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Dodge Viper

Sports car produced by Dodge

Motor vehicle

The Dodge Viper is a sports car that was manufactured by Dodge (by SRT for and ), a division of American car manufacturer FCA US LLC from through , having taken a brief hiatus in and from to Production of the two-seat super car began at New Mack Assembly Plant in and moved to Conner Avenue Assembly Plant in October

Although Chrysler considered ending production because of serious financial problems,[1][2] on September 14, , the then chief executive Sergio Marchionne announced and previewed a new model of the Viper for [3] In , the Viper was named number 10 on the "Most American Cars" list, meaning 75% or more of its parts are manufactured in the U.S.[4] The Viper was eventually discontinued in after being in production for 26 years.

The mph time on a Viper varies from around seconds to seconds. Top speed ranges from mph to over mph, depending on variant and year. [5]

Development history[edit]

The Viper was initially conceived in late at Chrysler's Advanced Design Studios. The following February, Chrysler president Bob Lutz suggested to Tom Gale at Chrysler Design Center that the company should consider producing a modern Cobra, and a clay model was presented to Lutz a few months later. Produced in sheet metal by Metalcrafters,[6] the car appeared as a concept at the North American International Auto Show in Public reaction was so enthusiastic that chief engineer Roy Sjoberg was directed to develop it as a standard production vehicle. But then Chrysler chairman Lee Iacocca delayed approving the $70 million needed to put the sports car into production, saying it was a lot to spend without assurance of financial return.[7]

Sjoberg selected 85 engineers to be "Team Viper", with development beginning in March The team asked the then-Chrysler subsidiary Lamborghini to cast a prototype aluminum block for the sports car to use in May. The production body was completed in Fall , with a chassis prototype running in December. Though a V8 engine was first used in the test mule called White Mule, the V10 engine, which the production car was meant to use, was ready in February Official approval from Iacocca came in May By auto industry standards $70 million was not a lot of money but the potential in improved image was fantastic. One year later, Carroll Shelby piloted a pre-production car as the pace vehicle in the Indianapolis race.[8] In November , the car was released to reviewers with the first retail shipments beginning in January

The powerful two-seater, sold for $52,, sparked immediate interest in the Dodge brand among enthusiasts and the automotive press.[9] Lutz hoped it would raise the spirits of the designers and engineers who were discouraged by the homely, unpopular cars that they had been commanded to produce.[9] The popularity of the Viper overshadowed the recent failure of Iacocca's pet car, the TC, which had cost five times as much to develop.[9]

Models[edit]

First generation (SR I; &#;)[edit]

Main article: Dodge Viper (SR I)

Dodge Viper (SR I).

The first prototype was tested in January It debuted in with two pre-production models as the pace car for the Indianapolis when Dodge was forced to substitute it in place of the Japanese-built Dodge Stealth, because of complaints from the United Auto Workers, and went on sale in January as the RT/10 Roadster.[10]

Lamborghini (then owned by Chrysler Corporation) helped with the design of the V10 engine for the Viper, which was based on the Chrysler's LA V8 engine. A major contributor to the Viper since the beginning was Dick Winkles, the chief power engineer, who had spent time in Italy overseeing the development of the engine.[11]

Originally engineered to be a performance car, the Viper had no exterior-mounted door handles or key cylinders and no air conditioning (however, this was added as an option for the models, and climate controls featured a "snowflake" icon, which indicated a potential setting for the A/C). The roof was made from canvas, and the windows were made from vinyl using zippers to open and close, much like the Jeep Wrangler. However, the Viper was still equipped with some domestic features, including manually-adjustable leather-trimmed sport bucket seats with lumbar support, an AM-FM stereo cassette player with clock and high fidelity sound system, and interior carpeting. Aluminium alloy wheels were larger in diameter due to the larger brakes. A lightweight fiberglass hard roof option on later models was also available to cover the canvas soft roof, and was shipped with each new car. There were also no airbags, in the interest of weight reduction. Adjustable performance suspension was also an available option for most Vipers.

The engine weighs &#;kg (&#;lb) and is rated at &#;hp (&#;PS; &#;kW) at 4,&#;rpm and &#;N⋅m (&#;lb⋅ft) of torque at 3,&#;rpm. Due to the long-gearing allowed by the engine, it provides fuel economy at a United States Environmental Protection Agency-rated 12&#;mpg&#;US (20&#;L/&#;km; 14&#;mpg&#;imp) in the city and 20&#;mpg&#;US (12&#;L/&#;km; 24&#;mpg&#;imp) on the highway.[12] The body is a tubular steel frame with resin transfer molding (RTM) fiberglass panels. The car has a curb weight of 1,&#;kg (3,&#;lb) and lacks modern driver aids such as traction control and anti-lock brakes. The SR I can accelerate from 0–&#;km/h (0–62&#;mph) in seconds, 0–&#;km/h (0–&#;mph) in seconds, can complete the quarter mile in seconds at the speed of &#;km/h (&#;mph) and has a maximum speed of approximately &#;km/h (&#;mph).[13] Its large tires allow the car to average close to one lateral g in corners. However, the car proves tricky to drive at high speeds, particularly for the unskilled driver.

