city gate. Nevertheless the priests of the high places did not come up to the altar of the LORD in Jerusalem, but they ate unleavened bread among their brethren. And he defiled Topheth, which is in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter pass through the fire to Molech. Then he removed the horses that the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun, at the entrance to the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nathan-Melech, the officer who was in the court; and he burned the chariots of the sun with fire. The altars that were on the roof, the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars which Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the LORD, the king broke down and pulverized there, and threw their dust into the Brook Kidron. Then the king defiled the high places that were east of Jerusalem, which were on the south of the Mount of Corruption, which Solomon king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Sidonians, for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the people of Ammon. And he broke in pieces the sacred pillars and cut down the wooden images, and filled their places with the bones of men.

a. To bring out of the temple of the LORD all of the articles that were made for Baal, for Asherah, and for all the host of heaven: This shows us how deep idolatry was in Judah. There were idols dedicated to Baal, to Asherah, and to all the host of heaven in the very temple itself. From this account, it seems that Josiah began the cleansing reforms at the center and worked outwards.

i. Threw its ashes on the graves of the common people: “Throwing the ashes of the idol on the graves of the common people outside the city was not intended to defile their graves, but the very opposite. Any contact with death was believed to be an act of defilement, so scattering the dust on the graves served to defile the idols.” (Dilday)

b. Then he removed the idolatrous priests: Josiah’s reforms did not only remove sinful things, but also the sinful people that promoted and permitted these sinful things. The idols that filled the temple did not get there or stay there on their own – there were idolatrous priests who were responsible for these sinful practices.

i. Any thorough reformation can not only deal with sinful things; it must also deal with sinful people. If sinful people are not dealt with, they will quickly bring back the sinful things that were righteously removed.

ii. The idolatrous priests: “Probably they were an order made by the idolatrous kings of Judah, and called kemarim, from camar, which signifies to be scorched, shriveled together, made dark, or black, because their business was constantly to attend sacrificial fires, and probably they wore black garments.” (Clarke)

c. Then he tore down the ritual booths of the perverted persons: Supposedly sacred prostitution was an integral part of the worship of many of these pagan idols. The temple had become a brothel and King Josiah corrected this disgraceful perversion.

i. Perverted persons: “The Hebrew word basically denotes ‘holy, set apart’, here clearly for non-Yahwistic purposes.” (Wiseman) “We have already often met with these kedeshim or consecrated persons.” (Clarke)

ii. “The word translated ‘hangings’ likely refers to a fabric woven by idol worshippers for curtains behind which the ritual obscenities were practiced.” (Dilday)

d. He defiled Topheth… he removed the horses that the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun… he burned the chariots of the sun… the king broke down and pulverized… he broke in pieces the sacred pillars: This passage reveals something of the extent of official idolatry in Judah. It was widespread, elaborate, and heavily invested in. Previous kings of Judah had spent a lot of time and money to honor these pagan idols. It took a long, dedicated commitment on the part of King Josiah to do this work.

i. “The utilization of the horse in the solar cultus was widespread in the ancient Near East, being attested particularly in Assyrian and Aramean inscriptional and artifactual sources.” (Patterson and Austel)

ii. “Since the symbolic wooden pole could be burned and pulverized, the scattering of the ashes over peoples’ graves served to despise both the god and its worshippers (cf. Jeremiah ).” (Wiseman)

iii. And he defiled Topheth, which is in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom: “Here it appears the sacred rites of Molech were performed, and to this all the filth of the city was carried, and perpetual fires were kept up in order to consume it. Hence, it has been considered a type of hell; and in this sense it is used in the New Testament.” (Clarke)

iv. “The rabbins say that Topheth had its name from toph, a drum, because instruments of this kind were used to drown the cries of the children that were put into the burning arms of Molech, to be scorched to death.” (Clarke)

3. () Josiah extends his reformation to Bethel and Samaria.

