Devil vs demon

Devil vs demon DEFAULT

Demon

Supernatural being associated with evil

Not to be confused with Daemon.

"Evil spirit" redirects here. For the 1928 film, see Evil Spirit (film). For the album by The Damned, see Evil Spirits (album).

A demon is a supernatural being, typically associated with evil, prevalent historically in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology, and folklore; as well as in media such as comics, video games, movies, anime, and television series.

In Ancient Near Eastern religions and in the Abrahamic traditions, including ancient and medieval Christian demonology, a demon is considered a harmful spiritual entity which may cause demonic possession, calling for an exorcism. Large portions of the Jewish demonology, a key influence on Christianity and Islam, originated from a later form of Zoroastrianism, and were transferred to Judaism during the Persian era.[1]

In Western occultism and Renaissance magic, which grew out of an amalgamation of Greco-Roman magic, Jewish Aggadah and Christian demonology,[2] a demon is believed to be a spiritual entity that may be conjured and controlled. The supposed existence of demons remains an important concept in many modern religions and occultist traditions. Demons are still feared largely due to their alleged power to possess living creatures. In the contemporary Western occultist tradition (perhaps epitomized by the work of Aleister Crowley), a demon (such as Choronzon, which is Crowley's interpretation of the so-called 'Demon of the Abyss') is a useful metaphor for certain inner psychological processes (inner demons), though some may also regard it as an objectively real phenomenon.

The original Greek word daimon did not carry negative connotations.[3] The Ancient Greek word δαίμωνdaimōn denotes a spirit or divine power.[4] The Greek conception of a daimōn notably appears in the works of Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates. In Christianity morally ambivalent daimons were replaced by demons, forces of evil only striving for corruption.[5] Such demons are not the Greek intermediary spirits, but hostile entities, already known in Irianian beliefs.[6]

Etymology[edit]

Further information: Daemon (classical mythology), Agathodaemon, Cacodemon, Daimonic, and Eudaimonia

The Ancient Greek word δαίμωνdaemon denotes a spirit or divine power, much like the Latingenius or numen. Daimōn most likely came from the Greek verb daiesthai (to divide, distribute).[4] The Greek conception of a daimōn notably appears in the works of Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates. The original Greek word daimon does not carry the negative connotation initially understood by implementation of the Koineδαιμόνιον (daimonion),[3] and later ascribed to any cognate words sharing the root.

The Greek terms do not have any connotations of evil or malevolence. In fact, εὐδαιμονίαeudaimonia, (literally good-spiritedness) means happiness. By the early Roman Empire, cult statues were seen, by pagans and their Christian neighbors alike, as inhabited by the numinous presence of the gods: "Like pagans, Christians still sensed and saw the gods and their power, and as something, they had to assume, lay behind it, by an easy traditional shift of opinion they turned these pagan daimones into malevolent 'demons', the troupe of Satan..... Far into the Byzantine period Christians eyed their cities' old pagan statuary as a seat of the demons' presence. It was no longer beautiful, it was infested."[7] The term had first acquired its negative connotations in the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which drew on the mythology of ancient Semitic religions. This was then inherited by the Koine text of the New Testament. The Western medieval and neo-medieval conception of a demon[8] derives seamlessly from the ambient popular culture of Late Antiquity. The Hellenistic "daemon" eventually came to include many Semitic and Near Eastern gods as evaluated by Christianity.[citation needed]

The English use of demon as synonym for devils goes back at least as far as about 825. The German word (Dämon) however, is different from devil (Teufel) and demons as evil spirits.[9]

Ancient Egypt[edit]

Ram-headed demon. The hands probably outstretch to hold two snakes. From a royal tomb in the Valley of the Kings, Thebes, Egypt. End of the 18th Dynasty, around 1325 BCE

Both deities and demons can act as intermediaries to deliver messages to humans.[10] Thus they share some resemblance to the Greek daimonion. The exact definition of "demon" in Egyptology posed a major problem for modern scholarship, since the borders between a deity and a demon are sometimes blurred and the ancient Egyptian language lacks a term for the modern English "demon".[11][12] However, magical writings indicate that ancient Egyptians acknowledged the existence of malevolent demons by highlighting the demon names with red ink.[12] Demons in this culture appeared to be subordinative and related to a specific deity, yet they may have occasionally acted independently of the divine will. The existence of demons can be related to the realm of chaos, beyond the created world.[11] But even this negative connotation cannot be denied in light of the magical texts. The role of demons in relation to the human world remains ambivalent and largely depends on context.

Ancient Egyptian demons can be divided into two classes: "guardians" and "wanderers."[13][14] "Guardians" are tied to a specific place; their demonic activity is topographically defined and their function can be benevolent towards those who have the secret knowledge to face them.[15] Demons protecting the underworld may prevent human souls from entering paradise. Only by knowing right charms is the deceased able to enter the Halls of Osiris.[16] Here, the aggressive nature of the guardian demons is motivated by the need to protect their abodes and not by their evil essence. Accordingly, demons guarded sacred places or the gates to the netherworld. During the Ptolemaic and Roman period, the guardians shifted towards the role of Genius loci and they were the focus of local and private cults.

The "wanderers" are associated with possession, mental illness, death and plagues. Many of them serve as executioners for the major deities, such as Ra or Osiris, when ordered to punish humans on earth or in the netherworld.[15] Wanderers can also be agents of chaos, arising from the world beyond creation to bring about misfortune and suffering without any divine instructions, led only by evil motivations. The influences of the wanderers can be warded off and kept at the borders on the human world by the use of magic, but they can never be destroyed. A sub-category of "wanderers" are nightmare demons, which were believed to cause nightmares by entering a human body.[11]

Mesopotamia[edit]

Further information: Ancient Mesopotamian underworld § Demons

The ancient Mesopotamians believed that the underworld was home to many demons, which are sometimes referred to as "offspring of arali". These demons could sometimes leave the underworld and terrorize mortals on earth. One class of demons that were believed to reside in the underworld were known as galla; their primary purpose appears to have been to drag unfortunate mortals back to Kur. They are frequently referenced in magical texts, and some texts describe them as being seven in number. Several extant poems describe the galla dragging the god Dumuzid into the underworld. Like other demons, however, galla could also be benevolent and, in a hymn from King Gudea of Lagash (c. 2144 – 2124 BCE), a minor god named Ig-alima is described as "the great galla of Girsu".

Lamashtu was a demonic goddess with the "head of a lion, the teeth of a donkey, naked breasts, a hairy body, hands stained (with blood?), long fingers and fingernails, and the feet of Anzû." She was believed to feed on the blood of human infants and was widely blamed as the cause of miscarriages and cot deaths. Although Lamashtu has traditionally been identified as a demoness, the fact that she could cause evil on her own without the permission of other deities strongly indicates that she was seen as a goddess in her own right. Mesopotamian peoples protected against her using amulets and talismans. She was believed to ride in her boat on the river of the underworld and she was associated with donkeys. She was believed to be the daughter of An.

Pazuzu is a demonic god who was well known to the Babylonians and Assyrians throughout the first millennium BCE. He is shown with "a rather canine face with abnormally bulging eyes, a scaly body, a snake-headed penis, the talons of a bird and usually wings." He was believed to be the son of the god Hanbi. He was usually regarded as evil, but he could also sometimes be a beneficent entity who protected against winds bearing pestilence and he was thought to be able to force Lamashtu back to the underworld. Amulets bearing his image were positioned in dwellings to protect infants from Lamashtu and pregnant women frequently wore amulets with his head on them as protection from her.

Šul-pa-e's name means "youthful brilliance", but he was not envisioned as youthful god. According to one tradition, he was the consort of Ninhursag, a tradition which contradicts the usual portrayal of Enki as Ninhursag's consort. In one Sumerian poem, offerings made to Šhul-pa-e in the underworld and, in later mythology, he was one of the demons of the underworld.

According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, "In Chaldean mythology the seven evil deities were known as shedu, storm-demons, represented in ox-like form."[28] They were represented as winged bulls, derived from the colossal bulls used as protective jinn of royal palaces.[29]

Judaism[edit]

See also: Shedim, Dybbuk, and Samael

There are differing opinions in Judaism about the existence or non-existence of demons (shedim or se'irim).[28] There are "practically nil" roles assigned to demons in the Hebrew Bible.[30] In Judaism today, beliefs in demons or evil spirits are either midot hasidut (Hebrew for "customs of the pious"), and therefore not halakha,[citation needed] or notions based on a superstition that are non-essential, non-binding parts of Judaism, and therefore not normative Jewish practice.[citation needed] That is to say, Jews are not obligated to believe in the existence of shedim, as posek rabbi David Bar-Hayim points out.[31]

Hebrew Bible[edit]

The Hebrew Bible mentions two classes of demonic spirits, the se'irim and the shedim. The word shedim appears in two places in the Hebrew Bible.[32] The se'irim are mentioned once in Leviticus 17:7,[33] probably a re-calling of Assyrian demons in shape of goats.[34] The shedim in return are not pagan demigods, but the foreign gods themselves. Both entities appear in a scriptural context of animal or child sacrifice to non-existent false gods.[28][30][35]

From Chaldea, the term shedu traveled to the Israelites.[citation needed] The writers of the Tanach applied the word as a dialogism to Canaanite deities.[citation needed]

There are indications that demons in popular Hebrew mythology were believed to come from the nether world.[36] Various diseases and ailments were ascribed to them, particularly those affecting the brain and those of internal nature. Examples include catalepsy, headache, epilepsy and nightmares. There also existed a demon of blindness, "Shabriri" (lit. "dazzling glare") who rested on uncovered water at night and blinded those who drank from it.[37]

Demons supposedly entered the body and caused the disease while overwhelming or "seizing" the victim. To cure such diseases, it was necessary to draw out the evil demons by certain incantations and talismanic performances, at which the Essenes excelled.[28]Josephus, who spoke of demons as "spirits of the wicked which enter into men that are alive and kill them", but which could be driven out by a certain root,[38] witnessed such a performance in the presence of the Emperor Vespasian[39] and ascribed its origin to King Solomon. In mythology, there were few defences against Babylonian demons. The mythical mace Sharur had the power to slay demons such as Asag, a legendary gallu or edimmu of hideous strength.

