Fall – Lehigh UniversityEmail: [email protected]
Colonialism/Imperialism: The simple way to distinguish these two is to think of colonialism as practice and imperialism as the idea driving the practice. Colonialism is the implanting of settlements on a distant territory.
Colonialism in its modern form first began to take shape about years ago, and it changed the economic landscape of the world forever. For one thing, it enabled Europe to get fabulously rich on the trade it produced. The foundations of what we now think of as free-market capitalism were invented during the colonial era, partly to handle trade.
It’s an undecided question in academic circles (amongst historians for instance) as to whether colonialism is important purely for its economic consequences, or whether cultural factors (such as missionary Christianity or a sense of racial superiority) also plays a part.
Imperialism is a word with a long history. It was first associated with ancient Rome (a fact that is borne out quite emphatically in the first pages of Heart of Darkness, where the presence of the Romans gives a sense of history). It didn’t begin to be used much in the English-speaking world until the late s. Imperialism has a specifically expansionist connotation.
Globalization generally refers to the period since , following the collapse of the Berlin Wall and the break-down of the Cold War system. In contrast to the earlier, colonial era, globalization is characterized by the decay of national boundaries and state institutions in favor of transnational economic activity. The “globalization” era has also been characterized by intensified cross-cultural interactions (facilitated by technology), as well as an explosion in migrations of various peoples in many different directions.
There is considerable debate amongst historians and economists as to when the elements that we now think of as constituting “globalization” first appeared. Some say the most important moment was , when the “gold standard” was dropped. Others see the structure of the global political hierarchy, as well as the patterns of economic growth and development (where some countries have grown fabulously rich while others have largely languished, or been exploited for low-level labor) as roughly similar to that achieved in the high imperialist era of the s. For these scholars, “globalization” is simply “imperialism” with a different name.
: Period of exploration and early European colonization of the new world and some African and Asian territories. Birth of the new mercantile commodity economy (driven by “cash crops” such as sugar, tobacco, coffee, tea, textiles, etc.)
: British foundation of a colony at Jamestown.
: The Battle of Plassey – the beginning of British military superiority in India
: Congo Conference. Europeans carve up Africa into slices.
: World War I begins (largely a European war in fact). It’s seen by many as a war that puts a halt to the rampant territorial acquisitiveness of the preceding 40 years. European nations are forced to confront the consequences of their penchant for “gobbling” up colonies when they apply the same principles against their own neighbors.
: World War II begins, involving nearly the entire world. Not only are there dozens of sites in which battles occur, but people from the colonies fight for the major powers (we’ll see this in The English Patient, where an Indian soldier is in Italy fighting for the British army).
End of World War II – the beginning of the Cold War, which will largely polarize the world into two “camps” (this is the origin of the language of “first world,” “second world,” and “third world”)
: Indian/Pakistani independence. The beginning of the steady decline in the British empire.
: Most British colonies in Africa and the Caribbean become free nations, generally peacefully. Nigeria, Uganda, Tanzania, Ghana, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago are some of the most important on this list. Most become
Marxist Revolution in Cuba; Fidel Castro comes to power. Before the revolution, Cuba had been largely a U.S. protectorate, and was heavily dominated by parasitical industries like gambling, with a strong Mafia presence.
: Civil rights legislation passed in the U.S. brings changes to the racial hierarchy of the U.S. economy.
: New laws encourage the immigration of skilled laborers from the
Late s: Alongside the emergence of the counter-culture in the U.S., the first moment at which African-Americans develop relationships with newly independent African states.
At an international conference, the major economic powers of the (non-communist) world abolish the “gold standard,” thus initiating a new period in economic speculation.
: Islamic revolution in Iran. Before the revolution, Iran had been a kind of U.S. protectorate, ruled by a U.S. supported dictator (the Shah).
: Beginnings of “glasnost” (opening) in the Soviet Union.
: Berlin wall falls – start of the period of contemporary Globalization by most accounts.
: Failed Coup in the Soviet Union leads to the break up of the USSR. The collapse of the Cold War system.
: Hong Kong becomes independent from England, and is returned to China.
Explosion of the Internet changes the rules and accelerates the pace of global interaction.