Moreover the altar that was at Bethel, and the high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel sin, had made, both that altar and the high place he broke down; and he burned the high place and crushed it to powder, and burned the wooden image. As Josiah turned, he saw the tombs that were there on the mountain. And he sent and took the bones out of the tombs and burned them on the altar, and defiled it according to the word of the LORD which the man of God proclaimed, who proclaimed these words. Then he said, “What gravestone is this that I see?” So the men of the city told him, “It is the tomb of the man of God who came from Judah and proclaimed these things which you have done against the altar of Bethel.” And he said, “Let him alone; let no one move his bones.” So they let his bones alone, with the bones of the prophet who came from Samaria. Now Josiah also took away all the shrines of the high places that were in the cities of Samaria, which the kings of Israel had made to provoke the LORD to anger; and he did to them according to all the deeds he had done in Bethel. He executed all the priests of the high places who were there, on the altars, and burned men’s bones on them; and he returned to Jerusalem.

a. Moreover the altar that was at Bethel: King Josiah was so diligent in his reforms that he took down altars located in the former kingdom of Israel. He removed the pagan altar at Bethel that Jeroboam set up hundreds of years earlier.

i. Politically speaking, this was possible because the Assyrian Empire was weak in the days of Josiah. Josiah could intervene in this area that was subject to the Assyrian Empire because they were concerned with other things and could not stop him.

ii. “The altar at Bethel, which Josiah’s reform also reached, had been established by Jeroboam at Solomon’s death; but in the course of time a purely Canaanite worship had apparently replaced the earlier worship of the golden calf.” (Patterson and Austel)

b. What gravestone is this that I see: This is the remarkable fulfillment of a prophecy made hundreds of years earlier. The words of this anonymous prophet are recorded in 1 Kings Behold, a child, Josiah by name, shall be born to the house of David; and on you he shall sacrifice the priests of the high places who burn incense on you. Josiah was careful to honor the gravestone of this anonymous prophet.

4. () Josiah keeps the Passover on a national basis.

Then the king commanded all the people, saying, “Keep the Passover to the LORD your God, as it is written in this Book of the Covenant.” Such a Passover surely had never been held since the days of the judges who judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel and the kings of Judah. But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah this Passover was held before the LORD in Jerusalem.

a. Keep the Passover to the LORD your God, as it is written in this Book of the Covenant: Josiah could not command heart obedience to the word of God, but he could establish a national holiday to observe the Passover.

b. Such a Passover surely had never been held: The celebration of the Passover had become so neglected that this was a remarkable observance.

i. The Passover remembered the central act of redemption in the Old Testament: God’s deliverance of Israel from Egypt in the days of Moses. Their neglect of the Passover proved that they had neglected to remember the LORD’s work of redemption for them. It was as if a group of modern Christians had completely forgotten communion or the celebration of the Lord’s Supper, which remembers Jesus’ work of redemption for us.

5. () The vast extent of Josiah’s reforms.

Moreover Josiah put away those who consulted mediums and spiritists, the household gods and idols, all the abominations that were seen in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, that he might perform the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD. Now before him there was no king like him, who turned to the LORD with all his heart, with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the Law of Moses; nor after him did any arise like him.

a. Moreover Josiah put away: King Josiah also fulfilled the commandment of God to put away those who practiced the occult and spiritism. His passion was to perform the words of the law which were written in the book.

i. The great reformation in the days of Josiah is an example of simply going back to the word of God and seeking to base all thought and practice on what God has revealed in His word. It was an Old Testament example of the Reformation principle of sola scriptura.

b. There was no king like him: Josiah was one of the most remarkable kings of Judah, unique in the strength of his obedience and commitment. He stands as a wonderful example of what a leader can and should be.

i. There were other great kings of Judah and the united kingdom of Israel – such as David and Hezekiah. Yet one thing that made Josiah unique was his godliness in his day. He lived in a remarkably wicked time, so his godliness was remarkable against the backdrop of his times. “David was a greater but not a better man than Josiah.” (Clarke)

ii. Nevertheless, not long after his reign, Judah was severely judged by the LORD. This shows that despite all Josiah’s efforts, there was an outward conformity among the people of Judah, yet their hearts were not really turned towards the LORD. “They pretended and professed to do so; but most of them dissembled and dealt deceitfully, not turning to God with their whole hearts, as good Jeremiah complaineth.” (Trapp)

iii. Jeremiah ministered in the days of Josiah, and his message to the people of Israel shows this. Through Jeremiah, God promised that if the people genuinely turned to Him that they would dwell in the land securely (Jeremiah ). Nevertheless, God looked at the people of Judah and said: Judah has not turned to Me with her whole heart, but in pretense. (Jeremiah )

6. () God’s promise of judgment.