Talmudic tradition and Midrashim[edit]

Further information: Midrash

In the Jerusalem Talmud notions of shedim ("demons" or "spirits") are almost unknown or occur only very rarely, whereas in the Babylon Talmud there are many references to shedim and magical incantations. The existence of shedim in general was not questioned by most of the Babylonian Talmudists. As a consequence of the rise of influence of the Babylonian Talmud over that of the Jerusalem Talmud, late rabbis in general took as fact the existence of shedim, nor did most of the medieval thinkers question their reality.[40] However, rationalists like Maimonides, Saadia Gaon and Abraham ibn Ezra and others explicitly denied their existence, and completely rejected concepts of demons, evil spirits, negative spiritual influences, attaching and possessing spirits. They thought, the essential teaching about shedim and similar spirits is, that they should not be an object of worship, not a reality to be acknowledged or feared.[41] Their point of view eventually became mainstream Jewish understanding.[28][42]

Occasionally an angel is called satan in the Babylon Talmud. But satans do not refer to demons as they remain at the service of God: "Stand not in the way of an ox when coming from the pasture, for Satan dances between his horns".[43]

Aggadic tales from the Persian tradition describe the shedim, the mazziḳim ("harmers"), and the ruḥin ("spirits"). There were also lilin ("night spirits"), ṭelane ("shade", or "evening spirits"), ṭiharire ("midday spirits"), and ẓafrire ("morning spirits"), as well as the "demons that bring famine" and "such as cause storm and earthquake".[44][28] According to some aggadic stories, demons were under the dominion of a king or chief, usually Asmodai.[45]

Kabbalah[edit]

See also: Kabbalah and Destroying angel (Bible)

In Kabbalah demons are regarded a necessary part of the divine emanation in the material world and a byproduct of human sin (Qliphoth).[46] However spirits such as the shedim may also be benevolent and were used in kabbalistic ceremonies (as with the golem of Rabbi Yehuda Loevy) and malevolent shedim (Mazikin, from the root meaning "to damage") were often credited with possession.[47][self-published source?]

Second Temple Judaism[edit]

See also: Apotropaic magic

The sources of demonic influence were thought to originate from the Watchers or Nephilim, who are first mentioned in Genesis 6 and are the focus of 1 Enoch Chapters 1–16, and also in Jubilees 10. The Nephilim were seen as the source of the sin and evil on earth because they are referenced in Genesis 6:4 before the story of the Flood.[48] In Genesis 6:5, God sees evil in the hearts of men. Ethiopic Enoch refers to Genesis 6:4–5, and provides further description of the story connecting the Nephilim to the corruption of humans. According to the Book of Enoch, sin originates when angels descend from heaven and fornicate with women, birthing giants. The Book of Enoch shows that these fallen angels can lead humans to sin through direct interaction or through providing forbidden knowledge. Most scholars understand the text, that demons originate from the evil spirits of the deceased giants, cursed by God to wander the earth. Dale Martin disagrees with this interpretation, arguing that the ghosts of the Nephilim are distinct. The evil spirits would make the people sacrifice to the demons, but they were not demons themselves.[49] The spirits are stated in Enoch to "corrupt, fall, be excited, and fall upon the earth, and cause sorrow."[50][51]

The Book of Jubilees conveys that sin occurs when Cainan accidentally transcribes astrological knowledge used by the Watchers.[52] This differs from Enoch in that it does not place blame on the angels. However, in Jubilees 10:4 the evil spirits of the Watchers are discussed as evil and still remain on earth to corrupt the humans. God binds only 90 percent of the Watchers and destroys them, leaving 10 percent to be ruled by Mastema. Because the evil in humans is great, only 10 percent would be needed to corrupt and lead humans astray. These spirits of the giants also referred to as "the bastards" in the Apotropaic prayer Songs of the Sage, which lists the names of demons the narrator hopes to expel.[53]

To the Qumran community during the Second Temple period this apotropaic prayer was assigned, stating: "And, I the Sage, declare the grandeur of his radiance in order to frighten and terri[fy] all the spirits of the ravaging angels and the bastard spirits, demons, Liliths, owls" (Dead Sea Scrolls, "Songs of the Sage," Lines 4–5).[54][55]

Hinduism[edit]

Hindu beliefs include numerous varieties of creatures with materialistic or non material form such as Vetalas, Bhutas and Pishachas. Rakshasas and Asuras are demons

Asuras[edit]

See also: Surapadman and Narakasura

The Army of Super Creatures – from The Saugandhika Parinaya Manuscript (1821 CE)

Asura, in the earliest hymns of the Rigveda, originally meant any supernatural spirit, either good or bad. Since the /s/ of the Indic linguistic branch is cognate with the /h/ of the Early Iranian languages, the word Asura, representing a category of celestial beings. Ancient Hinduism tells that Devas (also called suras) and Asuras are half-brothers, sons of the same father Kashyapa; although some of the Devas, such as Varuna, are also called Asuras. Later, during Puranic age, Asura and Rakshasa came to exclusively mean any of a race of anthropomorphic, powerful, possibly evil beings. Daitya (lit. sons of the mother "Diti"), Maya Danava, Rakshasa (lit. from "harm to be guarded against"), and Asura are incorrectly translated into English as "demon".

In post-Vedic Hindu scriptures, pious, highly enlightened Asuras, such as Prahlada and Vibhishana, are not uncommon. The Asura are not fundamentally against the gods, nor do they tempt humans to fall. Many people metaphorically interpret the Asura as manifestations of the ignoble passions in the human mind and as symbolic devices. There were also cases of power-hungry Asuras challenging various aspects of the gods, but only to be defeated eventually and seek forgiveness.

Evil spirits[edit]

Hinduism advocates the reincarnation and transmigration of souls according to one's karma. Souls (Atman) of the dead are adjudged by the Yama and are accorded various purging punishments before being reborn. Humans that have committed extraordinary wrongs are condemned to roam as lonely, often mischief mongers, spirits for a length of time before being reborn. Many kinds of such spirits (Vetalas, Pishachas, Bhūta) are recognized in the later Hindu texts.

Iranian demons[edit]

Zoroastrianism[edit]

Arzhang (The Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp)
Black Div (The Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp)
Rostam carried by Akwan-Diwa (cropped)

Main article: Daeva

The Zorastrian belief in demons (Daeva) had strong influence on the Abrahamic religions, especially Christianity and Islam.[56] The daevas seem to be a Zorastrian interpretation of the Hindu pantheon. Particularly Indra, one of the most eminent individual deities of Vedic texts, is portrayed as a malicious force only next to Ahriman, the principle of evil (devil).[57]

But daevas are not merely the false gods of a past religion, but also embodiment of vices and fierce side of nature. Thraotona slays the daeva Azhi Dahāka, a serpentine or dragon-like creature with three heads.[58] Thraotona's victory over a serpentine or dragon-like creature with three heads, is not the victory of a great warrior, but to show that people who live in accordance with Asha can overcome evil.[58]Aeshma, a demon of wrath and destruction, appears to be the direct forerunner of Asmodeus (Sakhr in Islam) from Abrahamic religion.[59]Winter too became associated with one of the daeva.[60]

In Zarathustra's personal revelation, there are no individual Daevas. They are always referred to as in a group and their worshippers are associated with violence and destruction:

"but ye Daevas are all spawned from Evil Thought/ as is the grandee who worships you, and from wrong and contempt... ever since you have been enjoiing those worst of things that mortals are to do/ to wax to the daevas' favor retreating from Good Thought/ losing the way from the Mindful Lord's wisdom and from Right."-Yasna 32.3-4 [61]

In their state of wickedness, they lead mankind into sin and death:[62]

"So ye lure the mortal from good living and security from death/as the Evil Will does you who are daevas, by evil thought/ and that evil speech with which he assigns the deed to the wrongfil one's control."-Yasna 32.5

The daevas however, are merely subordinate to the absolute power of evil, the Evil Will, embodied in Ahriman/Angra Manyu. The daeva are thus both corrupted by evil, but also evil themselves. People who worship them are blamed too. in the Gathas, the primary way for demons to corrupt humans and cause suffering, manifests through their worshippers.[63] The Vendidad (Law against Daeva) is mainly concerned to ward off the daevas. It offers laws for general ritual purity. Not only acts in favor for the demons might increase their power, but so does any act against Ahura Mazda. Cutting one's hair or nails and keeping them on the ground can be considered a sacrifice to the demons.[64] As the demon's power increase by human's acts of wickedness, they are weakened by good deeds, especially performance of invocation of Ahura Mazda.[65] The Vendidad further explores the possibility for humans to become a daeva. A human who performs sexual immoralities and/or worships the daeva, becomes one themselves after death. During life, the person is considered to be equal to them, but turns truly into one after death.

The Bundahishn gives an overview about the creation of demons. The text explains that Ahura Mazda and Ahriman existed before the material world, one in light and the other in the abyss of darkness. When Ahriman assaulted Ahura Mazda, Ahura Mazda created a world as a battle place and Ahriman could be defeated. The first beings created by Ahura Mazda were the six Amesha Spenta, whereupon Ahriman counters by creating six daevas. The demons are not tempted but directly created by the principle of evil. According to the Bundahishn, the demons revive Ahriman, whereby calling him their father:[66]

"Rise up, thou father of us! for we will cause a conflict in the world, the distress and injury from which will become those of Ohrmazd and the archangels" (Bun 3.1)

Daevas assault the souls when passing the Chinvat Bridge. While virtuous people ward them off and succeed on entering heaven, wicked souls fail and are seized by the demons.[66] In hell, daevas continue to torment the damned.[67]

Manichaeism[edit]

See also: Asrestar

In Manichaean mythology demons had a real existence, as they derived from the Kingdom of Darkness, they were not metaphors expressing the absence of good nor are they fallen angels, that means they are not originally good, but entities purely evil. The demons came into the world after the Prince of Darkness assaulted the Realm of Light. The demons ultimately failed their attack and ended up imprisoned in the structures and matter of the contemporary world.[68] Lacking virtues and being in constant conflict with both the divine creatures and themselves, they are inferior to the divine entities and overcome by the divine beings at the end of time. They are not sophisticated or inventive creatures, but only driven by their urges.[69]

Simultaneously, the Manichaean concept of demons remains abstract and is closely linked to ethical aspects of evil that many of them appear as personified evil qualities such as:[69]

  • Greed (desire for wealth)
  • Wrath (desire for destruction)
  • Envy
  • Grief

The Watcher, another group of demonic entities, known from the Enochian writings, appear in the canonical Book of Giants. The Watchers came into existence after the demons were chained up in the sky by Living Spirit. Later, outwitted by Third Messenger, they fall to earth, there they had intercourse with human women and beget the monstrous Nephilim. Thereupon they establish a tyrannical rule on earth, suppressing mankind, until they are defeated by the angels of punishment, setting an end to their rule.[70]

In the Shahnameh[edit]

Gate of Citadel of semnan 9. Rustamslaying the Div-e Sepi (White Div)

In Shahnameh, written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE the term div (from the AvestanDaeva) includes both demons as well as evil humans.[71] The divs of the legendary Mazandaran might reflect human enemies of Iran. Zahak, inspired by the daeva Azhi Dahāka, is not a degraced deity, but a human tyrant, identified as an Arab, who slayed his father in exchange for power. It is only after he was tricked by the devil for power, he grows serpentine heads on his shoulders and becomes less human.[72]

Divs are often black, long teeth, claws as hands; a monstrous but humanoid shape.[71] Despite their human form, many divs are masters of supernatural sorcery, reflecting their former associations with the daevas.[73]Div-e Sepid, leader of the divs, is both an outstanding warrior and a master of magic, who causes storms to overcome hostile armies.[74] After divs are defeated, they might join their enemy.