American Imperialism: The Spanish-American War
The United States has always been active in helping other nations gain independence, although historians argue about the United States’ motives for doing so. Whether in South Vietnam, South Korea, or Cuba, US foreign policy has long been one of providing economic and military assistance to others. But when is the United States defending its democratic ideals and when, despite its status as a former colony, is it extending its control and influence through military force as an imperial power? One of the earliest examples is US intervention in Cuba’s struggle for independence from Spain, which led to the Spanish-American War in Encouraged by sensationalist American journalism about the Cuban conflict and the mysterious sinking of the US Navy battleship Maine in Havana harbor, the United States declared war against Spain in late April. After only months of fighting the under-resourced Spanish military in Cuba and Philippines, the US emerged victorious as a new world power with a stake in international politics. In the December Treaty of Paris, Spain renounced all claim to Cuba, ceded Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States, and transferred sovereignty over the Philippines to the United States for $20 million. What motivated America to take on a superpower like Spain? Review the sources in this set to gain insight into the motivations for US engagement in the Spanish-American War.
Show full overviewSours: https://dp.la/primary-source-sets/american-imperialism-the-spanish-american-war
Teacher materials for the End of Unit Exam for aligned to the NYS Global History and Geography Transition Exam
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American imperialism is a term that refers to the economic, military, and cultural influence of the United States internationally.
Define American imperialism
- The late nineteenth century was known as the Age of Imperialism, a time when the United States and other major world powers rapidly expanded their territorial possessions.
- American imperialism is partly based on American exceptionalism, the idea that the United States is different from other countries because of its specific world mission to spread liberty and democracy.
- One of the most notable instances of American imperialism was the annexation of Hawaii in , which allowed the United States to gain possession and control of all ports, buildings, harbors, military equipment, and public property that had belonged to the Government of the Hawaiian Islands.
- Some groups, such as the American Anti-Imperialist League, opposed imperialism on the grounds that it conflicted with the American ideal of Republicans and the consent of the governed.
- Social Darwinism: An ideology that seeks to apply biological concepts of Darwinism or evolutionary theory to sociology and politics, often under the assumption that conflict between societal groups leads to social progress, as superior groups surpass inferior ones.
- American Exceptionalism: A belief, central to American political culture since the Revolution, that Americans have a unique mission among nations to spread freedom and democracy.
- The American Anti-Imperialist League: An organization established in the United States on June 15, , to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area.
- American Imperialism: A term that refers to the economic, military, and cultural influence of the United States on other countries.
Expansion and Power
American imperialism is a term that refers to the economic, military, and cultural influence of the United States on other countries. First popularized during the presidency of James K. Polk, the concept of an American Empire was made a reality throughout the latter half of the s. During this time, industrialization caused American businessmen to seek new international markets in which to sell their goods. In addition, the increasing influence of social Darwinism led to the belief that the United States was inherently responsible for bringing concepts such as industry, democracy, and Christianity to less developed savage societies. The combination of these attitudes and other factors led the United States toward imperialism.
Ten Thousand Miles from Tip to Tip: Ten Thousand Miles from Tip to Tip, refers to the extension of U.S. domination (symbolized by a bald eagle) from Puerto Rico to the Philippines. The cartoon contrasts the representation with that of the United States in
American imperialism is partly rooted in American exceptionalism, the idea that the United States is different from other countries due to its specific world mission to spread liberty and democracy. This theory often is traced back to the words of s French observer Alexis de Tocqueville, who concluded that the United States was a unique nation, proceeding along a path to which no limit can be perceived.
Pinpointing the actual beginning of American imperialism is difficult. Some historians suggest that it began with the writing of the Constitution; historian Donald W. Meinig argues that the imperial behavior of the United States dates back to at least the Louisiana Purchase. He describes this event as an, aggressive encroachment of one people upon the territory of another, resulting in the subjugation of that people to alien rule. Here, he is referring to the U.S. policies toward Native Americans, which he said were, designed to remold them into a people more appropriately conformed to imperial desires.
Uncle Sam teaching the world: This caricature shows Uncle Sam lecturing four children labelled Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Cuba in front of children holding books labeled with various U.S. states. In the background, an American Indian holds a book upside down, a Chinese boy stands at the door, and a black boy cleans a window. The blackboard reads, The consent of the governed is a good thing in theory, but very rare in fact the U.S. must govern its new territories with or without their consent until they can govern themselves.