Second generation (SR II, –)[edit]

Main article: Dodge Viper (SR II)

Dodge Viper GTS, which was introduced as a new model for the second generation of the Viper

The second generation of the Viper, codenamed "SR II" was introduced in The exposed side exhaust pipes on the roadster were relocated to a single muffler at the rear exiting via two large central tailpipes during the middle of the model year, which reduced back pressure, and therefore increased the power to &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS). Torque would also increase by 23&#;lb⋅ft (31&#;N⋅m) to &#;lb⋅ft (&#;N⋅m). A removable hardtop was now available along with a sliding glass window. Some steel suspension components were replaced by aluminum, resulting in a 60&#;lb (27&#;kg) weight reduction.[15]

Later in the model year, Dodge introduced the Viper GTS, a new coupé version of the Viper RT/ Dubbed the “double bubble”, the roof featured slightly raised sections that looked like bubbles to accommodate the usage of helmets and taking design cues from the Shelby Daytona designed by Pete Brock.[16] More than 90% of the GTS was new in comparison to the RT/10 despite similar looks. The GTS would come with the same 7,&#;cc (&#;L; &#;cu&#;in) V10 engine but power would be increased to &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS) at 5, rpm and &#;N⋅m (&#;lb⋅ft) of torque at 3, rpm. The GTS would be the first Viper to be equipped with airbags and also included air conditioning, power windows and power door locks as standard equipment.[17] The Viper GTS would be chosen as the pace car for the Indianapolis [18]

Minor updates would continue in and In , the RT/10 would receive a power increase to &#;hp along with air-bags and power windows. In , both of the versions of the Viper were equipped with second-generation air bags, revised exhaust manifolds (saving 24&#;lb (11&#;kg) over the previous cast iron components) along with a revised camshaft.

In , the Dodge Viper was updated to lighter hypereutectic pistons and received factory frame improvements. While the hypereutectic pistons provided less expansion, the forged pistons were preferred by customers for the supercharged and turbocharged aftermarket packages. TSB (Technical Service Bulletin) recalls ( and ) were done at local dealerships to repair the to Viper frames by adding gussets with rivets near the steering box. saw the addition of anti-lock braking system.

Colors would vary throughout the second generation. Dodge would offer three or four colors per model year. Some colors such as steel gray were only offered for one model year (MY) while other colors such as red were offered during the entire second generation.[19] Interior colors and wheel options would also vary throughout the second generation.[20] The cobalt blue colour of the Dodge Viper GTS seen in the Viper (TV series) was exclusively available to the series.

Stripes would be an option beginning in The GTS stripes were larger, fuller stripes than the stripes offered on the 96 RT/ The GTS had twin stripes (8 inches wide with a 4-inch gap in between) that ran from the front bumper all the way through the rear bumper. was the only model year in which the stripes would run through the rear license plate area. Stripes on later models would run from front to rear but did not run through the rear license plate area.

The RT/10 was replaced by the SRT roadster in , and the GTS was replaced in by the SRT coupé.

Third generation (ZB I, –)[edit]

Main article: Dodge Viper (ZB I)

The third generation of the Viper would receive heavy design updates, designed by Osamu Shikado.

The Dodge Viper underwent a major redesign in , courtesy of DaimlerChrysler's Street and Racing Technology group, taking cues from the Dodge Viper GTS-R concept presented in The new Viper SRT, which replaced both the GTS and the RT/10, was heavily restyled with sharp, angled bodywork. The engine's displacement was increased to &#;L; &#;cu&#;in (8,&#;cc), which, with other upgrades, increased the maximum power output to &#;hp (&#;PS; &#;kW) at 5, rpm and &#;lb⋅ft (&#;N⋅m) of torque at 4, rpm.[21] Despite the power increase, the engine weight was reduced to about &#;lb (&#;kg). The chassis was also improved, becoming more rigid and weighing approximately 80&#;lb (36&#;kg) less than the previous model.

An even lighter and stronger aluminum space frame chassis was in development for the next generation model, but the project was shelved because of parent company Chrysler's financial crisis. The still born project, created by Mercedes in the first place, was used as a basis by Daimler for the development of the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG.[22][23]

The initial model introduced was a convertible. In , Dodge introduced a limited-edition Mamba package; Mamba-edition cars featured black interiors, with red stitching and trim, price increased by about $3, cars with the Mamba package were produced.

The Viper SRT Coupé was introduced at the Detroit Auto Show as a model. It shares many of its body panels with the convertible, but borrows its side and rear styling from the Competition Coupé concept. The coupé looks much like the previous Viper GTS and retains the "double-bubble" roof shape of the original along with the original GTS' tail lights, as well as retaining the original GTS Blue with white stripes paint scheme on the initial run of First Edition cars like the original Viper coupé. The engine is SAE-certified to be rated a maximum power output of &#;hp (&#;PS; &#;kW) at 5, rpm and &#;lb⋅ft (&#;N⋅m) of torque at 4, rpm.[24] Unlike the original coupé, the chassis was not modified.

No cars were produced for the model year; instead, Chrysler extended production of the model while preparing the updated model.

Fourth generation (ZB II, –)[edit]

Main article: Dodge Viper (ZB II)

The fourth generation of the Viper would receive heavy mechanical changes over its predecessor and a redesigned engine cover

In , with the introduction of the 8,&#;cc (&#;L; &#;cu&#;in) V10 engine, the power output was raised to to &#;hp ( to &#;kW; to &#;PS) at 6, rpm and &#;lb⋅ft (&#;N⋅m) of torque at 5, rpm. The engine also received better flowing heads with larger valves, MECADYNE cam-in-cam variable valve timing on the exhaust cam lobes, and dual electronic throttle bodies.[25][26] The rev limit could be increased by &#;rpm due to the improved valvetrain stability from both the new camshaft profiles and valve springs. The engine was developed with some external assistance from McLaren Automotive and Ricardo Consulting Engineers. Electronic engine control was developed by Continental AG; the controller can monitor the crankshaft and cylinder position up to six times during each firing and has 10 times more processing power than the previous unit.

Changes outside of the engine were less extreme, but a distinction between the third and fourth generation of the Viper is the vented engine cover. The Tremec T56 transmission was replaced with a new Tremec TR with triple first-gear synchronizers and doubles for higher gears. The Dana M rear axle from the – model now had a GKN ViscoLok speed-sensing limited-slip differential that greatly helps the tires in getting grip under acceleration. Another performance upgrade was the removal of run-flat tires; the new Michelin Pilot Sport 2 tires increased grip and driver feedback and, along with revised suspension (springs, anti-roll bars, and shock valving), made the Viper more neutral in cornering.