The poem begins with the kings of the Pishdadian dynasty. They defeat and subjugate the demonic divs. Tahmuras commanded the divs and became known as dīvband (binder of demons). Jamshid, the fourth king of the world, ruled over both angels and div and served as a high priest of Ahura Mazda (Hormozd). After a just reign over hundreds of years, Jamshid grew haughty and claims, because of his wealth and power, divinity for himself. His people get unsatisfied with their king and Zahhak usurps the throne, aided by demons. Jamshid dies sawn in two by two divs. Tricked by Ahriman (or Iblis), Zahhak grew two snakes on his shoulders and becomes athe demonic serpant-king.[75]

The King Kay Kāvus fails to conquer the legendary Mazdaran, the land of divs and gets captured.[76] To save his king, Rustam takes a journey and fights through seven trials. Divs are among the common enemies Rustam faces, the last one the Div-e Sepid, the demonic king of Mazdaran.

Native North American demons[edit]

Wendigo[edit]

Main articles: Wendigo and Wechuge

The Algonquian people traditionally believe in a spirit called a wendigo. The spirit is believed to possess people who then become cannibals. In Athabaskan folklore, there is a belief in wechuge, a similar cannibal sprit.

Christianity[edit]

Old Testament[edit]

The existence of demons as inherently malicious spirits within Old Testamental texts are absent.[77][78] Though there are evil spirits sent by YHWH, they can hardly be called demons, since they serve and do not oppose the governing deity.[79] First then the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek, the "gods of other nations" were merged into a single category of demons (daimones) with implied negativity.[80]

The Greek Daimons were associated with demi-divine entities, deities, illnesses and fortune-telling. The Jewish translators rendered them all as demons, depicting their power as nullifed comparable to the description of shedim in the Tanakh. Although all these supernatural powers were translated, none were angels, despite sharing a similar function to that of the Greek Daimon. This established a dualism between the angels on God's side and negatively evaluated demons of pagan origin.[81] Their relationship to the God-head became the main difference between angels and demons, not their degree of benevolence. Both angels and demons might be fierce and terrifying. However, the angels act always at service of the high god of the Israelites, differing from the pagan demons, who represent the powers of foreign deities.[82]

New Testament[edit]

The Septuagint refers to evil spirits as demons (daimon). Through the New Testament, demons appear 55 times, 46 times in reference to demonic possession or exorcisms.[83] As adversaries of Jesus, demons are not morally ambivalent spirits, but evil; cause of misery, suffering and death.[83] They are not tempters, but cause of pain, suffering and maladies, both physical and mental. Temptation is reserved for the devil only.[84] Unlike spirits in pagan beliefs, demons are not intermediary spirits whom must be sacrificed for appeasement of a deity. Possession also shows no trace of positivity contrary to some pagan depictions of spirit possession. They are explicitly said to be ruled by the devil or Beelzebub.[85] Their origin is unclear, the texts take the existence of demons for granted. Many early Christians, like Irenaeus, Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria and Lactantius assumed demons were ghosts of the Nephilim, known from Intertestamental writings.[86] Because of references to Satan as the lord of demons, and evil angels of Satan throughout the New Testament, other scholars identified fallen angels with demons.[87] Demons as entirely evil entities, who have been born evil, does not fit the proposed origin of evil in free-will, taught in later Christian Theology.[88]

Pseudepigrapha and deuterocanonical books[edit]

Main articles: Pseudepigrapha and Deuterocanonical books

See also: Book of Tobit, Book of Enoch, and Book of Jubilees

Demons are included into biblical interpretation. In the story of Passover, the Bible tells the story as "the Lord struck down all the firstborn in Egypt."[89] In the Book of Jubilees, which is considered canonical only by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church,[90] this same event is told slightly differently: "All the powers of [the demon] Mastema had been let loose to slay all the first-born in the land of Egypt. And the powers of the Lord did everything according as the Lord commanded them."[91]

In the Genesis flood narrative the author explains how God was noticing "how corrupt the earth had become, for all the people on earth had corrupted their ways."[92] In Jubilees the sins of man are attributed to "the unclean demons [who] began to lead astray the children of the sons of Noah, and to make to err and destroy them."[93] In Jubilees Mastema questions the loyalty of Abraham and tells God to "bid him offer him as a burnt offering on the altar, and Thou wilt see if he will do this command."[94] The discrepancy between the story in Jubilees and the story in Genesis 22 exists with the presence of Mastema. In Genesis, God tests the will of Abraham merely to determine whether he is a true follower, however; in Jubilees Mastema has an agenda behind promoting the sacrifice of Abraham's son, "an even more demonic act than that of the Satan in Job."[95] In Jubilees, where Mastema, an angel tasked with the tempting of mortals into sin and iniquity, requests that God give him a tenth of the spirits of the children of the watchers, demons, in order to aid the process.[96] These demons are passed into Mastema's authority, where once again, an angel is in charge of demonic spirits.

The Testament of Solomon, written sometime in the first three Centuries C.E. , the demon Asmodeus explains what he is the son of an angel and a human mother. Another demon describes himself as having died in the "massacre in the age of giants". Beelzeboul, the prince of demons, appears as a fallen angel not as a demon, but makes people worship demons as their gods.[97]

Christian demonology[edit]

Main articles: Christian demonology, Exorcism in Christianity, Exorcism in the Catholic Church, and Demonic possession § Christianity

Since Early Christianity, demonology has developed from a simple acceptance of demons to a complex study that has grown from the original ideas taken from Jewish demonology and Christian scriptures.[99] Christian demonology is studied in depth within the Roman Catholic Church,[100] although many other Christian churches affirm and discuss the existence of demons.[101][102]

Building upon the few references to daimon in the New Testament, especially the poetry of the Book of Revelation, Christian writers of apocrypha from the 2nd century onwards created a more complicated tapestry of beliefs about "demons" that was largely independent of Christian scripture.

While daimons were considered as both potentially benevolent or malevolent, Origen argued against Celsus that daimons are exclusively evil entities, supporting the later idea of (evil) demons. According to Origen's cosmology, increasing corruption and evil within the soul, the more estranged the soul gets from God. Therefore, Origen opinned that the most evil demons are located underground. Besides the fallen angels known from Christian scriptures, Origen talks about Greek daemons, like nature spirits and giants. These creatures were thought to inhabit nature or air and nourish from pagan sacrifices roaming the earth. However, there is no functional difference between the spirits of the underworld and of earth, since both have fallen from perfection into the material world. Origen sums them up as fallen angels and thus equal to demons.[103]

Many ascetics, like Origen and Anthony the Great, described demons as psychological powers, tempting to evil,[104] in contrast to benevolent angels advising good. According to Life of Anthony, written in Greek around 360 by Athanasius of Alexandria, most of the time, the demons were expressed as an internal struggle, inclinations and temptations. But after Anthony successfully resisted the demons, they would appear in human form to tempt and threat him even more intense.[105]

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite described evil as "defiancy" and does not give evil an ontological existence. He explains demons are deficiant creatures, who willingly turn themselves towards the unreal and non-existence. Their dangerous nature results not from power of their nature, but from their tendency to drag others into the "void" and the unreal, away from God.[9]

Michael Psellos proposed the existence of several types of demons, deeply influenced by the material nature of the regions they dwell. They highest and most powerful demons attack the mind of people using their "imaginative action" (phantastikos) to produce illusions in the mind. The lowest demons on the other hand are almost mindless, gross and grunting spirits, which try to possess people instinctively, simply attracted by the warmth and life of humans. These cause diseases, fatal accidents and animalistic behavior in their victims. They are unable to speak, while other lower types of demons might give out false oracles. The demons are divided into:

  • Leliouria: The highest demons who inhabit the ether, beyond the moon
  • Aeria: Demons of the air below the moon
  • Chthonia: Inhabiting the land
  • Hyraia/Enalia: Dwelling in the water
  • Bypochtbonia: They live beneath the earth
  • Misophaes: The lowest type of demon, blind and almost senseless in the lowest hell

Invocation of Saints, holy men and women, especially ascetics, reading the Gospel, holy oil or water is said to drive them out. However, Psellos' schemes have been too inconsistent to answer questions about the hierarchy of fallen angels. The devil's position is impossible to assign in this scheme and it does not respond to living perceptions of felt experience and was considered rather impractical to have a lasting effect or impact on Christian demonology.[106]

The contemporary Roman Catholic Church unequivocally teaches that angels and demons are real beings rather than just symbolic devices. The Catholic Church has a cadre of officially sanctioned exorcists which perform many exorcisms each year. The exorcists of the Catholic Church teach that demons attack humans continually but that afflicted persons can be effectively healed and protected either by the formal rite of exorcism, authorized to be performed only by bishops and those they designate, or by prayers of deliverance, which any Christian can offer for themselves or others.[107]

At various times in Christian history, attempts have been made to classify demons according to various proposed demonic hierarchies.

Islam[edit]

Demons depicted in the Book of Wonders, a late 14th century Arabic manuscript

Ali slaying divs with his sword Zulfiqar in a Persian manuscript.

Shayāṭīn (or Daeva of Indo-Iranian religion) are the usual terms for demons in Islamic belief.[108][109] In Islam demons try to lead humans astray from God, by tempting them to sin, teaching them sorcery and cause mischief among humans. Occult practises albeit not forbidden per se, may include conjuring demons, which requires acts against God's laws and are therefore forbidden, such as illicit blood-sacrifices, abandoning prayer and rejecting fasting. Based on the Islamic view on Solomon, who is widely believed to have been a ruler over genies and demons, Islam has a rich tradition about conjuring demons. Among the demons are the devils (shayatin) and the fiends (div).[110] Both are believed to have worked for Solomon as slaves. While the devils usually appear within a Judeo-Christian background, the div frequently feature in beliefs of Persian and Indian origin. But it is to be noted that in Islam both angels and demons are considered to be the creatures of God and so God has ultimate power over all of them.

According to exegisis of the Quran the devils are the offspring of Iblis (Satan). They are said to live until the world ceases to exist, always shadow in humans (and jinn)[111] whispering onto their hearts to lead them astray. Prayers are used to ward off their attacks, dissolving them temporarily. As the counterpart of the angels, they try to go against God's will and their abode in Hell is pre-destined. They lack free will and are bound to evil.[112] The ifrit and marid are more powerful classes of devils. Jinn are different from devils in that they have free will and not all of them are wrongdoers.