Whatever its origins, American imperialism experienced its pinnacle from the late s through the years following World War II. During this Age of Imperialism, the United States exerted political, social, and economic control over countries such as the Philippines, Cuba, Germany, Austria, Korea, and Japan. One of the most notable examples of American imperialism in this age was the annexation of Hawaii in , which allowed the United States to gain possession and control of all ports, buildings, harbors, military equipment, and public property that had formally belonged to the Government of the Hawaiian Islands. On January 17, , the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii, Queen Liliuokalani, was deposed in a coup détat led largely by American citizens who were opposed to Liliuokalanis attempt to establish a new Constitution. This action eventually resulted in Hawaiis becoming Americas 50th state in
Opposition to Imperialism
The American Anti-Imperialist League was an organization established in the United States on June 15, , to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area. The League also argued that the Spanish-American War was a war of imperialism camouflaged as a war of liberation. The anti-imperialists opposed the expansion because they believed imperialism violated the credo of republicanism, especially the need for consent of the governed. They did not oppose expansion on commercial, constitutional, religious, or humanitarian grounds; rather, they believed that the annexation and administration of third-world tropical areas would mean the abandonment of American ideals of self-government and isolation—ideals expressed in the U.S. Declaration of Independence, George Washington s Farewell Address, and Abraham Lincoln s Gettysburg Address. The Anti-Imperialist League represented an older generation and was rooted in an earlier era; they were defeated in terms of public opinion, the election, and the actions of Congress and the president because most younger Progressives who were just coming to power supported imperialism.
The Spanish-American War
The Spanish-American War was a three-month-long conflict in between Spain and the United States.
Analyze the Spanish-American War
- The Spanish-American War was the result of American intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence with Spain.
- The war served to further repair relations between the American North and South. The war gave both sides a common enemy for the first time since the end of the Civil War in , and many friendships were formed between soldiers of Northern and Southern states during their tours of duty.
- The war marked American entry into world affairs. Since then, the United States has had a significant hand in various conflicts around the world, and has entered into many treaties and agreements.
- The defeat of Spain marked the end of the Spanish Empire.
- expansionism: The policy of expanding a nations territory or its economic influence.
The Spanish-American War was a conflict in between Spain and the United States. It was the result of American intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence. American attacks on Spains Pacific possessions led to U.S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately to the Philippine-American War.
Revolts against Spanish rule had been endemic for decades in Cuba and were closely watched by Americans. With the abolition of slavery in , former slaves joined the ranks of farmers and the urban working class, many wealthy Cubans lost their property, and the number of sugar mills declined. Only companies and the most powerful plantation owners remained in business, and during this period, U.S. financial capital began flowing into the country. Although it remained Spanish territory politically, Cuba started to depend on the United States economically. Coincidentally, around the same time, Cuba saw the rise of labor movements.
Following his second deportation to Spain in , revolutionary José Martí moved to the United States in There he mobilized the support of the Cuban exile community, especially in southern Florida. He aimed for a revolution and independence from Spain, but also lobbied against the U.S. annexation of Cuba, which some American and Cuban politicians desired.
By –, American public opinion grew angrier at reports of Spanish atrocities in Cuba. After the mysterious sinking of the American battleship Maine in Havana harbor, political pressures from the Democratic Party pushed the administration of Republican President William McKinley into a war he had wished to avoid. Compromise proved impossible, resulting in the United States sending an ultimatum to Spain that demanded it immediately surrender control of Cuba, which the Spanish rejected. First Madrid, then Washington, formally declared war.
Although the main issue was Cuban independence, the week war was fought in both the Caribbean and the Pacific. American naval power proved decisive, allowing U.S. expeditionary forces to disembark in Cuba against a Spanish garrison already reeling from nationwide insurgent attacks and wasted by yellow fever.
The Spanish-American War was swift and decisive. During the wars three-month duration, not a single American reverse of any importance occurred. A week after the declaration of war, Commodore George Dewey of the six-warship Asiatic Squadron (then based at Hong Kong) steamed his fleet to the Philippines. Dewey caught the entire Spanish armada at anchor in Manila Bay and destroyed it without losing an American life.