Another notable change was the reworked exhaust system; previous third-generation cars had their exhaust crossover under the seats which resulted in a large amount of heat going into the cockpit, which was done initially to help improve the car's exhaust note, since the first two generations of the Viper, which had no crossover, were criticized for their lackluster exhaust notes. The car now featured a new exhaust system with no crossover, reducing the heat that entered the cockpit.

The electrical system was completely revised for Changes included a amp alternator, twin electric cooling fans, electronic throttles, and completely new VENOM engine management system. CAN bus architecture had been combined with pre-existing systems to allow for regulatory compliance. The fuel system was upgraded to include a higher-capacity fuel pump and filtration system.[27]

The Viper ACR made a return for the ZB II generation and was put through its paces at the Nürburgring clocking in a record time of Kuno Wittmer piloted a street legal Dodge Viper ACR to a record lap of at Miller Motorsports Park in Tooele, Utah, on Monday, April 11, breaking the 2-minute mark for the first time in a production car on the mile Outer Course configuration.[28]

On November 4, , Dodge Brand President and CEO Ralph Gilles announced that the Viper would end production in the summer of [29]

During an event hosted by Dodge and the Viper Club of America on July 1, , the final production ZB II Viper, which was given a gold finish and accentuated by contrasting orange stripes, rolled off the assembly line and was presented before attendees of the ceremony.[30]

Fifth generation (VX, –)[edit]

Main article: Dodge Viper (VX I)

Dodge Viper (VX I)

At a dealer conference on September 14, in Orlando, Florida, the then Chrysler Group and Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne was reported[31][32] to have concluded his remarks by unveiling a rolling Dodge Viper prototype.

The Viper was also on display for one night only in Salt Lake City, UT at the 11th Viper Owners Invitational or VOI 11 from September&#;30,&#;&#;() to October&#;3,&#;&#;(). Ralph Gilles was in attendance and gathered feedback from potential customers about the exterior design of the car. The Generation-5 badge was unveiled as well at this event on each dining table in the hall.

In Autumn of , Ralph Gilles announced that the next generation of the Viper would debut at the New York Auto Show in April [33]

The SRT Viper was unveiled at the New York Auto Show.[34][35]

Preliminary specifications include the following:

  • All-aluminum 8,&#;cc (&#;L; &#;cu&#;in) V10 engine rated at &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS) at 6, rpm and &#;lb⋅ft (&#;N⋅m) of torque at 4, rpm.
  • Tremec TR six-speed manual transmission with final drive ratio of 50 percent improvement in torsional stiffness over previous model.
  • Electronic stability control, traction control, 4-channel anti-lock brake system (ABS), carbon fiber and aluminum skin with drag coefficient (Cd), Pirelli P Zero Z-rated tires, 4-piston Brembo brakes with fixed-aluminum calipers with vented x32mm diameter rotors.
  • 20&#;mm lower seating position, 7-inch full-color customizable instrument cluster, Uconnect RA3 or RA4 Access in-vehicle connectivity system with optional SiriusXM Travel Link and a Harman Kardon audio system.
  • Bi-xenon projector headlamps with white light-emitting diode (LED) daytime running lamps and LED turn signals, LED taillamps with integrating stop-and-turn illumination and snakeskin texture lens.
  • A maximum speed of &#;km/h (&#;mph) and a 0–&#;km/h (&#;mph) acceleration time of seconds.

The only notable change for the model year was the addition of a third traction control mode for improved performance during rain.[36]

Sales of the Viper for and were poor. In October , production was reduced by 1/3 due to low sales and growing inventory. In April , production ceased for over two months due to slow sales.[37] Dodge addressed the issue by reducing the price of unsold models by US$15, and announced the models would carry the new, lower price tag.[38]

In , the SRT Viper was renamed the Dodge Viper and the engine received an extra 5&#;HP, raising the maximum power output to &#;hp (&#;kW). There was also an improved highway fuel economy of 20mpg.

In October , Fiat Chrysler group announced that the Viper would end production in [39] Initially, Fiat Chrysler cited poor sales as a reason for discontinuing the Viper; however, other sources have stated the car was discontinued because the Viper was unable to comply with FMVSS safety regulation, which requires side curtain air bags.[40] In July , Fiat Chrysler announced they would be permanently closing the Conner Assembly Plant on August 31, [41]

European market[edit]

The SR II Viper was exported to Europe, where it was sold as a Chrysler.

The ZB I Viper was sold in Europe during – It was the first model to be sold as a Dodge, as part of Chrysler's new sales strategy for the European market. In the United Kingdom it is referred to as a Viper, but was sold as the Dodge SRT, as the Viper name is a registered trademark in the UK.[42]

Special variants[edit]

Road packages[edit]

Viper ACR[edit]

SR II:

The ACR was an optional Package available to the Viper GTS

The American Club Racing (ACR) variant was first introduced as a package on the Viper GTS (Phase SR II).