The Muslim Persians identified the evil spirits of the Quran with div. Some argue the devils were created good, but turned evil by Iblis' act of arrogance, the div were created as vicious creatures and embodiment of evil.[113][114] When Iblis was still among the angels, he led an army against the spirits on the earth. Among them were the div, who formed two orders; one of which sided with the jinn and were banished with them, condemned to roam the earth. The other, treacherous div joined Iblis in battle, and exiled to Hell with him. The div are often depicted as sorcerers whose misdeeds are not bound to temptation only. They could cause sickness, mental illnesses, or even turn humans to stone by touching.[115] While the devils frequently appear to ordinary humans to tempt them into everything disapproved by society, the div usually appear to specific heroes.[116][117]

Baháʼí Faith[edit]

In the Baháʼí Faith, demons are not regarded as independent evil spirits as they are in some faiths. Rather, evil spirits described in various faiths' traditions, such as Satan, fallen angels, demons and jinn, are metaphors for the base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God and follows his lower nature. Belief in the existence of ghosts and earthbound spirits is rejected and considered to be the product of superstition.[118]

Ceremonial magic[edit]

While some people fear demons, or attempt to exorcise them, others willfully attempt to summon them for knowledge, assistance, or power. The ceremonial magician usually consults a grimoire, which gives the names and abilities of demons as well as detailed instructions for conjuring and controlling them. Grimoires are not limited to demons – some give the names of angels or spirits which can be called, a process called theurgy. The use of ceremonial magic to call demons is also known as goetia, the name taken from a section in the famous grimoire known as the Lesser Key of Solomon.[119]

Wicca[edit]

According to Rosemary Ellen Guiley, "Demons are not courted or worshipped in contemporary Wicca and Paganism. The existence of negative energies is acknowledged."[120]

Modern interpretations[edit]

The classic Oni, a Japanese ogre-like creature which often has horns and often translated into English as "demon".

Psychologist Wilhelm Wundt remarked that "among the activities attributed by myths all over the world to demons, the harmful predominate, so that in popular belief bad demons are clearly older than good ones."[121]Sigmund Freud developed this idea and claimed that the concept of demons was derived from the important relation of the living to the dead: "The fact that demons are always regarded as the spirits of those who have died recently shows better than anything the influence of mourning on the origin of the belief in demons."[122]

M. Scott Peck, an American psychiatrist, wrote two books on the subject, People of the Lie: The Hope For Healing Human Evil[123] and Glimpses of the Devil: A Psychiatrist's Personal Accounts of Possession, Exorcism, and Redemption.[124] Peck describes in some detail several cases involving his patients. In People of the Lie he provides identifying characteristics of an evil person, whom he classified as having a character disorder. In Glimpses of the Devil Peck goes into significant detail describing how he became interested in exorcism in order to debunk the myth of possession by evil spirits – only to be convinced otherwise after encountering two cases which did not fit into any category known to psychology or psychiatry. Peck came to the conclusion that possession was a rare phenomenon related to evil and that possessed people are not actually evil; rather, they are doing battle with the forces of evil.[125]

Although Peck's earlier work was met with widespread popular acceptance, his work on the topics of evil and possession has generated significant debate and derision. Much was made of his association with (and admiration for) the controversial Malachi Martin, a Roman Catholic priest and a former Jesuit, despite the fact that Peck consistently called Martin a liar and a manipulator.[126][127] Richard Woods, a Roman Catholic priest and theologian, has claimed that Dr. Peck misdiagnosed patients based upon a lack of knowledge regarding dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and had apparently transgressed the boundaries of professional ethics by attempting to persuade his patients into accepting Christianity.[126] Father Woods admitted that he has never witnessed a genuine case of demonic possession in all his years.[128][129][130]

According to S. N. Chiu, God is shown sending a demon against Saul in 1 Samuel 16 and 18 in order to punish him for the failure to follow God's instructions, showing God as having the power to use demons for his own purposes, putting the demon under his divine authority.[131] According to the Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, demons, despite being typically associated with evil, are often shown to be under divine control, and not acting of their own devices.[132]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Boyce, 1987; Black and Rowley, 1987; Duchesne-Guillemin, 1988.
  2. ^See, for example, the course synopsis and bibliography for "Magic, Science, Religion: The Development of the Western Esoteric Traditions"Archived November 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, at Central European University, Budapest.
  3. ^ abLiddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "δαιμόνιον". A Greek–English Lexicon. Perseus.
  4. ^ ab"Demon". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  5. ^Valery Rees From Gabriel to Lucifer: A Cultural History of Angels Bloomsbury Publishing, 04.12.2012 ISBN 978-0-857-72162-4 p. 81
  6. ^Peter Brown Sorcery, Demons, and the Rise of Christianity from Late Antiquity into the Middle AgeBook Witchcraft Confessions and Accusations Edition1st Edition First Published1970 ImprintRoutledge p. 28 eBook ISBN 9780203708545
  7. ^Fox, Robin Lane (1989). Pagans and Christians. p. 137.
  8. ^See the Medieval grimoire called the Ars Goetia.
  9. ^ abJeffrey Burton Russell Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages Cornell University Press, 1986 ISBN 9780801494291 p. 37
  10. ^Rita Lucarelli Demons (Benevolent and Malevolent Ucla Encyclopedia of egyptology 2010 p.3
  11. ^ abcRita Lucarelli Demons (Benevolent and Malevolent Ucla Encyclopedia of egyptology 2010 p. 2
  12. ^ abSiam Bhayro, Catherine Rider Demons and Illness from Antiquity to the Early-Modern Period BRILL 2017 ISBN 978-9-004-33854-8 p. 53
  13. ^Rita Lucarelli Demons (Benevolent and Malevolent Ucla Encyclopedia of egyptology 2010 p. 3
  14. ^Siam Bhayro, Catherine Rider Demons and Illness from Antiquity to the Early-Modern Period BRILL 2017 ISBN 978-9-004-33854-8 p. 55
  15. ^ abRita Lucarelli Demons (Benevolent and Malevolent Ucla Encyclopedia of egyptology 2010 p. 4
  16. ^Dorian Gieseler Greenbaum The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence BRILL 2015 ISBN 9789004306219 p. 120
  17. ^ abcdefHirsch, Emil G.; Gottheil, Richard; Kohler, Kaufmann; Broydé, Isaac (1906). "Demonology". Jewish Encyclopedia.
  18. ^See Delitzsch, Assyrisches Handwörterbuch. pp. 60, 253, 261, 646; Jensen, Assyr.-Babyl. Mythen und Epen, 1900, p. 453; Archibald Sayce, l.c. pp. 441, 450, 463; Lenormant, l.c. pp. 48–51.
  19. ^ ab"Demons & Demonology". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. The Gale Group. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  20. ^Bar-Hayim, David. "Do Jews Believe in Demons and Evil Spirits?-Interview with Rabbi David Bar-Hayim". www.youtube.com. Tora Nation Machon Shilo. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  21. ^Psalm 106:37, Deuteronomy 32:17
  22. ^"DEMONOLOGY - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com.
  23. ^Benjamin W. McCraw, Robert Arp Philosophical Approaches to Demonology Routledge 2017 ISBN 978-1-315-46675-0 page 9
  24. ^Plaut, W. Gunther (2005). The Torah: A Modern Commentary. Union for Reform Judaism. p. 1403.
  25. ^compare Isaiah 38:11 with Job 14:13; Psalms 16:10, Psalms 49:16, and Psalms 139:8
  26. ^Isaacs, Ronald H. (1998). Ascending Jacob's Ladder: Jewish Views of Angels, Demons, and Evil Spirits. Jason Aronson. p. 96. ISBN . Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  27. ^Bellum Judaeorum vii. 6, § 3
  28. ^"Antiquities" viii. 2, § 5
  29. ^Kohler, K.. Jewish Theology. N.p.: Outlook Verlag, 2020. p. 123
  30. ^Kohler, K.. Jewish Theology. N.p.: Outlook Verlag, 2020. p. 124
  31. ^Bar-Hayim, David (HaRav). "Do Jews Believe in Demons and Evil Spirits?". Machon Shilo. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  32. ^Pes. 112b; compare B. Ḳ. 21a
  33. ^(Targ. Yer. to Deuteronomy xxxii. 24 and Numbers vi. 24; Targ. to Cant. iii. 8, iv. 6; Eccl. ii. 5; Ps. xci. 5, 6.)
  34. ^Targ. to Eccl. i. 13; Pes. 110a; Yer. Shek. 49b
  35. ^Geoffrey W. Dennis The Encyclopedia of Jewish Myth, Magic and Mysticism: Second Edition Llewellyn Worldwide 2016 ISBN 978-0-738-74814-6
  36. ^Pettigrove, Cedrick (2017-01-16). The Esoteric Codex: Supernatural Legends. Lulu.com. ISBN .[self-published source]
  37. ^Hanneken Henoch, T. R. (2006). ANGELS AND DEMONS IN THE BOOK OF JUBILEES AND CONTEMPORARY APOCALYPSES. pp. 11–25.
  38. ^MARTIN, DALE BASIL. When Did Angels Become Demons? Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 129, no. 4, 2010, pp. 657–677. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25765960. Accessed 26 June 2021.
  39. ^Enoch 15:11
  40. ^VanderKam, James C. (1999). THE ANGEL STORY IN THE BOOK OF JUBILEES IN: Pseudepigraphic Perspectives : The Apocrypha And Pseudepigrapha In Light Of The Dead Sea Scrolls. pp. 151–170.
  41. ^Jubilees 8
  42. ^Vermes, Geza (2011). The complete Dead Sea scrolls in English. London: Penguin. p. 375.
  43. ^García, Martínez Florentino. The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994. Print.
  44. ^Florentino Martinez Garcia, Magic in the Dead Sea Scrolls: The Metamorphosis of Magic: From Late Antiquity to the Early Modern Period, compilers Jan Bremmer and Jan R. Veenstra (Leuven: Peeters, 2003).
  45. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 2
  46. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 5
  47. ^ abGhan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 12
  48. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. pp. 15-16
  49. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 35
  50. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. pp. 19-20
  51. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 21
  52. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 29
  53. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 37
  54. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 38
  55. ^ abGhan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 57
  56. ^TY - BOOK T1 - The Zoroastrian Faith: Tradition and Modern Research A1 - Nigosian, S.A. A1 - Nigosian, S.A. SN - 9780773511446 UR - https://books.google.de/books?id=Uspf6eDDvjAC Y1 - 1993 PB - McGill-Queen's University Press ER -
  57. ^Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 page 575-577
  58. ^ abhttp://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/manicheism-pandaemonium
  59. ^http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/giants-the-book-of
  60. ^ abVol. VII, Fasc. 4, pp. 428-431
  61. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 61
  62. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 63
  63. ^Ghan, Chris. The daevas in Zoroastrian scripture. University of Missouri-Columbia, 2014. p. 62
  64. ^Iranian Studies: Volume 2: History of Persian Literature from the Beginning of the Islamic Period to the Present Day. (2016). Niederlande: Brill. p. 23
  65. ^Volume XII, HAREM I–ILLUMINATIONISM, 2004.
  66. ^Dorian Gieseler Greenbaum. The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence. BRILL, 2015. ISBN 9789004306219. p. 127.
  67. ^Anne Marie Kitz. “Demons in the Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East.” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 135, no. 3, 2016, pp. 447–464. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.15699/jbl.1353.2016.3074. Accessed 16 May 2021. p. 447
  68. ^Anne Marie Kitz. “Demons in the Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East.” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 135, no. 3, 2016, pp. 447–464. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.15699/jbl.1353.2016.3074. Accessed 16 May 2021. p. 448
  69. ^Dorian Gieseler Greenbaum. The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence. BRILL, 2015. ISBN 9789004306219. p. 129.
  70. ^MARTIN, DALE BASIL. “When Did Angels Become Demons?” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 129, no. 4, 2010, pp. 657–677. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25765960. Accessed 16 May 2021. p. 664
  71. ^MARTIN, DALE BASIL. “When Did Angels Become Demons?” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 129, no. 4, 2010, pp. 657–677. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25765960. Accessed 16 May 2021. p. 666
  72. ^ abDorian Gieseler Greenbaum. The Daimon in Hellenistic Astrology: Origins and Influence. BRILL, 2015. ISBN 9789004306219. pp. 136-138.
  73. ^H.A. Kelly "The Devil, Demonology, and Witchcraft: Christian Beliefs in Evil Spirits" Wipf and Stock Publishers, 30.01.2004 ISBN 9781592445318 p. 104
  74. ^Demons and the Devil in Ancient and Medieval Christianity. (2011). Niederlande: Brill. p. 104
  75. ^Annette Yoshiko Reed Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature Cambridge University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0521853781 p. 149
  76. ^MARTIN, DALE BASIL. “When Did Angels Become Demons?” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 129, no. 4, 2010, pp. 657–677. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25765960. Accessed 16 May 2021.
  77. ^James W. Boyd Satan and Māra: Christian and Buddhist Symbols of Evil Brill Archive, 1975 ISBN 9789004041738 p. 47
  78. ^Exodus 12:21–29
  79. ^Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. It is considered one of the pseudepigrapha by Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches
  80. ^Jubilees 49:2–4
  81. ^Genesis 6:12
  82. ^Jubilees 10:1
  83. ^Jubilees 17:16
  84. ^Moshe Berstein, Angels at the Aqedah: A Study in the Development of a Midrashic Motif, (Dead Sea Discoveries, 7, 2000), 267.
  85. ^Jubilees 10:7–9
  86. ^MARTIN, DALE BASIL. “When Did Angels Become Demons?” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 129, no. 4, 2010, pp. 657–677. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25765960. Accessed 16 May 2021. p. 670
  87. ^Sara Elizabeth Hecker. Dueling Demons: Mikhail Vrubel's Demon Seated and Demon Downcast. Art in Russia, 2012-05-08. Archived 2015-06-15 at the Wayback Machine. Art in Russia, the School of Russian and Asian Studies, 2012
  88. ^Orlov, Andrei A. (2015). Divine Scapegoats: Demonic Mimesis in Early Jewish Mysticism. New York: SUNY Press. p. 4. ISBN .
  89. ^Exorcism, Sancta Missa – Rituale Romanum, 1962, at sanctamissa.org, Copyright 2007. Canons Regular of St. John Cantius
  90. ^Hansen, Chadwick (1970), Witchcraft at Salem, p. 132, Signet Classics, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 69-15825
  91. ^Modica, Terry Ann (1996), Overcoming The Power of The Occult, p. 31, Faith Publishing Company, ISBN 1-880033-24-0
  92. ^Jeffrey Burton Russell: Satan. The Early Christian Tradition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1987 ISBN 9780801494130, p. 132.
  93. ^David L Bradnick Evil, Spirits, and Possession: An Emergentist Theology of the Demonic Brill 2017 ISBN 978-9-004-35061-8 p. 30
  94. ^Brakke, D. (2009). Demons and the Making of the Monk: Spiritual Combat in Early Christianity. Vereinigtes Königreich: Harvard University Press. p. 157
  95. ^Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer, the Devil in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 1984 (OCoLC)557921104 Online version: Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer, the Devil in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 1984
  96. ^Corapi, John (February 9, 2004). "Angels and Demons – Facts not Fiction". fathercorapi.com. Archived from the original on 2004-04-05.
  97. ^Charles Mathewes Understanding Religious Ethics John Wiley & Sons ISBN 978-1-405-13351-7. p. 249
  98. ^Reynolds, Gabriel Said, “Angels”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Consulted online on 17 August 2021 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_23204> First published online: 2009 First print edition: 9789004181304, 2009, 2009-3
  99. ^Travis Zadeh Commanding Demons and Jinn: The Sorcerer in Early Islamic Thought Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014 p-142-149
  100. ^Teuma, E. (1984). More on Qur'anic jinn. Melita Theologica, 39(1–2), 37–45.
  101. ^Abu l-Lait as-Samarqandi's Commentary on Abu Hanifa al-Fiqh al-absat Introduction, Text and Commentary by Hans Daiber Islamic concept of Belief in the 4th/10th Century Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa p. 243
  102. ^Asa Simon Mittman, Peter J. Dendle The Ashgate Research Companion to Monsters and the Monstrous, Routledge 24.02.2017, ISBN 978-1-351-89431-9
  103. ^Robert Lebling Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar I.B.Tauris 2010 ISBN 978-0-857-73063-3 page 141
  104. ^Pedram Khosronejad THE PEOPLE OF THE AIR HEALING AND SPIRIT POSSESSION IN SOUTH OF IRAN In: Shamanism and Healing Rituals in Contemporary Islam and Sufism, T.Zarcone (ed.) 2011, I.B.Tauris
  105. ^Gerda Sengers Women and Demons: Cultic Healing in Islamic Egypt Brill, 2003 ISBN 978-9-004-12771-5
  106. ^Gerhard Doerfer, Wolfram Hesche Türkische Folklore-Texte aus Chorasan Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1998 ISBN 978-3-447-04111-9 p. 62 (German)
  107. ^Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN .
  108. ^A. E. Waite, The Book of Black Magic, (Weiser Books, 2004).
  109. ^Guiley, Rosemary (2008). The Encyclopedia of Witches, Witchcraft and Wicca. p. 95.
  110. ^Freud (1950), p. 65, quoting Wundt (1906, 129).
  111. ^Freud (1950)
  112. ^Peck, M. S. (1983). People of the Lie: The Hope For Healing Human Evil.
  113. ^Peck, M. S. (2005). Glimpses of the Devil: A Psychiatrist's Personal Accounts of Possession, Exorcism, and Redemption.
  114. ^The exorcist, an interview with M. Scott Peck by Rebecca Traister published in SalonArchived 2005-12-19 at the Wayback Machine
  115. ^ abThe devil you know, National Catholic Reporter, April 29, 2005, a commentary on Glimpses of the Devil by Richard Woods
  116. ^The Patient Is the Exorcist, an interview with M. Scott Peck by Laura Sheahen
  117. ^"Dominican Newsroom". Archived from the original on August 29, 2012.
  118. ^"RichardWoodsOP.net". RichardWoodsOP.net. Archived from the original on 2013-12-28. Retrieved 2014-03-12.
  119. ^Haarman, Susan (2005-10-25). "BustedHalo.com". BustedHalo.com. Retrieved 2014-03-12.
  120. ^Chiu, S. N. (2000). "Historical, Religious, and Medical Perspectives of Possession Phenomenon". Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry. 10 (1).
  121. ^"Demon" in Britannica Concise Encyclopedia,