Cuban, Philippine, and American forces obtained the surrender of Santiago de Cuba and Manila as a result of their numerical superiority in most of the battles and despite the good performance of some Spanish infantry units and spirited defenses in places such as San Juan Hill. Madrid sued for peace after two obsolete Spanish squadrons were sunk in Santiago de Cuba and Manila Bay. A third more modern fleet was recalled home to protect the Spanish coasts.
The Treaty of Paris
The result of the war was the Treaty of Paris, negotiated on terms favorable to the United States. It allowed temporary American control of Cuba and indefinite colonial authority over Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines following their purchase from Spain. The defeat and collapse of the Spanish Empire was a profound shock to Spains national psyche, and provoked a movement of thoroughgoing philosophical and artistic reevaluation of Spanish society known as the Generation of The victor gained several island possessions spanning the globe, which caused a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of expansionism.
Legacy of the War
La Fatlera del Oncle Sam: A Catalan satirical drawing, published in La Campana de Gràcia (), criticizing U.S. behavior regarding Cuba.
The war marked American entry into world affairs. Before the Spanish-American War, the United States was characterized by isolationism, an approach to foreign policy that asserts that a nations interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. Since the Spanish-American War, the United States has had a significant hand in various conflicts around the world, and has entered many treaties and agreements. The Panic of was over by this point, and the United States entered a long and prosperous period of economic and population growth and technological innovation that lasted through the s. The war redefined national identity, served as a solution of sorts to the social divisions plaguing the American mind, and provided a model for all future news reporting.
The war also effectively ended the Spanish Empire. Spain had been declining as an imperial power since the early nineteenth century as a result of Napoleons invasion. The loss of Cuba caused a national trauma because of the affinity of peninsular Spaniards with Cuba, which was seen as another province of Spain rather than as a colony. Spain retained only a handful of overseas holdings: Spanish West Africa, Spanish Guinea, Spanish Sahara, Spanish Morocco, and the Canary Islands.
Markets and Missionaries
Progressive Era evangelism included strong political, social, and economic messages, which urged adherents to improve their society.
Identify the Social Gospel movement and the American Missionary Association
- The Social Gospel was the religious wing of the Progressive movement, which aimed to combat injustice, suffering, and poverty in society.
- The American Missionary Association established schools and colleges for African Americans in the post-Civil War period.
- The Social Gospel movement was not a unified and well-focused movement, as there were disagreements among members.
- Social Gospel: A Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early twentieth-century United States and Canada that applied Christian ethics to social problems.
- American Missionary Association: An organization supporting the education of freed blacks that founded hundreds of schools and colleges.
- Evangelical: Of or relating to any of several Christian churches that believe in the sole authority of the gospels.
The Social Gospel Movement
The Social Gospel was a Protestant movement that was most prominent in the early twentieth-century United States and Canada. The movement applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environments, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.
In the United States, prior to World War I, the Social Gospel was the religious wing of the Progressive movement, which aimed to combat injustice, suffering, and poverty in society. Denver, Colorado, was a center of Social Gospel activism. Thomas Uzzell led the Methodist Peoples Tabernacle from to He established a free dispensary for medical emergencies, an employment bureau for job seekers, a summer camp for children, night schools for extended learning, and English language classes. Myron Reed of the First Congregational Church became a spokesman for labor unions on issues such as workers compensation. His middle-class congregation encouraged Reed to move on when he became a Socialist, and he organized a nondenominational church. Baptist minister Jim Goodhart set up an employment bureau, and provided food and lodging for tramps and hobos at the mission he ran. He became city chaplain and director of public welfare of Denver in In addition to these Protestants, Reform Jews and Catholics helped build Denvers social welfare system in the early twentieth century.
Walter Rauschenbusch and Dwight Moody
Pastor Dwight Moody, ca: Portrait of Pastor Dwight Moody: preacher, evangelist, and publisher in the Social Gospel movement.
One of the defining theologians for the Social Gospel movement was Walter Rauschenbusch, a Baptist pastor of a congregation located in Hell’s Kitchen in New York City. Rauschenbusch railed against what he regarded as the selfishness of capitalism and promoted a form of Christian Socialism that supported the creation of labor unions and cooperative economics.