The ACR used the same K&N air filter and smooth tubes from the GT2 for the power gains along with the BBS rims. A new 5-point harness with the ACR logo was installed for both the driver and passenger. For the model year, Koni adjustable shocks were installed and changed to Dynamics later in the model year. Lastly, the spring rates were increased. The ACR was available in solid color or with stripes with the color choices changing yearly along with ACR badging. The ACR came standard with air conditioning and radio deleted, but could be added back in as a $10, option.[43][44]

ZB II:

Viper SRT ACR (ZB II)

The liter Viper V10 engine

The ACR made a come back to the Viper line-up after the model year. Its upgrades were more drastic than the original, including street-legal racing tires (Michelin Pilot Sport Cups which Michelin describes as "Ultra-High Performance Sport tires"),[45] two-piece brake rotors, adjustable suspension, and significant aerodynamic enhancements that included a front splitter, canards and a carbon fiber adjustable rear wing. The engine received no modifications, so power and torque remain at &#;hp (&#;kW) and &#;lb⋅ft (&#;N⋅m) as in the standard SRT The ACR is street-legal, and is similar to the MOPAR Viper that Dodge displayed at various auto shows. Weight was also decreased by 40&#;lb (18&#;kg) by using the "Hardcore Package", that deletes the A/C, radio, speakers, amplifier, trunk carpet, hood pad and tire-inflator. Its aerodynamic upgrades produce up to 1, pounds ( kN) of downforce at &#;mph (&#;km/h), or roughly 10 times the downforce the standard Viper SRT can produce at the same speed. The interior was upgraded only by the addition of a beacon-tripped lap timer (Hardcore Edition Only).

The Viper ACR was built alongside the standard SRT at the Conner Avenue plant in Detroit. The aerodynamic components were produced by Plasan Carbon Composites and assembled to the vehicle by Prefix Corporation located in Rochester Hills, Michigan.[46]

On September 14, , on the Nürburgring, a Dodge Viper SRT10 ACR completed the sixth fastest production, street-legal car lap ever recorded with a elapsed time.[47] Chrysler's press release claimed a new production car lap record, although three faster laps had been recorded more than two years earlier, albeit by very specialized low production vehicles.

VX I:

Dodge Viper ACR (Phase VX I)

At SEMA , Dodge presented a Viper ACR concept car based on the new VX I platform. After many rumors and speculations,[48] the car was eventually introduced in for the model year. The base price of the ACR was US$, in the United States and CA$, in Canada.[49]

The Dodge Viper ACR came installed with an all-new aerodynamic body kit made from carbon fiber, that included a new front splitter and a fixed carbon fiber rear wing, altogether producing a total of &#;kg (1,&#;lb) of downforce at corners. The 8,&#;cc (&#;L; &#;cu&#;in) Viper V10 engine generated the same power output &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS) at 6, rpm and &#;lb⋅ft (&#;N⋅m) of torque at 5, rpm as in all other Viper trims. The brakes were from Brembo, with discs and calipers built specifically for the car. The discs were now carbon ceramic, a first for the Viper series. The braking system contains &#;mm (15&#;in) discs with 6-piston calipers up front, and &#;mm (14&#;in) discs with 4-piston calipers down the rear. The tires were from Kumho, using a set of tires called the Kumho Ecsta V ACR, a variant of the V specifically built for the ACR.[50] The front tires are P/25R19Z, slightly smaller than the regular Viper, and P/30R19Z at the rear. Suspension system is manufactured by Bilstein, which has 10 settings for rebound and compression tuning for the dampers.

The options for the car are very diverse, like all of the other Viper trims. One example is the ACR Extreme Aero Package, which was the same package used to help the car break a total of 14 track lap records. The package included the addition of a removable extended front splitter extension, a new adjustable dual-element rear wing, four dive planes, six removable diffuser strakes, removable brake ducts, and removable hood louvers, and if removed, will reveal a hood gap. This helped the car produce an extra &#;kg (&#;lb) of downforce at corners, for a total of &#;kg (2,&#;lb). With this package, the top speed was reduced at &#;mph (&#;km/h) instead of &#;mph (&#;km/h) because of the massive downforce produced by the car. At top speed, the car produces &#;kg (1,&#;lb) of downforce, the most of any production car.[51]

In October , the ACR set a lap time at the Nürburgring Nordschleife with the Extreme Aero Package, which was run by SRT, and lapped by their test driver Dominik Farnbacher. Unfortunately, the lap was unofficial according to SRT.[52]

A crowdfund attempt started by volunteer Russ Oasis in on the GoFundMe funding platform began collecting funds to reclaim the lap record on the Nürburgring. Crowdfunding ended up being as high as $,[53][54] He eventually found himself supported by people, and sponsorship and assistance from Kumho Tire (tire supplier), Prefix Performance (formally known as Arrow Performance) (logistics and parts supplier), ViperExchange (car loaners), and Fox Pro Films (lap filming). SRT test driver, racing driver, and former Nürburgring record holder Dominik Farnbacher returned to the track to help the group retake the record. Racing drivers Luca Stolz, Mario Farnbacher, and Lance David Arnold came in as well.[55] Their target was the second position car in street legal vehicles, the Lamborghini Huracán Performante, which set a lap record. The group went through three attempts, with the lap times of (set by Dominik Farnbacher), (set by Mario Farnbacher), and (set by Lance David Arnold), respectively.[56][57][58] Their three-day trip to Nürburg, Germany ended with a crashed Viper ACR.[59]

Despite the failure of surpassing the Huracán Performante, the team was still able to make the Viper ACR the fastest American, rear-wheel driven (with no additional assistance), and manual transmission equipped car to go around the track. Their lap time also brought the car to fifth position for street legal vehicles.[60]

Viper GTC (Phase VX I only)[edit]

The GTC model was introduced in , and was only featured in the VX I phase Vipers.

The &#; Dodge Viper GTC had a customization program that offered 8, colors and 24, hand-painted stripes, 10 wheel choices, 16 interior trims, 6 aero options, and an undisclosed amount of standalone options to choose from. There are a total of 25 million possible build combinations.[61][62][63]

Ordering a GTC enrolled a customer in a unique VIP program called Viper Concierge, which according to Dodge, "offers an exclusive point of contact throughout the custom Viper build process." The Concierge process started with the ordering stage, which included Dodge sending customers a paint chip confirming the owner's choice. Shortly thereafter, Dodge sent buyers a scale "speed-form" replica in their chosen custom colors, to confirm or deny the build. Once the buyer's color and option selection is locked-in, that car becomes a one-of-one Viper for that year – no other buyer would be permitted to build a Viper to the same specifications.[63]

Viper TA (phase VX I only)[edit]

SRT Viper TA at the New York International Auto Show

The Time Attack (TA) model was introduced in and was only featured in the VX I phase Vipers.