Nevertheless the LORD did not turn from the fierceness of His great wrath, with which His anger was aroused against Judah, because of all the provocations with which Manasseh had provoked Him. And the LORD said, “I will also remove Judah from My sight, as I have removed Israel, and will cast off this city Jerusalem which I have chosen, and the house of which I said, ‘My name shall be there.’”

a. Nevertheless the LORD did not turn from the fierceness of His great wrath: God did not turn from His wrath because despite Josiah’s personal godliness, and his righteous example and leadership, the people of Judah still provoked Him, loving the sins introduced during the wicked days of Manasseh, Josiah’s grandfather.

i. “From consultation with Huldah he knew that there would be no deep note or lasting value in their reformation. That fact, however, did not give him the right to refuse to follow the light which had come to him.” (Morgan)

b. I will also remove Judah from My sight: God promised to bring Judah down, conquering by another and sending them into exile.

B. Josiah’s end and his successors.

1. () Josiah dies in battle against Egypt.

Now the rest of the acts of Josiah, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? In his days Pharaoh Necho king of Egypt went to the aid of the king of Assyria, to the River Euphrates; and King Josiah went against him. And Pharaoh Necho killed him at Megiddo when he confronted him. Then his servants moved his body in a chariot from Megiddo, brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own tomb. And the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, anointed him, and made him king in his father’s place.

a. In his days Pharaoh Necho king of Egypt went to the aid of the king of Assyria: This was part of the geopolitical struggle between the declining Assyrian Empire and the emerging Babylonian Empire. The Assyrians made an alliance with the Egyptians to protect against the growing power of the Babylonians.

b. King Josiah went against him… Pharaoh Necho killed him: 2 Chronicles tells us more about this. Pharaoh warned Josiah against battling against him saying, What have I to do with you, king of Judah? I have not come against you this day. Josiah stubbornly refused to hear this warning (which was actually from God) and disguised himself in battle – yet he was still shot by archers and died. This was a sad end to one of the great kings of Judah.

i. “It was not of faith, else why ‘disguise’ himself? There is no record of any prayer before the battle, as in the case of so many of his godly ancestors; and this rash act of Josiah seems unaccountable.” (Knapp)

ii. “The exact place of the battle seems to have been Hadadrimmon, in the valley of Megiddo, for there, Zechariah tells us, was the great mourning for Josiah.” (Clarke)

c. And the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, anointed him, and made him king in his father’s place: “The regular succession to the throne of Judah ceased with the lamented Josiah. Jehoahaz was not the eldest son of the late king. Johanan and Jehoiakim were both older than he (1 Chronicles ). He was made king by popular choice: it was the preference of the multitude, not the appointment of God.” (Knapp)

i. “Thus the people’s sins were the true cause why God gave them wicked kings, whom he suffered to do wickedly, that they might bring the long deserved and threatened punishment upon themselves and their people.” (Poole)

2. () The evil reign of Jehoahaz and his captivity to Egypt.

Jehoahaz was twenty-three years old when he became king, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done. Now Pharaoh Necho put him in prison at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and he imposed on the land a tribute of one hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold. Then Pharaoh Necho made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in place of his father Josiah, and changed his name to Jehoiakim. And Pharaoh took Jehoahaz and went to Egypt, and he died there.

a. He did evil in the sight of the LORD: The reforms of King Josiah were wonderful, but they were not a long-lasting revival. His own son Jehoahaz did not follow in his godly ways.

i. “Jehoahaz (‘Yahweh has seized’) was probably a throne name, for his personal name was Shallum (Jeremiah ; 1 Chronicles ). The practice of primogeniture was overridden in view of his older brother (Eliakim) showing anti-Egyptian tendencies.” (Wiseman)

ii. “His name is omitted from among those of our Lord’s ancestors in Matthew 1… which may imply that God did not recognize Jehoahaz, the people’s choice, as being in a true sense the successor.” (Knapp)

b. Now Pharaoh Necho put him in prison: After the defeat of King Josiah in battle, Pharaoh was able to dominate Judah and make it effectively a vassal kingdom and a buffer against the growing Babylonian Empire. He imposed on the land a tribute and put on the throne of Judah a puppet king, a brother of Jehoahaz (Eliakim, renamed Jehoiakim).