While pastors such as Rauschenbusch were combining their expertise in Biblical ethics and economic studies and research to preach theological claims around the need for social reform, others such as Dwight Moody refused to preach about social issues based on personal experience. Pastor Moody’s experience led him to believe that the poor were too particular in receiving charity. Moody claimed that concentrating on social aid distracted people from the life-saving message of the Gospel.
Rauschenbusch sought to address the problems of the city with Socialist ideas that proved to be frightening to the middle classes, the primary supporters of the Social Gospel. In contrast, Moody attempted to save people from the city and was very effective in influencing middle-class Americans who were moving into the city with traditional style revivals.
The American Missionary Association
The American Missionary Association (AMA) was a Protestant-based abolitionist group founded on September 3, , in Albany, New York. The main purpose of this organization was to abolish slavery, educate African Americans, advocate for racial equality, and promote Christian values. Its members and leaders were both black and white and chiefly affiliated with Congregationalist, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches.
The AMA started The American Missionary magazine, which published from through Among its efforts was the founding of antislavery churches. For instance, the abolitionist Owen Lovejoy was among the Congregational ministers of the AMA who helped plant antislavery churches in Illinois before the American Civil War, aided by the strong westward migration of individuals from the East. While the AMA became notable in the United States for its work in opposition to slavery and in support of education for freed men, it also worked in missions in numerous nations overseas. The nineteenth-century missionary effort was strong in China and east Asia.
While the Social Gospel was short-lived historically, it had a lasting impact on the policies of most of the mainline denominations in the United States. Most began programs for social reform, which led to ecumenical cooperation in during the formation of the Federal Council of Churches (although cooperation regarding social issues often led to charges of Socialism). It is likely that the Social Gospels strong sense of leadership by the people led to womens suffrage, and that the emphasis it placed on morality led to prohibition. Biographer Randall Woods argues that Social Gospel themes learned from childhood allowed Lyndon B. Johnson to transform social problems into moral problems. This helps explain his longtime commitment to social justice, as exemplified by the Great Society, and his commitment to racial equality. The Social Gospel explicitly inspired his foreign-policy approach of a sort of Christian internationalism and nation building.
The Open Door Policy
The Open Door Policy aimed to keep the Chinese trade market open to all countries on an equal basis.
Identify the Open Door Policy and the Monroe Doctrine
- The Open Door Policy was established in and stated that all European nations and the United States could trade with China with equal standing.
- The Monroe Doctrine stated that efforts by European nations to colonize or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression toward the United States and that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal European affairs.
- Open Door Policy: A doctrine that governed the relationship between China and the imperial powers (Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, America, and Japan) during the early s. The policy forbade the imperial powers from taking Chinese territory and from interfering with one anothers economic activities in China.
- Monroe Doctrine: A U.S. foreign policy regarding domination of the Americas, which aimed to free the newly independent colonies of Latin America from European intervention.
The Open Door Policy refers to a U.S. doctrine established in the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, as expressed in Secretary of State John Hays Open Door Note, dated September 6, , and dispatched to the major European powers. The policy proposed to keep China open to trade with all countries on an equal basis, keeping any one power from total control of the country, and calling upon all powers, within their spheres of influence, to refrain from interfering with any treaty port or any vested interest, to permit Chinese authorities to collect tariffs on an equal basis, and to show no favors to their own nationals in the matter of harbor dues or railroad charges.
The Open Door policy was rooted in the desire of U.S. businesses to trade with Chinese markets, though the policys pledging to protect Chinas sovereignty and territorial integrity from partition also tapped the deep-seated sympathies of those who opposed imperialism. In practice, the policy had little legal standing; it was mainly used to mediate competing interests of the colonial powers without much meaningful input from the Chinese, which created lingering resentment and caused it to be seen later as a symbol of national humiliation by many Chinese historians.
Formation of the Policy
During the First Sino-Japanese War in , China faced an imminent threat of being partitioned and colonized by imperialist powers such as Britain, France, Russia, Japan, and Germany. After winning the Spanish-American War of , and with the newly acquired territory of the Philippine Islands, the United States increased its Asian presence and was expecting to further its commercial and political interest in China. The United States felt threatened by other powers much larger spheres of influence in China and worried that it might lose access to the Chinese market should the country be partitioned.