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Catholic

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demon

The difference between "devil" and "demon"

There are three orders of angels;cherubim,seraphim, and Terraphim. 1/3 of these angels chose to follow the highest cherubim, Lucifer, and they are the Fallen Angels. When they at first represented light and life, after their fall, they represented death and darkness. When they were with God, they were the light that led to God they glorified him. After the fall, they did exactly the opposite... They seek to have an Unholy communion with humans. To make this very simple... Those are devils. They attack man's vision, his purpose, and his personal self. They are dangerous. In the Bible there are many places that speak about the three orders of Angels. The cherubim are the highest. That is where Lucifer and his cohort come from. The seraphim are The Messengers. And The Teraphim are like our guardian angels. The Terraphim who were supposed to protect us, but chose to follow Lucifer instead of God, looked at the women at that time, and saw that they were beautiful and made a pact to breed with them. Which they did and their offspring are called Nephilim. Nephilim are incredibly evil, but half human. The Reason God sent the flood was to get rid of the Nephilim because they were so evil and so stupid and so irredeemable. They multiplied and covered the Earth and caused humans to become exceedingly evil as well. It is the Nephilim who are disembodied from their souls and still searching for humans to feed off of, because they love to have human feelings and they can appear in other forms and maintain those forms... Human forms .... for long periods of time. When Jesus ordered the demons out of the crazy man and sent them into a herd of swine, they were called Legions. There were many of them. They do not mind sharing their host. They just want to feed on human feelings. They are very evil but not as dangerous as Devils. I'm not a Bible scholar. I'm probably explaining this pretty badly. But as simply as I could put it, that is the difference between devils and demons.

answered Apr 18 '17 at 15:59

Sours: https://ell.stackexchange.com/q/78490
  1. Vintage butter dishes ebay
  2. Fnaf never coming home roblox id
  3. Dr. robotnik
  4. Resident alien stream
  5. Affordable seattle apartments

Cocktail conversations: Devil vs Demon

Quick tip:When it comes to the devil, the adjective is diabolical; for demons use demonic

People to impress:Seance groupies, occultists and the astrally obsessed

Devilis the real mean guy. The one with the evil glint in his eyes. The guy who kicks ass. Devil aka Satan aka Lucifer. For Christians and Muslims he was the brightest of God’s angels who decided to do his own thing and was kicked out of heaven. He is the original rebel. Christian iconography portrays the devil as a man with horns, pointed ears, fangs and a forked tail.

Some websites ask readers to be wary of men wearing “expensive-looking black suits” or “scantily clad [women] in black leather”! The devil keeps cropping up in popular culture: from the Biblical serpent luring Adam and Eve, to Dante’s three-headed Satan stuck in the ninth hell, to The Rolling Stones’ paean, “Sympathy for the Devil”. The devil has not only worked his way into our moral compass, he’s established himself in our kitchens, too. Think devilled eggs, crabs and ham.

Demonsare like the obsessions that plague us all our lives, like the little brats who scream in airplanes...demons are everywhere. And their malevolence ranges from minor irritants to existential angst — from making the cricket ball rise sharply at WACA, Perth to luring scholars with knowledge in exchange for their soul (Dr Faustus, Christopher Marlowe).

While Devil is basically a Christian and Islamic theological abstraction, demons are found across cultures. (Though Christian mythology talks of the “fallen angels” as demons who owe their allegiance to the Devil). They are non-human creatures with evil traits and come in various sizes and shapes. So we have the asuras and rakshasas in Hinduism, evil jinns in Islam, Aztec tzitzimitl, Greek furies and Japanese raiju. Demons are known to possess humans. A sprinkling of holy water and some mumbo-jumbo are usually the cure.

ETPrime stories of the day

Sours: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/cocktail-conversations-devil-vs-demon/articleshow/11489308.cms

Devil

Supernatural entity that is the personification of evil and the enemy of God and humankind

For other uses, see Devil (disambiguation).

Satan(the dragon; on the left) gives to the beast of the sea (on the right) power represented by a sceptrein a detail of panel III.40 of the medieval French Apocalypse Tapestry, produced between 1377 and 1382.
A fresco detail from the Rila Monastery, in which demons are depicted as having grotesque faces and bodies.