3. () The reign of Jehoiakim over Judah.

So Jehoiakim gave the silver and gold to Pharaoh; but he taxed the land to give money according to the command of Pharaoh; he exacted the silver and gold from the people of the land, from every one according to his assessment, to give it to Pharaoh Necho. Jehoiakim was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Zebudah the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done.

a. He taxed the land according to the command of Pharaoh: Jehoiakim was nothing more than a puppet king presiding over a vassal kingdom under the Egyptians. He imposed heavy taxes on the people and paid the money to the Egyptians, as required.

i. “Nechoh had placed him there as a viceroy, simply to raise and collect his taxes.” (Clarke)

ii. “Yet at the same time Jehoiakim was wasting resources on the construction of a new palace by forced labour (Jeremiah ).” (Wiseman)

b. He did evil in the sight of the LORD: Jehoiakim, like his brother Jehoahaz, did not follow the godly example of his father Josiah.

i. Jeremiah describes the great ungodliness of Jehoiakim – how he even burned a scroll of God’s word. In response to this, Jeremiah received this message from God: And you shall say to Jehoiakim king of Judah, “Thus says the LORD: ‘You have burned this scroll, saying, “Why have you written in it that the king of Babylon will certainly come and destroy this land, and cause man and beast to cease from here?”’ Therefore thus says the LORD concerning Jehoiakim king of Judah: ‘He shall have no one to sit on the throne of David, and his dead body shall be cast out to the heat of the day and the frost of the night.’” (Jeremiah )

ii. “To all his former evils he added this, that he slew Urijah the prophet (Jeremiah , 23).” (Trapp)

© David Guzik &#; No distribution beyond personal use without permission

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2 Kings

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23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah this Passover was held before the Lord in Jerusalem.

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2 Kings — The New International Version (NIV)

23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah, this Passover was celebrated to the Lord in Jerusalem.

2 Kings — English Standard Version (ESV)

23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah this Passover was kept to the Lord in Jerusalem.

2 Kings — King James Version (KJV )

23 But in the eighteenth year of king Josiah, wherein this passover was holden to the Lord in Jerusalem.

2 Kings — New Living Translation (NLT)

23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah’s reign, this Passover was celebrated to the Lord in Jerusalem.

2 Kings — New Century Version (NCV)

23 This Passover was celebrated to the Lord in Jerusalem in the eighteenth year of King Josiah’s rule.

2 Kings — American Standard Version (ASV )

23 but in the eighteenth year of king Josiah was this passover kept to Jehovah in Jerusalem.

2 Kings — Darby Bible (DARBY)

23 but in the eighteenth year of king Josiah was this passover holden to Jehovah in Jerusalem.

2 Kings — GOD’S WORD Translation (GW)

23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah’s reign, this Passover was celebrated in Jerusalem for the Lord.

2 Kings — The Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)

23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah, this Passover was observed to the Lord in Jerusalem.

2 Kings — The New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)

23 but in the eighteenth year of King Josiah this passover was kept to the Lord in Jerusalem.

2 Kings — The Lexham English Bible (LEB)

23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah, this Passover was kept for Yahweh in Jerusalem.

2 Kings — New International Reader’s Version (NIrV)

23 King Josiah celebrated the Passover in Jerusalem to honor the Lord. It was in the 18th year of his rule.

2 Kings — New American Standard Bible: Update (NASB95)

23 But in the eighteenthyear of KingJosiah, thisPassover was observed to the Lord in Jerusalem.


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2 Kings 23

2 Kings 23 is the twenty-third chapter of the second part of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the Second Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the ChristianBible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter records the events during the reign of Josiah, Jehoahaz and Jehoiakim, kings of Judah.

Text[edit]

This chapter was originally written in the Hebrew language. It is divided into 37 verses.

Textual witnesses[edit]

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter in Hebrew are of the Masoretic Text tradition, which includes the Codex Cairensis (), Aleppo Codex (10th century), and Codex Leningradensis ().