As a response, William Woodville Rockhill formulated the Open Door Policy to safeguard American business opportunities and other interests in China. On September 6, , U.S. Secretary of State John Hay sent notes to the major powers (France, Germany, Britain, Italy, Japan, and Russia), asking them to declare formally that they would uphold Chinese territorial and administrative integrity and would not interfere with the free use of the treaty ports within their spheres of influence in China. The Open Door Policy stated that all nations, including the United States, could enjoy equal access to the Chinese market.
In reply, each country tried to evade Hays request, taking the position that it could not commit itself until the other nations had complied. However, by July , Hay announced that each of the powers had granted consent in principle. Although treaties made after refer to the Open Door Policy, competition among the various powers for special concessions within China for railroad rights, mining rights, loans, foreign trade ports, and so forth, continued unabated.
The Monroe Doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine was a U.S. foreign policy regarding domination of the Americas in It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention. At the same time, the doctrine noted that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries. The Doctrine was issued in at a time when nearly all Latin American colonies of Spain and Portugal had achieved, or were at the point of gaining, independence from the Portuguese and Spanish Empires.
Monroe Doctrine: A newspaper cartoon about the Monroe Doctrine.
President James Monroe first stated the doctrine during his seventh-annual State of the Union Address to Congress. The term Monroe Doctrine itself was coined in By the end of the nineteenth century, Monroes declaration was seen as a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States and one of its longest-standing tenets. It would be invoked by many U.S. statesmen and several U.S. presidents, including Ulysses S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan, and many others.
The intent and impact of the Monroe Doctrine persisted with only minor variations for more than a century. Its stated objective was to free the newly independent colonies of Latin America from European intervention and avoid situations that could make the New World a battleground for the Old World powers, so that the United States could exert its own influence undisturbed. The doctrine asserted that the New World and the Old World were to remain distinctly separate spheres of influence, for they were composed of entirely separate and independent nations.
Inherent in the Monroe Doctrine are the themes of American exceptionalism and Manifest Destiny, two ideas that refer to the right of the United States to exert its influence over the rest of the world. Under these conditions, the Monroe Doctrine was used to justify American intervention abroad multiple times throughout the nineteenth century, most notably in the Spanish-American War and with the annexation of Hawaii.
The Philippine-American War
The Philippine-American War was an armed conflict that resulted in American colonial rule of the Philippines until
Analyze the Philippine-American War
- The Philippine-American War was part of a series of conflicts in the Philippine struggle for independence, preceded by the Philippine Revolution () and the Spanish-American War.
- The conflict arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following annexation by the United States.
- The war and U.S. occupation changed the cultural landscape of the islands. Examples of this include the disestablishment of the Catholic Church as the Philippine state religion and the introduction of the English language as the primary language of government and business.
- The United States officially took control of the Philippines in In , the United States promised some self-government, a limited form of which was established in In , following World War II, the United States gave the territory independence through the Treaty of Manila.
- Philippine Revolution of : An armed conflict in which Philippine revolutionaries tried to win national independence from Spanish colonial rule. Power struggles among the revolutionaries and conflict with Spanish forces continued throughout the Spanish-American War.
- Battle of Manila: The battle that began the Philippine-American War of
- American Anti-Imperialist League: A U.S. organization that opposed American control of the Philippines and viewed it as a violation of republican principles. The group also believed in free trade, the gold standard, and limited government.
The Philippine-American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection (–), was an armed conflict between the United States and Filipino revolutionaries. The conflict arose after the Philippine Revolution of , from the First Philippine Republics struggle to gain independence following annexation by the United States.
The conflict arose when the First Philippine Republic objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris, under which the United States took possession of the Philippines from Spain after the Spanish-American War.