A devil is the personification of evil as it is conceived in various cultures and religious traditions.[1] It is seen as the objectification of a hostile and destructive force.[2]

It is difficult to specify a particular definition of any complexity that will cover all of the traditions, beyond that it is a manifestation of evil. It is meaningful to consider the devil through the lens of each of the cultures and religions that have the devil as part of their mythos.[3]

The history of this concept intertwines with theology, mythology, psychiatry, art and literature, maintaining a validity, and developing independently within each of the traditions.[4] It occurs historically in many contexts and cultures, and is given many different names—Satan, Lucifer, Beelzebub, Mephistopheles, Iblis—and attributes: It is portrayed as blue, black, or red; it is portrayed as having horns on its head, and without horns, and so on.[5][6] The idea of the devil has been taken seriously often, but not always, for example when devil figures are used in advertising and on candy wrappers.[3][7]

Etymology

The Modern English word devil derives from the Middle Englishdevel, from the Old Englishdēofol, that in turn represents an early Germanic borrowing of the Latindiabolus. This in turn was borrowed from the Greekδιάβολοςdiábolos, "slanderer",[8] from διαβάλλεινdiabállein, "to slander" from διάdiá, "across, through" and βάλλειν bállein, "to hurl", probably akin to the Sanskritgurate, "he lifts up".[9]

Definitions

In his book The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Jeffrey Burton Russell discusses various meanings and difficulties that are encountered when using the term devil. He does not claim to define the word in a general sense, but he describes the limited use that he intends for the word in his book—limited in order to "minimize this difficulty" and "for the sake of clarity". In this book Russell uses the word devil as "the personification of evil found in a variety of cultures", as opposed to the word Satan, which he reserves specifically for the figure in the Abrahamic religions.[10]

In the Introduction to his book Satan: A Biography, Henry Ansgar Kelly discusses various considerations and meanings that he has encountered in using terms such as devil and Satan, etc. While not offering a general definition, he describes that in his book "whenever diabolos is used as the proper name of Satan", he signals it by using "small caps".[11]

The Oxford English Dictionary has a variety of definitions for the meaning of "devil", supported by a range of citations: "Devil" may refer to Satan, the supreme spirit of evil, or one of Satan's emissaries or demons that populate Hell, or to one of the spirits that possess a demonic person; "devil" may refer to one of the "malignant deities" feared and worshiped by "heathen people", a demon, a malignant being of superhuman powers; figuratively "devil" may be applied to a wicked person, or playfully to a rogue or rascal, or in empathy often accompanied by the word "poor" to a person—"poor devil".[12]

Baháʼí Faith

In the Baháʼí Faith, a malevolent, superhuman entity such as a devil or satan is not believed to exist.[13] These terms do, however, appear in the Baháʼí writings, where they are used as metaphors for the lower nature of man. Human beings are seen to have free will, and are thus able to turn towards God and develop spiritual qualities or turn away from God and become immersed in their self-centered desires. Individuals who follow the temptations of the self and do not develop spiritual virtues are often described in the Baháʼí writings with the word satanic.[13] The Baháʼí writings also state that the devil is a metaphor for the "insistent self" or "lower self" which is a self-serving inclination within each individual. Those who follow their lower nature are also described as followers of "the Evil One".[14][15]

Christianity

Main article: Devil in Christianity

See also: Satan § Christianity, and War in Heaven

In Christianity, evil is incarnate in the devil or Satan, a fallen angel who is the primary opponent of God.[16][17] Some Christians also considered the Roman and Greek deities as devils.[5][6]

Christianity describes Satan as a fallen angel who terrorizes the world through evil,[16] is the antithesis of truth,[18] and shall be condemned, together with the fallen angels who follow him, to eternal fire at the Last Judgment.[16]

In mainstream Christianity, the devil is usually referred to as Satan. This is because Christian beliefs in Satan are inspired directly by the dominant view of Second Temple Judaism (recorded in the Enochian books), as expressed/practiced by Jesus, and with some minor variations. Some modern Christians[who?] consider the devil to be an angel who, along with one-third of the angelic host (the demons), rebelled against God and has consequently been condemned to the Lake of Fire. He is described[attribution needed] as hating all humanity (or more accurately creation), opposing God, spreading lies and wreaking havoc on their souls.

Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who convinced Eve to eat the forbidden fruit; thus, Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Although this identification is not present in the Adam and Eve narrative, this interpretation goes back at least as far as the time of the writing of the Book of Revelation, which specifically identifies Satan as being the serpent.[20]

In the Bible, the devil is identified with "the dragon" and "the old serpent" seen in the Book of Revelation,[21] as has "the prince of this world" in the Gospel of John;[22] and "the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience" in the Epistle to the Ephesians;[23] and "the god of this world" in 2 Corinthians 4:4.[24] He is also identified as the dragon in the Book of Revelation[25] and the tempter of the Gospels.[26]

The devil is sometimes called Lucifer, particularly when describing him as an angel before his fall, although the reference in Isaiah 14:12 to Lucifer (Latin Luciferus, "bringer of light"), the "son of the dawn", is a reference to a Babylonian king.[27]

Beelzebub is originally the name of a Philistine god (more specifically a certain type of Baal, from Ba‘al Zebûb, lit. "Lord of Flies") but is also used in the New Testament as a synonym for Satan. A corrupted version, "Belzeboub", appears in The Divine Comedy (Inferno XXXIV).

In other, non-mainstream, Christian beliefs (e.g. the beliefs of the Christadelphians) the word "satan" in the Bible is not regarded as referring to a supernatural, personal being but to any 'adversary' and figuratively refers to human sin and temptation.[28]

Apocrypha/Deuterocanon

See also: Apocrypha, Biblical apocrypha, and Deuterocanonical books

In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the one who brought death into the world.[29] The Second Book of Enoch contains references to a Watcher called Satanael,[30] describing him as the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of heaven[31] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful".[32]

In the Book of Jubilees, Satan rules over a host of angels.[33]Mastema, who induced God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac, is identical with Satan in both name and nature.[34] The Book of Enoch contains references to Sathariel, thought also[by whom?] to be Sataniel and Satan'el. The similar spellings mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel and Gabriel, previous to his expulsion from Heaven.[citation needed]

Gnostic religions

See also: Demiurge § Gnosticism

A lion-faced deity found on a Gnostic gem in Bernard de Montfaucon's L'antiquité expliquée et représentée en figuresmay be a depiction of the Demiurge.

Gnostic and Gnostic-influenced religions postulate the idea that the material world is inherently evil. The One true God is remote, beyond the material universe, therefore this universe must be governed by an inferior imposter deity. This deity was identified with the deity of the Old Testament by some sects, such as the Sethians and the Marcions. Tertullian accuses Marcion of Sinope, that he

[held that] the Old Testament was a scandal to the faithful … and … accounted for it by postulating [that Jehovah was] a secondary deity, a demiurgus, who was god, in a sense, but not the supreme God; he was just, rigidly just, he had his good qualities, but he was not the good god, who was Father of Our Lord Jesus Christ.[35]

John Arendzen (1909) in the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) mentions that Eusebius accused Apelles, the 2nd-century AD Gnostic, of considering the Inspirer of Old Testament prophecies to be not a god, but an evil angel.[36] These writings commonly refer to the Creator of the material world as "a demiurgus"[35] to distinguish him from the One true God. Some texts, such as the Apocryphon of John and On the Origin of the World, not only demonized the Creator God but also called him by the name of the devil in some Jewish writings, Samael.[37]

Mandaeanism

According to Mandaean mythology, Ruha Qadishta fell apart from the "world of light" and gave birth to the devil,[38] called "Lord of Darkness" (malka dhshuka)[39] or Ur. According to one tradition, Ur is an androgyne lion-headed dragon with the wings of an eagle. Together they create several evil demons, liliths and vampires. Ruha Qadishta is described as a liar and sorcerer. Several Abrahamitic prophets are regarded as servants of these devils or their subordinates such as Adonai, including Moses.[40]Jesus appears as another son of Ruha Qadishta and Ur, who distorted the Baptism-ritual thought by John the Baptist.[41][42] Eventually Ruha will be rehabilitated and return to the world of light. According to Jorunn J. Buckley, "the relationship (with Jews) remains close, and the proximity breeds polemical battles... Mandaeism’s relationship to Christianity is more like sibling rivalry than an intergenerational conflict."[43]

Catharism

In the 12th century in Europe the Cathars, who were rooted in Gnosticism, dealt with the problem of evil, and developed ideas of dualism and demonology. The Cathars were seen as a serious potential challenge to the Catholic church of the time. The Cathars split into two camps. The first is absolute dualism, which held that evil was completely separate from the good God, and that God and the devil each had power. The second camp is mitigated dualism, which considers Lucifer to be a son of God, and a brother to Christ. To explain this they used the parable of the prodigal son, with Christ as the good son, and Lucifer as the son that strayed into evilness. The Catholic Church responded to dualism in AD 1215 in the Fourth Lateran Council, saying that God created everything from nothing, and the devil was good when he was created, but he made himself bad by his own free will.[44][45] In the Gospel of the Secret Supper, Lucifer, just as in prior Gnostic systems, appears as a demiurge, who created the material world.[46]

Hinduism

Further information: Demon § Hinduism

The earliest Hindu texts do not offer further explanations for evil, regarding evil as something natural.[47] However, later texts offer various explanations for evil. According to an explanation given by the Brahmins, both demons and gods spoke truth and untruth, but the demons relinquished the truth and the gods relinquished the untruth.[48] But both spirits are regarded as different aspects of one supreme god. Even some fierce deities like Kali are not thought of as devils but just as darker aspects of this god[49] and may even manifest benevolence.[48]

Islam

Main articles: Azazil and Iblis

See also: Satan § Islam

Iblis(top right on the picture) refuses to prostrate before the newly created Adam

In Islam, the principle of evil is expressed by two terms referring to the same entity:[50][51][52]Shaitan (meaning astray, distant or devil) and Iblis. Iblis is the proper name of the devil representing the characteristics of evil.[53] Iblis is mentioned in the Quranic narrative about the creation of humanity. When God created Adam, he ordered the angels to prostrate themselves before him. All did, but Iblis refused and claimed to be superior to Adam out of pride.[Quran7:12] Therefore, pride but also envy became a sign of "unbelief" in Islam.[53] Thereafter Iblis was condemned to Hell, but God granted him a request to lead humanity astray,[54] knowing the righteous will resist Iblis' attempts to misguide them. In Islam, both good and evil are ultimately created by God. But since God's will is good, the evil in the world must be part of God's plan.[55] Actually, God allowed the devil to seduce humanity. Evil and suffering are regarded as a test or a chance to proof confidence in God.[55] Some philosophers and mystics emphasized Iblis himself as a role model of confidence in God, because God ordered the angels to prostrate themselves, Iblis was forced to choose between God's command and God's will (not to praise someone else than God). He successfully passed the test, yet his disobedience caused his punishment and therefore suffering. However, he stays patient and is rewarded in the end.[56]

Muslims hold that the pre-Islamicjinn, tutelary deities, became subject under Islam to the judgment of God, and that those who did not submit to the law of God are devils.[57]