There is also a translation into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, made in the last few centuries BCE. Extant ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint version include Codex Vaticanus (B; {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {G}}}B; 4th century) and Codex Alexandrinus (A; {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {G}}}A; 5th century).[a] The extant palimpsestAqBurkitt contains verses 11–27 in Koine Greek translated by Aquila of Sinope approximately in the early or mid-second century CE.[8]

Old Testament references[edit]

Analysis[edit]

A parallel pattern of sequence is observed in the final sections of 2 Kings between 2 Kings and 2 Kings , as follows:

A. Athaliah, daughter of Ahab, kills royal seed (2 Kings )
B. Joash reigns (2 Kings 11–12)
C. Quick sequence of kings of Israel and Judah (2 Kings 13–16)
D. Fall of Samaria (2 Kings 17)
E. Revival of Judah under Hezekiah (2 Kings 18–20)
A'. Manasseh, a king like Ahab, promotes idolatry and kills the innocence (2 Kings 21)
B'. Josiah reigns (2 Kings 22–23)
C'. Quick succession of kings of Judah (2 Kings 24)
D'. Fall of Jerusalem (2 Kings 25)
E'. Elevation of Jehoiachin (2 Kings –30)

2 Kings 22– mainly contains the story of Josiah's actions of his eighteenth year (; ) and the discovery of the book of the law (; ) as grouped based on five royal initiatives (using distinct verbs "send" and "command"):

  1. Discovery of the book (; "sent," )
  2. Inquiry about the book (; "commanded," )
  3. Covenant and the book (; "sent," )
  4. Reforms from the book (; "commanded," )
  5. Passover from the book (; "commanded," )

2 Kings 23–24 contain a 'neat scheme' within the chaos at the end of the kingdom of Judah:

2 Kings 2 Kings
Jehoahaz reigned for three monthsJehoiachin reigned for three months
Jehoahaz was imprisoned by Pharaoh NechoJehoiachin was imprisoned by Nebuchadnezzar
Necho placed Eliakim on throne and changed his name to JehoiakimNebuchadnezzar placed Mattaniah on throne and changed his name to Zedekiah
Necho took Jehoahaz to Egypt; Jehoahaz died in EgyptNebuchadnezzar took Jehoiachin to Babylon; Jehoiachin was eventually elevated in Babylon

Most of 2 Kings 23 particularly focuses on Josiah's response to the Book of Law, being grammatically the subject of all the verbs used throughout verses 1– 2 Kings records twelve actions by Josiah, which in numerological view is signified by his 'twelvefold purging' of idolatry, reformation of all twelve tribes of Israel and the renewal of the kingdom from Bethel to Beersheba. He is the eighth king commended for "doing right" in the eyes of God, who began his reign in his eighth year of age (2 Kings ) and the only king who actually heard and read the book of Torah. However, Josiah could not prevent the destruction of Judah, as the promise and threat of Torah would be seen as fulfilled in the whole book of Kings. By the end of 2 Kings, everything established during the golden age of Solomon, promised to David, became unraveled: Under Solomon, Egypt entered a marriage alliance with Judah, but after Josiah, Egypt conquered Judah (), and whereas Solomon received tribute, his descendants paid it to other nations.

Josiah's implementation of religious reforms (–24)[edit]

Valley of Hinnom, c

This section records the religious reform by Josiah that he had performed together with all the people in a covenant (verse 4). The actions cover three areas:

  1. The temple of Jerusalem was cleansed of idols and given the 'designated central role' (verses 4–7, 11–12).
  2. The cult sites in the Judean provinces were desecrated (verses 8—10, 13—14) and those in the former northern kingdom were eradicated, especially the "altar of Bethel" established by Jeroboam (verses ). The destruction of the altar in Bethel (verses 15–18) had clear references to 1 Kings 13
  3. The communal passover feast was celebrated according to the covenant (verses 21–23, cf. Deuteronomy –6).

Verse 10[edit]

And he defiled Topheth, which is in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter pass through the fire to Molech.[17]

Verse 11[edit]

And he removed the horses that the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun, at the entrance to the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nathan-melech the chamberlain, which was in the precincts. And he burned the chariots of the sun with fire.[19]
  • "Nathan-melech the chamberlain": An inscription "(belonging) to Nathan-melech, servant of the king" was found on a clay seal (bulla) impression measuring just over 1 centimetre (&#;in) in diameter, discovered during the excavation in the City of David area of Jerusalem through a destruction layer of a public building constructed in the eighth century BCE and destroyed during the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem in BCE.[20] The wording on the seal was deciphered by Dr. Anat Mendel-Geberovich of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Center for the Study of Ancient Jerusalem. [21] Dr. Yiftah Shalev, co-director of that Jerusalem excavation noticed that the rarity of name, together with a title equals to "the chamberlain" (NKJV: "the officer who was in the court") mentioned in 2 Kings , epigrapically (based on the shape of the letters) dated to the second half of the seventh century/early sixth century, and linked to a structure also dated to the same period, which is exactly the time the biblical Nathan-Melech was active in Jerusalem, make it very likely to belong to the same person.[22]