The Battle of Manila: The Battle of Manila, February
Fighting erupted between U.S. and Filipino revolutionary forces on February 4, , and quickly escalated into the Battle of Manila. On June 2, , the First Philippine Republic officially declared war against the United States. The war officially ended on July 2, , with a victory for the United States. However, some Philippine groups led by veterans of the Katipunan continued to battle the American forces. Among those leaders was General Macario Sakay, a veteran Katipunan member who assumed the presidency of the proclaimed Tagalog Republic, formed in after the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo. Other groups, including the Moro people and Pulahanes people, continued hostilities in remote areas and islands until their final defeat a decade later at the Battle of Bud Bagsak on June 15,
Impact and Legacy
Filipino soldiers: Filipino soldiers outside Manila in
The war with and occupation by the United States would change the cultural landscape of the islands. The war resulted in an estimated 34, to , Philippine casualties (with more civilians dying from disease and hunger brought about by war); the disestablishment of the Roman Catholic Church as the state religion; and the introduction of the English language in the islands as the primary language of government, education, business, and industry, and increasingly in future decades, of families and educated individuals.
Under the Philippine Organic Act, passed by the U.S. Congress, Filipinos initially were given very limited self-government, including the right to vote for some elected officials such as a Philippine Assembly. But it was not until 14 years later, with the passage of the Philippine Autonomy Act (or Jones Act), that the United States officially promised eventual independence, along with more Philippine control in the meantime over the Philippines. The Philippine Independence Act created in the following year the Commonwealth of the Philippines, a limited form of independence, and established a process ending in Philippine independence (originally scheduled for , but interrupted and delayed by World War II). Finally in , following World War II and the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, the United States granted independence through the Treaty of Manila.
Some Americans, notably William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Ernest Crosby, and other members of the American Anti-Imperialist League, strongly objected to the annexation of the Philippines. Anti-imperialist movements claimed that the United States had become a colonial power by replacing Spain as the colonial power in the Philippines. Other anti-imperialists opposed annexation on racist grounds. Among these was Senator Benjamin Tillman of South Carolina, who feared that annexation of the Philippines would lead to an influx of nonwhite immigrants into the United States. As news of atrocities committed in subduing the Philippines arrived in the United States, support for the war flagged.
The Banana Wars
The Banana Wars were a series of U.S. military occupations and interventions in Latin American and Caribbean countries during the early s.
Analyze the Banana Wars
- The Banana Wars were a series of conflicts and military interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean caused or influenced by the United States to protect its commercial interests. Panama, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic were all venues of conflicts.
- The United Fruit Company and the Standard Fruit Company had significant commercial stakes and influence in Latin America and were behind many of the conflicts.
- Roosevelt Corollary: An extension to the Monroe Doctrine articulated by President Theodore Roosevelt that states that the United States will intervene in conflicts between European nations and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than allowing the Europeans to press their claims directly.
- United Fruit Company: An American company that sold fruit produced on Latin and South American plantations to North American and European markets. Along with the Standard Fruit Company, it dominated the economies and strongly influenced the governments of Latin American countries.
The Banana Wars, also known as the American-Caribbean Wars, were a series of occupations, police actions, and interventions involving the United States in Central America and the Caribbean. This period of conflict started with the Spanish-American War in and the subsequent Treaty of Paris, which gave the United States control of Cuba and Puerto Rico. Thereafter, the United States conducted military interventions in Cuba, Panama, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. The series of conflicts ended with the withdrawal of troops from Haiti in under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Reasons for these conflicts were varied but were largely economic in nature. The conflict was called the Banana Wars because of the connections between U.S. interventions and the preservation of American commercial interests in the region.
United Fruit Company Steamship Service: A advertisement for the United Fruit Company Steamship Service.
Most prominently, the United Fruit Company had significant financial stakes in the production of bananas, tobacco, sugar cane, and various other products throughout the Caribbean, Central America, and northern South America. The United States also was advancing its political interests, maintaining a sphere of influence and controlling the Panama Canal, which it had recently built and which was critically important to global trade and naval power.
Panama and the Canal
In , Ferdinand de Lesseps started work on a canal, but by , the effort had experienced engineering challenges caused by frequent landslides, slippage of equipment, and mud, and resulted in bankruptcy. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt convinced Congress to take on the abandoned works in , while Colombia was in the midst of the Thousand Days War. During the war, Panamanian Liberals made at least three attempts to seize control of Panama and potentially achieve full autonomy. Liberal guerrillas such as Belisario Porras and Victoriano Lorenzo were suppressed by a collaboration between conservative Colombian and U.S. forces under the Mallarino-Bidlack Treaty. The Roosevelt administration proposed to Colombia that the United States should control the canal, but by mid, the Colombian government refused. The United States then changed tactics.