Although Iblis is often compared to the devil in Christian theology, Islam rejects the idea that Satan is an opponent of God and the implied struggle between God and the devil.[clarification needed] Iblis might either be regarded as the most monotheistic or the greatest sinner, but remains only a creature of God. Iblis did not become an unbeliever due to his disobedience, but because of attributing injustice to God; that is, by asserting that the command to prostrate himself before Adam was inappropriate.[58] There is no sign of angelic revolt in the Quran and no mention of Iblis trying to take God's throne[59][60] and Iblis's sin could be forgiven at anytime by God.[61] According to the Quran, Iblis's disobedience was due to his disdain for humanity, a narrative already occurring in early apocrypha.[62]

As in Christianity, Iblis was once a pious creature of God but later cast out of Heaven due to his pride. However, to maintain God's absolute sovereignty,[63] Islam matches the line taken by Irenaeus instead of the later Christian consensus that the devil did not rebel against God but against humanity.[48][51] Further, although Iblis is generally regarded as a real bodily entity,[64] he plays a less significant role as the personification of evil than in Christianity. Iblis is merely a tempter, notable for inciting humans into sin by whispering into humans minds (waswās), akin to the Jewish idea of the devil as yetzer hara.[65][66]

On the other hand, Shaitan refers unilaterally to forces of evil, including the devil Iblis, then he causes mischief.[67] Shaitan is also linked to humans psychological nature, appearing in dreams, causing anger or interrupting the mental preparation for prayer.[64] Furthermore, the term Shaitan also refers to beings, who follow the evil suggestions of Iblis. Furthermore, the principle of Shaitan is in many ways a symbol of spiritual impurity, representing humans' own deficits, in contrast to a "true Muslim", who is free from anger, lust and other devilish desires.[68]

In Sufism and mysticism

See also: Nafs

In contrast to Occidental philosophy, the Sufi idea of seeing "Many as One", and considering the creation in its essence as the Absolute, leads to the idea of the dissolution of any dualism between the ego substance and the "external" substantial objects. The rebellion against God, mentioned in the Quran, takes place on the level of the psyche, that must be trained and disciplined for its union with the spirit that is pure. Since psyche drives the body, flesh is not the obstacle to humans but rather an unawareness that allows the impulsive forces to cause rebellion against God on the level of the psyche. Yet it is not a dualism between body, psyche and spirit, since the spirit embraces both psyche and corporeal aspects of humanity.[69] Since the world is held to be the mirror in which God's attributes are reflected, participation in worldly affairs is not necessarily seen as opposed to God.[65] The devil activates the selfish desires of the psyche, leading the human astray from the Divine.[70] Thus it is the I that is regarded as evil, and both Iblis and Pharao are present as symbols for uttering "I" in ones own behavior. Therefore it is recommended to use the term I as little as possible. It is only God who has the right to say "I", since it is only God who is self-subsistent. Uttering "I" is therefore a way to compare oneself to God, regarded as shirk.[71]

In Salafism

See also: Taghut

Salafi strands of Islam commonly emphasize a dualistic worldview between the believers and the unbelievers,[72] with the devil as the enemy of God's path. Even though the devil will be finally defeated by God, he is a serious and dangerous opponent of humans.[73] While in classical hadiths, the demons (Shayateen) and the jinn are responsible for impurity and possibly endanger people, in Salafi thought, it is the devil himself, who lurks on the believers,[74] always striving to lead them astray from God. The devil is regarded as an omnipresent entity, permanently inciting humans into sin, but can be pushed away by remembering the name God.[75] The devil is regarded as an external entity, threatening the everyday life of the believer, even in social aspects of life.[76] Thus for example, it is the devil who is responsible for Westernemancipation.[77]

Judaism

Further information: Satan § Judaism

Yahweh, the god in pre-exilic Judaism, created both good and evil, as stated in Isaiah 45:7: "I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the Lord do all these things." The devil does not exist in Jewish scriptures. However, the influence of Zoroastrianism during the Achaemenid Empire introduced evil as a separate principle into the Jewish belief system, which gradually externalized the opposition until the Hebrew term satan developed into a specific type of supernatural entity, changing the monistic view of Judaism into a dualistic one.[78] Later, Rabbinic Judaism rejected[when?] the Enochian books (written during the Second Temple period under Persian influence), which depicted the devil as an independent force of evil besides God.[79] After the apocalyptic period, references to Satan in the Tanakh are thought[by whom?] to be allegorical.[80]

Manichaeism

Main article: Prince of darkness (Manichaeism)

In Manichaeism, God and the devil are two unrelated principles. God created good and inhabits the realm of light, while the devil (also called the prince of darkness[81][82]) created evil and inhabits the kingdom of darkness. The contemporary world came into existence, when the kingdom of darkness assaulted the kingdom of light and mingled with the spiritual world.[83] At the end, the devil and his followers will be sealed forever and the kingdom of light and the kingdom of darkness will continue to co-exist eternally, never to commingle again.[84]

Hegemonius (4th century AD) accuses that the Persian prophet Mani, founder of the Manichaean sect in the 3rd century AD, identified Jehovah as "the devil god which created the world"[85] and said that "he who spoke with Moses, the Jews, and the priests … is the [Prince] of Darkness, … not the god of truth."[81][82]

Tengrism

Among the Tengristic myths of central Asia, Erlik refers to a devil-like figure as the ruler of Hell, who is also the first human. According to one narrative, Erlik and God swam together over the primordial waters. When God was about to create the Earth, he send Erlik to dive into the waters and collect some mud. Erlik hid some inside his mouth to later create his own world. But when God commanded the Earth to expand, Erlik got troubled by the mud in his mouth. God aided Erlik to spit it out. The mud carried by Erlik gave place to the unpleasant areas of the world. Because of his sin, he was assigned to evil. In another variant, the creator-god is identified with Ulgen. Again, Erlik appears to be the first human. He desired to create a human just as Ulgen did, thereupon Ulgen reacted by punishing Erlik, casting him into the Underworld where he becomes its ruler.[86][87]

According to Tengrism, there is no death, meaning that, when life comes to an end, it is merely a transition into the invisible world. As the ruler of Hell, Erlik enslaves the souls, who are damned to Hell. Further, he lurks on the souls of those humans living on Earth by causing death, disease and illnesses. At the time of birth, Erlik sends a Kormos to seize the soul of the newborn, following him for the rest of his life in an attempt to seize his soul by hampering, misguiding and injuring him. When Erlik succeeds in destroying a human's body, the Kormos sent by Erlik will try take him down into the Underworld. However a good soul will be brought to Paradise by a Yayutshi sent by Ulgen.[88] Some shamans also made sacrifices to Erlik, for gaining a higher rank in the Underworld, if they should be damned to Hell.

Yazidism

According to Yazidism there is no entity that represents evil in opposition to God; such dualism is rejected by Yazidis,[89] and evil is regarded as nonexistent.[90] Yazidis adhere to strict monism and are prohibited from uttering the word "devil" and from speaking of anything related to Hell.[91]

Zoroastrianism

Main articles: Angra Mainyu and Dualistic cosmology

Zoroastrianism probably introduced the first idea of the devil; a principle of evil independently existing apart from God.[92] In Zoroastrianism, good and evil derive from two ultimately opposed forces.[93] The force of good is called Ahura Mazda and the "destructive spirit" in Avestan-language called Angra Mainyu. The Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman. They are in eternal struggle and neither is all-powerful, especially Angra Mainyu is limited to space and time: in the end of time, he will be finally defeated. While Ahura Mazda creates what is good, Angra Mainyu is responsible for every evil and suffering in the world, such as toads and scorpions.[92]

Titles

These are titles that almost always refer to devil-figures.

  • Al-Shaitan, another Arabic term referring to the devil
  • Angra Mainyu, Ahriman: "malign spirit", "unholy spirit"
  • Der Leibhaftige [Teufel] (German): "[the devil] in the flesh, corporeal"[94]
  • Diabolus, Diabolos (Greek: Διάβολος)
  • The Evil One
  • The Father of Lies (John 8:44), in contrast to Jesus ("I am the truth").
  • Iblis, name of the devil in Islam
  • The Lord of the Underworld / Lord of Hell / Lord of this world
  • Lucifer / the Morning Star (Greek and Roman): the bringer of light, illuminator; the planet Venus, often portrayed as Satan's name in Christianity
  • Kölski (Iceland)[95]
  • Mephistopheles
  • Old Scratch, the Stranger, Old Nick: a colloquialism for the devil, as indicated by the name of the character in the short story "The Devil and Tom Walker"
  • Prince of darkness, the devil in Manichaeism
  • Ruprecht (German form of Robert), a common name for the Devil in Germany (see Knecht Ruprecht (Knight Robert))
  • Satan / the Adversary, Accuser, Prosecutor; in Christianity, the devil
  • (The ancient/old/crooked/coiling) Serpent
  • Voland (fictional character in Goethe's Faust)