Josiah's death (–30)[edit]

In death, there is a parallel between Josiah and Ahab as both were killed during battles with foreign powers, and both were brought from the battlefield to the capital city to be buried (1 Kings ; 2 Kings ). Both of them learned about the prophecy of doom on their dynasties that would happen not during their lifetimes, but during the reign of their sons (1 Kings ; 2 Kings ), with two sons of Ahab (Ahaziah in 2 Kings 1 and Jehoram in 2 Kings ; ) to reign over Israel, before the whole dynasty was eliminated by Jehu (2 Kings 9–10), and two generations (three sons--Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Zedekiah-- and one grandson, Jehoiachin) succeeding Josiah to reign over Judah before the kingdom was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. The huge difference is that Josiah receives the highest praise from the editors of the book of Kings for his religious reforms (verse 25), which was also confirmed by Jeremiah, who describes him as a popular king who was 'modest and socially just' (Jeremiah –16).

Jehoahaz ben Josiah king of Judah (–35)[edit]

The regnal account of Jehoahaz consists of an introductory regnal part (verses 31–32) and his replacement with Jehoaikim by Pharaoh Necho (verses 33–35) without the typical concluding part. The waw-consecutive syntatical sequence employed in the account of Necho's action (verses 33–34a) shifts to a 'conjunctive waw sequence in verses 34b–35 for the statements of Jehoahaz's death in Egypt and Jehoiakim's taxation to pay tribute to Necho.

After defeating Josiah at Megiddo in BCE, Necho had no time to interfere Judah's affair because he had to quickly go to help his Assyrian allies in the last stand against Babylonia in Harran. The battle with Josiah hindered Necho to arrive in time, so he could only attempt in vain for several months to bring back Assuruballit (his Assyrian ally) on the throne. Meanwhile, the anti-Egyptian people in Judah crowned Jehoahaz, a younger son of Josiah, only to be dethroned three months later by Necho, who also penalized the inhabitants with heavy taxation. Necho placed as his puppet king Jehoahaz's older brother, Eliakim (Jehoiakim), who was earlier rejected by the people of Judah and whose mother's family was from the northern part of Israel (verse 36), so it could provide a base of support against the threat of Babylonia.

Verse 31[edit]

Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.[26]
  • Jehoahaz: could be a throne name since Jeremiah and 1 Chronicles wrote his name as "Shallum". Both William F. Albright and E. R. Thiele dated his reign to BCE,[27] making his birth in / BCE. The Babylonian Chronicle dates the battle in Harran with Assyrians and Egypt from Tammuz (July–August) to Elul (August–September) of BCE, which would place the death of Josiah and the start of Jehoahaz reign in month of Tammuz BCE or the month prior, when Egyptian army was still on the way to Harran.[28]
  • Libnah: in Shephelah. Taking Hamutal as his wife may indicate Josiah's effort to strengthen this southwestern border area of Judah to resist Egypt).

Verse 33[edit]

Now Pharaoh Necho put him in prison at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and he imposed on the land a tribute of one hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold.[29]

Jehoiakim ben Josiah king of Judah (–37)[edit]

This part contains the introductory regnal formula on the account of Jehoiakim's reign as king of Judah. The regnal account continues to the main part in 2 Kings –4 and the concluding regnal formula in 2 Kings –7.

Verse 36[edit]

Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when he began to reign; and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Zebudah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah.[32]Nelson, Thomas. NIV, Chronological Study Bible, EBook: Holy Bible, New International Version. Brazil: Thomas Nelson,
  • "Jehoiakim": the throne name of Eliakim, the son of Josiah, the older brother of Jehoahaz.[33]
  • "Rumah" is believed to be in Galilee region in the northern part of Israel, where the family of Zebudah (as should be read (qere); literally written (ketiv) as זְבִידָה 'Zebidah') might help Josiah securing control on the area and Necho would take advantage of this to provide support against Babylonian threat from the north.