Less than three weeks later, on November 18, , the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed between Frenchman Philippe-Jean Bunau-Varilla, who had promptly been appointed Panamanian ambassador to the United States (representing Panamanian interests), and the U.S. Secretary of State John Hay. The treaty allowed for the construction of a canal and U.S. sovereignty over a strip of land miles wide and miles long on either side of the Panama Canal Zone. In that zone, the United States would build a canal, then administer, fortify, and defend it in perpetuity.
Honduras and American Fruit Companies
Honduras, where the United Fruit Company and Standard Fruit Company dominated the countrys key banana export sector and associated land holdings and railways, saw the insertion of American troops in , , , , , , and The writer O. Henry coined the term banana republic in to describe Honduras.
The first decades of Hondurass history were marked by instability in terms of politics and economy. Indeed, the political context gave way to armed conflicts between independence and the rise to power of the Carias government. This instability was due in part to American involvement in the country.
The first company that concluded an agreement with the Honduras government was the Vaccaro Brothers Company (Standard Fruit Company). The Cuyamel Fruit Company then followed that lead. The United Fruit Company also agreed to a contract with the government, which was attained through its subsidies (the Tela Rail Road Company and Truxillo Rail Road Company).
Different avenues led to the signature of a contract between the Honduras government and the American companies. The most popular avenue was to obtain a grab on a piece of land in exchange for the completion of railroads in Honduras; this explains why a railroad company conducted the agreement between the United Fruit Company and Honduras. The ultimate goal in the acquisition of a contract was to control the bananas, from production to distribution. Therefore, the American companies would finance guerrilla fighters, presidential campaigns, and governments.
The U.S. military involvements with Mexico in this period are related to the same general commercial and political causes, but stand as a special case. The Americans conducted the Border War with Mexico from to for additional reasons: to control the flow of immigrants and refugees from revolutionary Mexico (pacificos), and to counter rebel raids into U.S. territory. The U.S. occupation of Veracruz, however, was an exercise of armed influence, not an issue of border integrity; it was aimed at cutting off the supplies of German munitions to the government of Mexican leader Victoriano Huerta, whom U.S. President Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize. In the years prior to World War I, the United States also was sensitive to the regional balance of power against Germany. The Germans were actively arming and advising the Mexicans, as demonstrated by the SS Ypiranga arms-shipping incident, the establishment of German saboteur Lothar Witzkes base in Mexico City, the Zimmermann Telegram, and the presence of German advisors during the Battle of Ambos Nogales. Only twice during the Mexican Revolution did the U.S. military occupy Mexico: during the temporary occupation of Veracruz in and between the years and , when U.S. General John Pershing and his army came to Mexico to lead a nationwide search for Pancho Villa.
Other Latin American nations were influenced or dominated by American economic policies and/or commercial interests to the point of coercion. Theodore Roosevelt declared the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine in , asserting the right of the United States to intervene to stabilize the economic affairs of states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts. From to , President William Howard Taft and his Secretary of State Philander C. Knox asserted a more peaceful and economic Dollar Diplomacy foreign policy, although that, too, was backed by force. The U.S. Marine Corps most often carried out these military interventions. The Marines were called in so often that they developed a Small Wars Manual, The Strategy and Tactics of Small Wars, in On occasion, U.S. Naval gunfire and U.S. Army troops were also used.
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Fuh, heat, - said Andryukha. - How long are they still there. I shrugged indifferently, lost in my own thoughts.দুর্গা পূজা ২০২১ উপলক্ষে জামায়াতে ইসলামির সম্প্রতি স্টল--জামায়াতের চ*রম হেকমত ও উজ্জ্বল দৃষ্টান্ত--
It was unbearable to be the guy of the beautiful girl, the sexiest, and not enjoy it completely. I waited all the. Time for her to drop her prejudices, and this will happen.
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We climbed out onto the shore and set to work on the fire. They installed a brazier, took out an ax, started chopping wood - in general, a purely man's work. The girls lay down on the bedspreads to bask in the sun. And it turned out that at first Yulka, not wanting it (or maybe, on the contrary, wanting?), Became the center of attention of me, Arthur and. Lyokha.