The TA model had two variants, and , each variant different from the other. The number of &#; TA package and cars produced is unknown but the numbers are relatively low. To add to the confusion, the full TA or package could be added to the GTC one of one configuration. Also, besides the original run of TA with the production number being stated as xx/33 (or xx/93 for the orange TA ). The TAs built from to were numbered in sequence. For example, #11 was built in and #22 in

The was sold by SRT and was made as a small enhancement for the Viper GTS.

Power stays the same as the standard car, &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS) and &#;lb⋅ft (&#;N⋅m), but the top speed drops to &#;mph (&#;km/h) because of the car's aerodynamic additions.[64]

The car now had the addition of the Advanced Aerodynamic Package (two-piece front corner splitters and a rear decklid spoiler made from carbon fiber), lightweight Sidewinder II wheels finished in matte-black, Pirelli P Zero Corsa tires, two-mode (Street and Race) Bilstein DampTronic suspension adapted from the GTS, but with firmer levels of damping and a smaller spread between modes, shock dampers, increased spring rates and thicker anti-roll bars, carbon fiber underhood X-brace (instead of the aluminium brace in all other models), carbon fiber rear tail light applique from the Exterior Carbon Fiber Accent Package, two-piece Brembo brake rotors with wider brake annulus, black-anodized Brembo brake calipers painted with the Viper logo in TA Orange, TA logos behind both front wheels and a Stryker decal instead of the standard badge on the hood (TA Orange on the Venom Black cars, black on the TA Orange and Venom White cars), black interior with TA Orange accent stitching on the ballistic cloth seats, instrument panel & cowl, center stack, console, hand brake, shifter boot, and door panels. The aerodynamic package adds pounds (&#;kg) of downforce at &#;mph (&#;km/h).[64] The car's mileage is 12 mpg in city, and 19 mpg on the highway.

On March 18, Motor Trend tested the SRT Viper TA in Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca, setting the production car lap record in , besting the previous lap time holder Chevrolet Corvette ZR1's [65]

Even with the release of the TA , the was still available as a package.

The TA edition returned for the model year called the TA (but the TA was still available up to and including the last model year, ). This model was sold by Dodge.[66]

The part of the moniker refers to the updated aero package, which incorporates a bigger rear wing, new front dive planes, and a new carbon-fiber front splitter. The package improves downforce to pounds at &#;mph versus the Viper TA's pounds at &#;mph. The internal parts have also been improved, with a much better suspension setup, new two-piece Brembo rotors, and improved shocks, dampers, springs, and stabilizer bars. The car also has an improved X-brace.[66]

The car's power output also stays the same like the However, the data is based on the Dodge version of the Viper, not the SRT version. Unlike the , the car is able to keep the &#;mph (&#;km/h) top speed. The car's mileage is improved in the version, with 13 mpg in city, and 20 mpg on the highway.[66]

GT2 Champion Edition[edit]

A diecast model of the Viper GT2 road car

In , the GT2 Champion Edition was introduced. With the FIA GT2 Team and Driver series wins in October , Team Viper set forth with the development of a unique Viper model called the GT2 Champion Edition to commemorate the race wins (contrary to popular belief, the GT2 Champion Edition was not built to meet any homologation effort, as the race car came first). Only were made.

The team started working on the concept in November with design concept approved in January , prototype parts in February , pricing approval of $85, in April , and production from June 16 to July 7, The vehicles were the first to be built in VIN (Vehicle Identification Number) sequential order with the first having as its last three on the VIN and the last being

The GT2's exterior is best known for its white with blue stripes paint, large rear wing, front dive planes and splitter, side sills, American flag, BBS rims, and GTS-R badging, which caused many to refer to the vehicle as the GTS-R. However, the GTS-R was the race version of the Viper and not street legal. The GT2 also features an Oreca 5-point racing harness, and the center dash plaque with the vehicle's unique production number.

Power increased by 10 horsepower to &#;hp (&#;kW) with the use of K&N air filter and smooth tubes connecting the filter to the intake manifold. Torque was also increased to &#;lb⋅ft (&#;N⋅m).[67][68]

Racing editions[edit]

Viper ACR-X[edit]

To commemorate the end of the Phase ZB II Viper and mend the gap from the car's production end until the release of the new car, Dodge offered an improved version of the ACR specifically designed to run in the Dodge Viper Cup Series. This car, named Viper ACR-X, added to the basic ACR 40&#;hp (30&#;kW), a new set of downforce-enhancing front canards, long tube headers from American Racing Headers, and new materials that, along with a stripped interior, reduced weight to 3,&#;lb (1,&#;kg). It is a purpose-built race car, and is not street-legal. According to Dodge, the car beat the regular record-holding ACR around Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca by about three seconds ( to ). Price increased by US$12,, to $, Production was planned for the spring of [69] In February , the Viper ACR-X posted a lap time of around the Nürburgring, which was more than 9 seconds faster than the regular Viper ACR upon which it is based.[70]

Viper-based vehicles[edit]

Alfa Romeo Zagato TZ3 Stradale[edit]

Main article: Alfa Romeo TZ3 Stradale

The Alfa Romeo Zagato TZ3 Stradale is the road version of the TZ3 manufactured by Alfa Romeo and designed by Zagato.