See also

References

  1. ^Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, pp. 11 and 34
  2. ^Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, p. 34
  3. ^ abJeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, pp. 41–75
  4. ^Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, pp. 44 and 51
  5. ^ abArp, Robert. The Devil and Philosophy: The Nature of His Game. Open Court, 2014. ISBN 978-0-8126-9880-0. pp. 30–50
  6. ^ abJeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press. 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3. p. 66.
  7. ^Russell, Jeffrey Burton, The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in History, Cornell University Press (1992) ISBN 978-0-8014-8056-0, p. 2
  8. ^διάβολος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  9. ^"Definition of DEVIL". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  10. ^Jeffrey Burton Russell (1987). The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity. Cornell University Press. pp. 11, 34. ISBN .
  11. ^Kelly, Henry Ansgar (2006). Satan: A Biography. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN .
  12. ^Craige, W. A.; Onions, C. T. A. "Devil". A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles: Introduction, Supplement, and Bibliography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (1933) pp. 283–284
  13. ^ abSmith, Peter (2000). "satan". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 304. ISBN .
  14. ^Bahá'u'lláh; Baháʼuʼlláh (1994) [1873–92]. "Tablet of the World". Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Baháʼí Publishing Trust. p. 87. ISBN .
  15. ^Shoghi Effendi quoted in Hornby, Helen (1983). Hornby, Helen (ed.). Lights of Guidance: A Baháʼí Reference File. Baháʼí Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India. p. 513. ISBN .
  16. ^ abcLeeming, David (2005). The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press (US). ISBN .
  17. ^Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, p. 174
  18. ^"Definition of DEVIL". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  19. ^Fritscher, Jack (2004). Popular Witchcraft: Straight from the Witch's Mouth. Popular Press. p. 23. ISBN .
  20. ^Rev. 20:2
  21. ^12:9, 20:2
  22. ^12:31, 14:30
  23. ^2:2
  24. ^2 Corinthians 2:2
  25. ^e.g. Rev. 12:9
  26. ^e.g. Matthew 4:1
  27. ^See, for example, the entries in Nave's Topical Bible, the Holman Bible Dictionary and the Adam Clarke Commentary.
  28. ^"Do you Believe in a Devil? Bible Teaching on Temptation". Retrieved 29 May 2007.
  29. ^"But by the envy of the devil, death came into the world" – Book of Wisdom II. 24
  30. ^2 Enoch 18:3
  31. ^"And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air continuously above the bottomless" – 2 Enoch 29:4
  32. ^"The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" – 2 Enoch 31:4
  33. ^Martyrdom of Isaiah, 2:2; Vita Adæ et Evæ, 16)
  34. ^Book of Jubilees, xvii. 18
  35. ^ abHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Marcionites" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  36. ^Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Gnosticism" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  37. ^Birger A. Pearson Gnosticism Judaism Egyptian Fortress Press ISBN 978-1-4514-0434-0 p. 100
  38. ^Persistence of Primitive Beliefs in Theology: A Study in Syrian Syncretism; 'Ali, Elyun, El, Helios and Elijah. F. W. Bussell
  39. ^Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 p. 552
  40. ^Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 p. 553
  41. ^Nesta H. Webster Secret Societies and Subversive Movements Book Tree 2000 ISBN 978-1-585-09092-1 p. 71
  42. ^Kurt Rudolph Mandaeism. [Mit Fig.] BRILL 1978 ISBN 978-9-004-05252-9 p. 4
  43. ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2002), The Mandaeans: ancient texts and modern people (PDF), Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195153859. p150
  44. ^Rouner, Leroy (1983). The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-664-22748-7.
  45. ^Jeffrey Burton Russell, Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages, Cornell University Press 1986 ISBN 978-0-801-49429-1, pp. 187–188
  46. ^Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 p. 764
  47. ^Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, p. 56
  48. ^ abcJeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press, 1987, ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, p. 56
  49. ^Seema Mohanty, Seema The Book of Kali Penguin Books India 2009 ISBN 978-0-143-06764-1 p. 115
  50. ^Jane Dammen McAuliffe Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān Brill 2001 ISBN 978-90-04-14764-5 p. 526
  51. ^ abJeffrey Burton Russell, Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages, Cornell University Press 1986 ISBN 978-0-801-49429-1, p. 57
  52. ^Benjamin W. McCraw, Robert Arp Philosophical Approaches to the Devil Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-317-39221-7
  53. ^ abJerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 978-90-420-2231-7 p. 250
  54. ^[Quran 17:62]
  55. ^ abJerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 978-90-420-2231-7 p. 249
  56. ^Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 978-90-420-2231-7 pp. 254–255
  57. ^Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, p. 58
  58. ^Sharpe, Elizabeth Marie Into the realm of smokeless fire: (Qur'an 55:14): A critical translation of al-Damiri's article on the jinn from "Hayat al-Hayawan al-Kubra 1953 The University of Arizona download date: 15/03/2020
  59. ^El-Zein, Amira (2009). Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn. Syracuse University Press. p. 46. ISBN .
  60. ^Vicchio, Stephen J. (2008). Biblical Figures in the Islamic Faith. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock. pp. 175–185. ISBN .
  61. ^Ahmadi, Nader; Ahmadi, Fereshtah (1998). Iranian Islam: The Concept of the Individual. Berlin, Germany: Axel Springer. p. 80. ISBN .
  62. ^Houtman, Alberdina; Kadari, Tamar; Poorthuis, Marcel; Tohar, Vered (2016). Religious Stories in Transformation: Conflict, Revision and Reception. Leiden, Germany: Brill Publishers. p. 66. ISBN .
  63. ^Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 978-0-8156-5070-6 p. 45
  64. ^ abCenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 978-1-610-69217-5 p. 1399
  65. ^ abFereshteh Ahmadi, Nader Ahmadi Iranian Islam: The Concept of the Individual Springer 1998 ISBN 978-0-230-37349-5 p. 79
  66. ^Nils G. Holm The Human Symbolic Construction of Reality: A Psycho-Phenomenological Study LIT Verlag Münster 2014 ISBN 978-3-643-90526-0 p. 54
  67. ^"Shaitan, Islamic Mythology."Encyclopaedia Britannica (Britannica.com). Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  68. ^Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-0-7103-1356-0 p. 74
  69. ^Fereshteh Ahmadi, Nader Ahmadi Iranian Islam: The Concept of the Individual Springer 1998 ISBN 978-0-230-37349-5 p. 81-82
  70. ^John O'Kane, Bernd Radtke The Concept of Sainthood in Early Islamic Mysticism: Two Works by Al-Hakim Al-Tirmidhi – An Annotated Translation with Introduction Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-136-79309-7 p. 48
  71. ^Peter J. Awn Satan's Tragedy and Redemption: Iblis in Sufi Psychology BRILL 1983 ISBN 978-90-04-06906-0 p. 93
  72. ^Thorsten Gerald Schneiders Salafismus in Deutschland: Ursprünge und Gefahren einer islamisch-fundamentalistischen Bewegung transcript Verlag 2014 ISBN 978-3-8394-2711-8 p. 392 (German)
  73. ^Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-0-7103-1356-0 p. 67
  74. ^Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-0-7103-1356-0 p. 68
  75. ^Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-0-7103-1356-0 p. 69
  76. ^Michael Kiefer, Jörg Hüttermann, Bacem Dziri, Rauf Ceylan, Viktoria Roth, Fabian Srowig, Andreas Zick „Lasset uns in shaʼa Allah ein Plan machen“: Fallgestützte Analyse der Radikalisierung einer WhatsApp-Gruppe Springer-Verlag 2017 ISBN 978-3-658-17950-2 p. 111
  77. ^Janusz Biene, Christopher Daase, Julian Junk, Harald Müller Salafismus und Dschihadismus in Deutschland: Ursachen, Dynamiken, Handlungsempfehlungen Campus Verlag 2016 9783593506371 p. 177 (German)
  78. ^Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, p. 58
  79. ^Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International. pp. 2–4. ISBN 0-8264-7089-0
  80. ^Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, p. 29
  81. ^ abActa Archelai of Hegemonius, Chapter XII, c. AD 350, quoted in Translated Texts of Manicheism, compiled by Prods Oktor Skjærvø, p. 68.
  82. ^ abHistory of the Acta Archelai explained in the Introduction, p. 11
  83. ^Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 p. 596
  84. ^Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 p. 598
  85. ^Manichaeism by Alan G. Hefner in The Mystica, undated
  86. ^Mircea Eliade History of Religious Ideas, Volume 3: From Muhammad to the Age of Reforms University of Chicago Press, 31 December 2013 ISBN 978-0-226-14772-7 p. 9
  87. ^David Adams Leeming A Dictionary of Creation Myths Oxford University Press 2014 ISBN 978-0-19-510275-8 p. 7
  88. ^Plantagenet Publishing The Cambridge Medieval History Series volumes 1–5
  89. ^Birgül Açikyildiz The Yezidis: The History of a Community, Culture and Religion I.B.Tauris 2014 ISBN 978-0-857-72061-0 p. 74
  90. ^Wadie Jwaideh The Kurdish National Movement: Its Origins and Development Syracuse University Press 2006 ISBN 978-0-815-63093-7 p. 20
  91. ^Florin Curta, Andrew Holt Great Events in Religion: An Encyclopedia of Pivotal Events in Religious History [3 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2016 ISBN 978-1-610-69566-4 p. 513
  92. ^ abJeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, p. 99
  93. ^John R. Hinnells The Zoroastrian Diaspora: Religion and Migration OUP Oxford 2005 ISBN 978-0-191-51350-3 p. 108
  94. ^Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch s.v. "leibhaftig": "gern in bezug auf den teufel: dasz er kein mensch möchte sein, sondern ein leibhaftiger teufel. volksbuch von dr. Faust […] der auch blosz der leibhaftige heiszt, so in Tirol. Fromm. 6, 445; wenn ich dén sehe, wäre es mir immer, der leibhaftige wäre da und wolle mich nehmen. J. Gotthelf Uli d. pächter (1870) 345
  95. ^"Vísindavefurinn: How many words are there in Icelandic for the devil?". Visindavefur.hi.is. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  96. ^Krampus: Gezähmter Teufel mit grotesker Männlichkeit, in Der Standard from 5 December 2017
  97. ^Wo heut der Teufel los ist, in Kleine Zeitung from 25 November 2017
  98. ^Krampusläufe: Tradition trifft Tourismus, in ORF from 4 December 2016
  99. ^Ein schiacher Krampen hat immer Saison, in Der Standard from 5 December 2017

External links

  • The dictionary definition of Devil at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Devils at Wikimedia Commons
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Devil
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devil

Demon devil vs

Cocktail conversations: Devil vs Demon

Quick tip:When it comes to the devil, the adjective is diabolical; for demons use demonic

People to impress:Seance groupies, occultists and the astrally obsessed

Devilis the real mean guy. The one with the evil glint in his eyes. The guy who kicks ass. Devil aka Satan aka Lucifer. For Christians and Muslims he was the brightest of God’s angels who decided to do his own thing and was kicked out of heaven. He is the original rebel. Christian iconography portrays the devil as a man with horns, pointed ears, fangs and a forked tail.

Some websites ask readers to be wary of men wearing “expensive-looking black suits” or “scantily clad [women] in black leather”! The devil keeps cropping up in popular culture: from the Biblical serpent luring Adam and Eve, to Dante’s three-headed Satan stuck in the ninth hell, to The Rolling Stones’ paean, “Sympathy for the Devil”. The devil has not only worked his way into our moral compass, he’s established himself in our kitchens, too. Think devilled eggs, crabs and ham.

Demonsare like the obsessions that plague us all our lives, like the little brats who scream in airplanes...demons are everywhere. And their malevolence ranges from minor irritants to existential angst — from making the cricket ball rise sharply at WACA, Perth to luring scholars with knowledge in exchange for their soul (Dr Faustus, Christopher Marlowe).

While Devil is basically a Christian and Islamic theological abstraction, demons are found across cultures. (Though Christian mythology talks of the “fallen angels” as demons who owe their allegiance to the Devil). They are non-human creatures with evil traits and come in various sizes and shapes. So we have the asuras and rakshasas in Hinduism, evil jinns in Islam, Aztec tzitzimitl, Greek furies and Japanese raiju. Demons are known to possess humans. A sprinkling of holy water and some mumbo-jumbo are usually the cure.

ETPrime stories of the day

Sours: https://m.economictimes.com/cocktail-conversations-devil-vs-demon/articleshow/11489308.cms
CRAZY ANGEL VS DEMON CONTROL ME - FUNNY GOOD \u0026 EVIL RULE MY LIFE BY CRAFTY HACKS

Go of her dick and issuing muffled sighs and moans and using the dick as a gag. The situation struck me as sweet and obliging, so I suggested that she meet again in one of the vacant hotel rooms to which I had. Access. Having received consent, I left. Volnuyas slovno nA pervom svidanii, Vasily (odety only blue futbolku, golubye jeans, yes svetlye krossovki) nakonets voshel in kabinet svoey.

Now discussing:

After exposure, naked and incredibly beautiful was left lying with her nipples sticking out, either from the cold, or from arousal. Covering me with a blanket, my husband thought about her easy compliance and pliability. The pulse echoed in my head. Without thinking twice, he confirmed his decision, climbed over me to the wall and turned me to face him, and he lay.

Down as a "knave".



2743 2744 2745 2746 2747