Illustration[edit]

  • Josiah commanded the priests to remove idols from the temple of the Lord

  • People broke in pieces the altars of idols

  • All workers with familiar spirits, and the wizards were cast away from the land of Judah

  • The altar and high place in Bethel were torn down

  • Josiah turned to the Lord with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the law of Moses

See also[edit]

  • Related Bible parts: 1 Kings 11, 2 Kings 24, 2 Chronicles 34, 2 Chronicles 35, 2 Chronicles 36, Isaiah 30, Jeremiah 7, Jeremiah 19, Jeremiah 22, Ezekiel 19
  • Notes[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^&#;This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:&#;Herbermann, Charles, ed. (). "Codex Sinaiticus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
    2. ^Burkitt, Francis Crawford (). Fragments of the Books of Kings According to the Translation of Aquila. Cambridge: University Press. p.&#; ISBN&#;. OCLC&#;
    3. ^ abcdef2 Kings 23, Berean Study Bible
    4. ^2 Kings NKJV
    5. ^Hermann L. Strack and Paul Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud and Midrasch, 5 vols., Munich: Beck, –,
    6. ^2 Kings ESV
    7. ^Weiss, Bari.The Story Behind a 2,Year-Old Seal Who was Natan-Melech, the king’s servant?. New York Times. March 30,
    8. ^2,year old seal discovered in City of David. Jerusalem Post. April 1,
    9. ^Nagtegaal, Brent. Archaeology Verifies the Reign of Judah's Youngest King: New archaeological discovery in Jerusalem adds to evidence of King Josiah’s reign. Watch Jerusalem. May 28,
    10. ^2 Kings KJV
    11. ^Edwin Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, ; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, ; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, ). ISBN&#;X, ,
    12. ^Thiele , pp. ,
    13. ^2 Kings NKJV
    14. ^Kobayashi, Y. Riblah, ABD ; apud Sweeney , p.
    15. ^Note on 2 Kings in ESV and MEV
    16. ^2 Kings KJV
    17. ^Nelson, Thomas. NIV, Chronological Study Bible, EBook: Holy Bible, New International Version. Brazil: Thomas Nelson, , p.

    Sources[edit]

    • Cogan, Mordechai; Tadmor, Hayim (). II Kings: A New Translation. Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries. 11. Doubleday. ISBN&#;.
    • Collins, John J. (). "Chapter 1 Kings 12 – 2 Kings 25". Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures. Fortress Press. pp.&#;– ISBN&#;.
    • Coogan, Michael David (). Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann; Perkins, Pheme (eds.). The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: New Revised Standard Version, Issue 48 (Augmented 3rd&#;ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN&#;.
    • Dietrich, Walter (). " 1 and 2 Kings". In Barton, John; Muddiman, John (eds.). The Oxford Bible Commentary (first (paperback)&#;ed.). Oxford University Press. pp.&#;– ISBN&#;. Retrieved February 6,
    • Fretheim, Terence E (). First and Second Kings. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN&#;.
    • Halley, Henry H. (). Halley's Bible Handbook: an abbreviated Bible commentary (24th (revised)&#;ed.). Zondervan Publishing House. ISBN&#;.
    • Leithart, Peter J. (). 1 & 2 Kings. Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible. Brazos Press. ISBN&#;.
    • McFall, Leslie (), "Translation Guide to the Chronological Data in Kings and Chronicles"(PDF), Bibliotheca Sacra, : 3–45, archived from the original(PDF) on July 19,
    • McKane, William (). "Kings, Book of". In Metzger, Bruce M; Coogan, Michael D (eds.). The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. pp.&#;– ISBN&#;.
    • Nelson, Richard Donald (). First and Second Kings. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN&#;.
    • Pritchard, James B (). Ancient Near Eastern texts relating to the Old Testament (3&#;ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN&#;.
    • Sweeney, Marvin (). I & II Kings: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN&#;.
    • Thiele, Edwin R. (). The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings: A Reconstruction of the Chronology of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    • Würthwein, Ernst (). The Text of the Old Testament. Translated by Rhodes, Erroll F. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN&#;. Retrieved January 26,

    External links[edit]

    Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_Kings_23


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