The TZ3 Stradale is the fourth model in Zagato's TZ line and serves as Zagato's tribute to the th anniversary of Alfa Romeo. The car itself is based on the Viper ACR-X but with a new carbon fiber body. As planned, only 9 vehicles were built. Not only is the chassis and powertrain from the ZB II Viper, but the interior remains mostly the same as well.[71]

Bristol Fighter[edit]

Main article: Bristol Fighter

The Bristol Fighter is an English sports car by Bristol Cars, and is the first sports car made in 40 years after the company was revived.

The car shares many components with the Viper, including the L V10 engine, that produces &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS) in the regular trim, and &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS) in the S trim. The weight of the car is 1,&#;kg (3,&#;lb). The power is delivered to the rear wheels through a 6-speed manual transmission, which is also Viper-derived.[72]

Only 13 cars were ever produced from its – production run.

Devon GTX[edit]

Main article: Devon GTX

The Devon GTX is an American sports car manufactured Devon Motorworks, which was intended to enter production but was denied by Chrysler since it didn't reach the construction goal of US$10 million, which meant the car remained a concept.

The GTX is based almost entirely on the Viper, albeit with a few changes. The exhaust system has been changed into Devon's own stainless steel variant, along with a revised intake system, a new one-piece carbon fiber superstructure, carbon fiber body panels, new cast-aluminum unequal-length front and rear suspension wishbones, new coil-over shocks, and StopTech race-inspired aftermarket brakes. The GTX was also intended to produce &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS) at 6, rpm from the Viper-derived liter V10 engine.[73]

Prefix Viper Medusa Roadster[edit]

The Prefix Viper Medusa Roadster is a convertible conversion package available for the VX I generation Viper.

Prefix unveiled the Viper Medusa Roadster at a private event at their Prefix Coatings facility in Auburn Hills, Michigan on July 19, Created under their latest division named Prefix Performance, the Medusa is a conversion of the VX I Viper that was never offered as a roadster. The initial run was limited to 10 custom numbered vehicles at a price of $35, on top of the price of the vehicle.[74]

VLF Force 1 V10[edit]

Main article: VLF Force 1

The VLF Force 1 is a premium sports car manufactured by VLF Automotive, a company formed by Bob Lutz and Gilbert Villareal, who were later joined by Henrik Fisker as lead designer.

The Force 1 is heavily based on the Dodge Viper, using its chassis and engine, and also has a similar design language. The car's Viper-derived V10 engine generates &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS). According to the company, it can accelerate from 0–60&#;mph (0–97&#;km/h) in a seconds and can attain a maximum speed of &#;mph (&#;km/h).

Concept vehicles[edit]

Viper GTS-R Concept[edit]

Dodge Viper Competition Coupé at the Chrysler Museum

Ten years after the first Viper Concept was revealed, the GTS-R concept was shown. Osamu Shikado was responsible for the vehicle's exterior which is 3&#;inches lower and 2&#;inches wider than the production Viper at the time. Shikado used race-inspired lines with an aggressive stance. Most of these design cues were adapted to the ZB I generation Viper along with the interior. These included a higher belt line, a side gill, 'bump-up' rear fender shape, and a more defined side crease. Viewed from above, the front-to-rear stripe now is tapered.

Unlike most concepts, the Viper Concept was made as a complete car. It features a complete functional interior with air conditioning, adjustable pedals, and a premium sound system. Only one was ever made featuring a dry-sump V10 engine producing &#;hp (&#;kW), fifty more than the then outgoing model, and &#;lb⋅ft (&#;N⋅m) of torque. The body is a single moulded carbon-fiber shell, with some subtle changes compared with the then outgoing model. An inch and a half has been taken out between the sill and the roof, which together with a chassis sitting two inches lower, gives the car a lower profile. Three inches have been added to the wheelbase and two inches to the track. The doors have also been lengthened, which combined with the longer wheelbase makes entry and exit from the car easier. Brakes are inch ventilated discs with four-piston calipers. The front has the inch wheels with P/30 ZR Goodyear tires up and inch rear wheels with P/30 ZR tires.

Mopar Concept Coupé[edit]

A prototype Mopar Viper coupé, with &#;hp (&#;kW), appeared at the North American International Auto Show, but was not planned for production. The concept appeared to have been a sneak peek at the then upcoming ZB II Viper ACR. Performance parts from this car are sold by Mopar.

SRT Carbon[edit]

For the SEMA show, Chrysler displayed a highly tuned Viper SRT in coupé body style. The vehicle's name comes from the carbon fiber used to reduce the weight by &#;lbs bringing the total to 3,&#;lbs. However, even more significant were the engine modifications, which increased power to &#;hp (&#;kW); no torque or RPM figures were given. Along with the carbon fiber hardtop, a front splitter and rear wing were added; however those parts were not nearly as significant as those on the later SRT ACR, and no downforce/drag information was provided to show that they were even functional. The car was only a concept.

This car was used as a test mule for the development for the Generation V SRT Viper. The car is no longer a show car, and most of its specialty parts were taken off during development for the new Generation V SRT Viper.[75]

Firepower[edit]

Main article: Chrysler Firepower

The Chrysler Firepower was a grand touring concept based on the Viper chassis that would have been equipped with the Hemi V8 engine coupled with an automatic transmission. Price would have been slightly lower than other models.

Copperhead[edit]

Main article: Dodge Copperhead

The Dodge Copperhead was a concept car based on the Viper platform that was intended as a cheaper, more agile car. It was powered by Chrysler's &#;L LH V6 engine instead of the Viper's V10, which produced &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS). It never reached production. Dodge produced a limited-production Copperhead Edition Dodge Viper, with copper-colored paint similar to the concept car and other changes.

SEMA Concept[edit]

The SEMA concept car is a version of the SRT Viper coupe demonstrating Mopar products for SRT Viper. Changes include yellow body colour, carbon fiber parts at underhood, exposed carbon fiber performance cross X-Brace trimmed in a satin finish, a decal-cut Viper "Stryker" logo in the center of X-Brace, engine cover in carbon fiber and aluminum with the SRT logo, prototype aluminum oil filler cap with the SRT logo, a carbon fiber aero package, Mopar coil springs, full black interior with yellow accents, Sabelt hard-shell seats with a six-point safety harness, seat edging in black Katzkin leather with yellow accents in the perforations, Mopar billet aluminum shift knob, billet aluminum HVAC bezels and controls, carbon fiber bulkhead satchel with a universal integrated quick-release camera mount, polished chrome door-sill guards with the Viper logo, race-inspired sand-blasted aluminum Mopar bright pedal kit with the Viper logo etched in the pedals, footrest pedal with "Stryker" logo, optional "Track Pack" wheels finished in hyperblack, a front tow hook and an LED fog lamp kit.

The vehicle was unveiled in the SEMA show.[76][77]

The Mopar performance parts found in the SEMA concept car were sold as SRT Viper components.[78][79]

Media[edit]

Viper television series (–)[edit]

Main article: Viper (TV series)

Chrysler launched a TV series called Viper in to serve as a promotional tool for the Viper. The show ran until with 1 NBC season and 3 syndicated follow-up seasons. Viper is a TV series about a special task force set up by the federal government to fight crime in the fictional city of Metro City, California that is perpetually under siege from one crime wave after another. The weapon used by this task force is a grey assault vehicle known as The Defender that masquerades as a Dodge Viper RT/10 roadster (and later, the Viper GTS coupe). The series takes place in "the near future". The primary brand of vehicles driven in the show were Chrysler or subsidiary companies. The series ran on NBC for one season in before being revived two years later for three more seasons of first-run syndication. Reruns of the series have appeared on Sci-Fi Channel and USA Network.

The Viper Defender "star car" was designed by Chrysler Corporation engineers unlike most Hollywood Film/TV cars that are usually customized by film picture designers. The car was built on a heavily modified RT/10 Chassis and is a completely functional prototype. Only 14 Defenders were made. The exterior design of the car was produced by Chrysler stylist Steve Ferrerio.

The Defender is a fictional assault vehicle that is said to be a highly sophisticated vehicle (contrary to the normal Viper's spartan nature) that can, at the flick of a switch, transform from a red RT/10 (later a blue GTS) into a grey/silver weaponized armored coupe.

Viper-themed video games[edit]

The Dodge Viper (SRII) is featured exclusively in the 3D game Viper Racing, produced in by Monster Games Incorporated (MGI) and Sierra On Line.

Motorsport[edit]

A Viper Competition Coupe GT3 being driven by a privateer team

Phase SR II[edit]

Main article: Chrysler Viper GTS-R

In , a race car based on the Viper was built, and was called the Chrysler Viper GTS-R (in American races, was named the Dodge Viper GTS-R). The construction was done by Chrysler and by the teams Reynard Motorsport and Oreca. The numbers the car used were vast, with numbers like #91, #51, #2, #92, and #

The car was unveiled in at the IMSA GT Championship, with the team Canaska Southwind, which competed in the GTS-1 class, the highest for GTS classes. Its first race was at the 24 Hours of Daytona and managed to finish at the 29th position, but fortunately the team would improve greatly, finishing 12th position in the 12 Hours of Sebring. The car wasn't able to reach much further however, which meant the team had to switch to GTS Oreca had planned for racing in the 24 Hours of Le Mans with their own GTS-R.

Both teams appeared at the Le Mans each with two entries. Three of those four cars managed to finish with Canaska Southwind earning the best result in tenth place. The two teams returned to their respective series afterwards. Oreca finished the year with three races in the BPR Global GT Series getting an eighth place at Brands Hatch, ninth at Spa, and sixth at Nogaro. Canaska Southwind concluded the season by finishing second in class at Mosport and sixth overall.

For the later years and , the efforts made by Oreca had expanded, racing in both the ALMS and FIA GT Championship respectively, earning them nine wins, and one by the racing team Paul Belmondo. Another team named Chamberlain had improved to finish second overall in the FIA GT. Back at ALMS, Oreca had taken the title, with six wins. Later at Le Mans, Oreca would go on to win their second consecutive win, with the top six positions in every class being taken by various GTS-Rs. The GTS-R had made its first appearance in the FFSA GT Championship, and saw the first overall win for Zakspeed in the 24 Hours of Nürburgring. Oreca left the FIA GT in to focus on ALMS, leaving the privateers to race there, and got 11 races out of it for Oreca. They did lose to the then-new Corvette factory racing team, but still won the championship. Back at the FIA GT, the Viper racing teams won four races, but were outrun by the Lister Storm racing teams, with them winning five races for them. This let them settle for second and third. In the FFSA, the three teams DDO, ART, and MMI teams would win a total of eight victories.

The Oreca racing team had left competition to focus on Le Mans Prototype racing for The rest of the teams left at later years, and the Viper GTS-R began fading by , then left completely by

In , a modified Dodge Viper GTS-ACR driven by Greg Crick under the team Crickcars.com entered the Australian GT Championship and won it, with points in total.

Phase ZB I[edit]

A new race car called the Viper Competition Coupe took the GTS-R's place for the second phase. The Viper Competition Coupe had the same liter V10 engine as the road legal Viper, but increased power to &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS), and &#;lb⋅ft (&#;N⋅m) of torque.[80] The Competition Coupe had a carbon fiber composite body on a tubular steel frame with no interior trim and an FIA-legal roll cage. The exterior design of the Competition Coupe was based on the Viper GTS-R concept from Modifications to the mechanicals of the Viper included a gallon fuel cell, differential cooler, ducted brakes, improved driver and engine cooling, trap door oil pan, low-inertia flywheel, an improved double-wishbone suspension system, new spherical bearing control arm attachments, two-way adjustable coil over dampers, and a driver-adjustable blade-type rear anti-roll bar. The anti-lock braking system added a distribution control system.[81] The initial price of the car is around $,[81]

The Viper Competition Coupe was initially built for use in the Viper Challenge Championship one-make series starting in [81] The Competition Coupe was later adapted for use in the Group GT3 instituted by the FIA, allowing its use in a variety of series in Europe and North America. French racing team Oreca made further modifications to the car, to allow it to race in Group GT2. Privateer teams used these cars to compete for certain series, with Racing Box in Europe for the International GT Open and Woodhouse Racing and Primetime Race Group in the United States carrying out independent programs in the American Le Mans Series.

Phase VX I[edit]

SRT Viper GTS-R[edit]

An SRT Viper GTS-R performing in the 24 Hours of Le Mans

The GTS-R returned in competition, but this time as an LM GTE class race car and instead, was constructed and designed by SRT Motorsports and Riley Technologies. It includes Michelin GT tires. The car retained the number #91 but had a new number for it called #

The vehicle was unveiled at the New York Auto Show, and it made its racing debut at the Mid-Ohio Sports Car Challenge where two GTS-Rs, driven by Kuno Wittmer and Dominik Farnbacher with car #91, and Marc Goossens and Tommy Kendall with car #93, finished 10th and 12th in the GT class, which was 23rd and 25th overall.

The racing team entering ALMS included Dominik Farnbacher, Marc Goossens, Ryan Hunter-Reay, Tommy Kendall, Jonathan Bomarito, and Kuno Wittmer.[82]

The two GTS-Rs of SRT Motorsports finished 3rd in the GT class championship. The car made its debut at the Le Mans 24 Hours in , where it finished eighth in class and 24th overall.[83]

In , with the ALMS folding and merging with the Rolex Sports Car Series, SRT soon entered the TUDOR United SportsCar Championship GTLM class. In the opening round, the 24 Hours of Daytona, SRT took 3rd and 6th in class (12th and 27th overall, completing and laps respectively). Both cars were repainted at Watkins Glen in the red and white livery used in the late s to early s. The No. 93 Viper won class at Indianapolis Motor Speedway Brickyard Grand Prix in July , after both cars took podium positions in the previous races at The Glen and Mosport.

In March , Chrysler announced that it was withdrawing the Vipers from the 24 Hours of Le Mans.[83] The Vipers ended the season at Petit Le Mans with a team championship and driver's championship by Kuno Wittmer. Following the end of the season, Chrysler discontinued the factory program by SRT Motorsports.

SRT Viper GT3-R[edit]

The Viper GT3-R was made available for race teams in the later half of at an estimated cost of $,[84] The car shares many technologies with the GTE race car but it is built to Group GT3 regulations.

The GT3 car was jointly developed by SRT Motorsports and Riley Technologies and the car features the same L engine from the road car and is capable of producing &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS) unrestricted.[85] However actual output will be near to &#;hp (&#;kW; &#;PS) due to balance of performance employed in GT3 championships. The car weighs in at 1,&#;kg (&#;lbs) which is inside the 1,&#;kg limit for GT3 cars.

The first win for the GT3-R spec Viper came on July 13, in the Tudor United SportsCar Championship at Mosport[86] followed by a win in the Pirelli World Challenge at the Streets of Toronto in the second race on July 20, [87]Dutch Supercar Challenge squad Team RaceArt won the and Super GT class championship in a Viper GT3-R.[88]

Official lap records[edit]

Since the debut of the ACR series, the ACR has been setting records all around the world, with most of them in the US. 28 of the 29 lap records have each been set by the ACR, with the last one made by the TA

Phase SR II lap times[edit]

The first Viper ACR (Phase SR II) had only set just one lap record, in Willow Springs. This particular lap time was taken in , in which it didn't make the fastest overall lap.

Phase ZB II lap times[edit]

The Viper SRT ACR originally set 13 lap records back in its day.[89] These laps were set by Gary Thomason and SRT drivers Dominik Farnbacher and Chris Winkler.

Phase VX I lap times[edit]

The Viper ACR (Phase VX I) originally held 14 lap records. The Nürburgring Nordschleife lap was specific to records for American-made, manual transmission, and rear-wheel drive cars. The lap times were set by racing drivers Randy Pobst, Tommy Kendall, Lance David Arnold, and SRT vehicle dynamics and development engineer Chris Winkler.[90]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

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  62. ^ ab" Dodge Viper GTC available in 25 million no-cost combos with 1 Of 1 bespoke program". Autoblog.com. January 8,
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dodge_Viper

A neat spout with a barely noticeable hump. And eyes: Oh, what were those eyes. Natasha never knew from whom Christa learned to play with her eyes like that, she did not confess. She had an incomprehensible color of eyes - now, for example, they were clearly cast in sea blue, but Natasha was sure that if she went.

Out into the bright sunlight, there would be no trace of the blue.

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"Oh" - and she covered her chest and sat down on the bench behind me. I did not care. I was probably the drunkest.

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And so Tanya broke free from my embrace, literally fell forward, remaining on all fours and screamed. Well, fuck me, fuck me harder. From such words, my tower was blown away, I took Tanya by the shoulder with one hand, with the other by the. Ass began to fuck her in the ass at a frantic pace.

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I moved carefully and whispered, Feel him, how delicious he is, do not be afraid of him. Then I pulled it out, kissed you on the lips as a token of gratitude, and went down to your spread legs. After hesitating for a few moments, I put an elastic band on my penis, because I do not want to harm you, then I put my tense penis to.



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