What are deities

What are deities DEFAULT

deity

[ dee-i-tee ]

/ ˈdi ɪ ti /


noun,pluralde·i·ties.

a god or goddess.

divine character or nature, especially that of the Supreme Being; divinity.

the estate or rank of a god: The king attained deity after his death.

a person or thing revered as a god or goddess: a society in which money is the only deity.

the Deity,God; Supreme Being.

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Origin of deity

1250–1300; Middle English deite<Old French <Late Latin deitāt- (stem of deitās), equivalent to Latin dei- (combining form of deus god) + -tāt--ty2, formed after Latin dīvīnitāsdivinity

OTHER WORDS FROM deity

su·per·de·i·ty,noun,pluralsu·per·de·i·ties.

Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2021

How to use deity in a sentence

  • The worship of some of these deities appears to have included orgiastic rituals: music, wine, sex.

    Meet Krampus, the Seriously Bad Santa|Jay Michaelson|December 5, 2014|DAILY BEAST

  • These sexual, earthy, animal-human deities really were opposed to everything the early Christians venerated as holy.

    Meet Krampus, the Seriously Bad Santa|Jay Michaelson|December 5, 2014|DAILY BEAST

  • Fully enlightened beings may be avatars, incarnations of various deities.

    Is India’s Fallen ‘God-Man’ So Different From a Megachurch Pastor?|Jay Michaelson|November 21, 2014|DAILY BEAST

  • As the artists put it in their essay, they ended up with “chimeric deities, hybrid talismans, and surreal stellae”.

    Photoshop for Divines|Blake Gopnik|May 23, 2013|DAILY BEAST

British Dictionary definitions for deity (1 of 2)

deity


nounplural-ties

a god or goddess

the state of being divine; godhead

the rank, status, or position of a god

the nature or character of God

Word Origin for deity

C14: from Old French, from Late Latin deitās, from Latin deus god

British Dictionary definitions for deity (2 of 2)

Deity


noun

the Deitythe Supreme Being; God

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Sours: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/deities

Deity

Supernatural being considered divine or sacred

"Gods" redirects here. For the monotheistic concept of a supreme being, see God. For the word, see God (word). For other uses, see Gods (disambiguation).

A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.[1] The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as a god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion), or anything revered as divine.[2]C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness, beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life".[3]

Religions can be categorized by how many deities they worship. Monotheisticreligions accept only one deity (predominantly referred to as "God"),[4][5] whereas polytheistic religions accept multiple deities.[6]Henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as aspects of the same divine principle.[7][8]Nontheistic religions deny any supreme eternal creator deity, but may accept a pantheon of deities which live, die and may be reborn like any other being.[9]: 35–37 [10]: 357–58 

Although most monotheistic religions traditionally envision their God as omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, omnibenevolent, and eternal,[11][12] none of these qualities are essential to the definition of a "deity"[13][14][15] and various cultures have conceptualized their deities differently.[13][14] Monotheistic religions typically refer to God in masculine terms,[16][17]: 96  while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways—male, female, hermaphroditic, or genderless.[18][19][20]

Historically, many ancient cultures—including the ancientMesopotamians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Norsemen—personified natural phenomena, variously as either deliberate causes or effects.[21][22][23] Some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts.[21][22] In Indian religions, deities were envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living being's body, as sensory organs and mind.[24][25][26] Deities were envisioned as a form of existence (Saṃsāra) after rebirth, for human beings who gain merit through an ethical life, where they become guardian deities and live blissfully in heaven, but are also subject to death when their merit is lost.[9]: 35–38 [10]: 356–59 

Etymology[edit]

Main articles: Dyeus, Deus, God (word), and Deva (Hinduism)

The English language word deity derives from Old Frenchdeité,[27][page needed] the Latindeitatem or "divine nature", coined by Augustine of Hippo from deus ("god"). Deus is related through a common Proto-Indo-European (PIE) origin to *deiwos.[28] This root yields the ancient Indian word Deva meaning "to gleam, a shining one", from *div- "to shine", as well as Greekdios "divine" and Zeus; and Latin deus "god" (Old Latindeivos).[29][30][31]: 230–31  Deva is masculine, and the related feminine equivalent is devi.[32]: 496  Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Latin dea and Greek thea.[33] In Old Persian, daiva- means "demon, evil god",[30] while in Sanskrit it means the opposite, referring to the "heavenly, divine, terrestrial things of high excellence, exalted, shining ones".[32]: 496 [34][35]

The closely linked term "god" refers to "supreme being, deity", according to Douglas Harper,[36] and is derived from Proto-Germanic*guthan, from PIE *ghut-, which means "that which is invoked".[31]: 230–31 Guth in the Irish language means "voice". The term *ghut- is also the source of Old Church Slavoniczovo ("to call"), Sanskrit huta- ("invoked", an epithet of Indra), from the root *gheu(e)- ("to call, invoke."),[36]

An alternate etymology for the term "god" comes from the Proto-Germanic Gaut, which traces it to the PIE root *ghu-to- ("poured"), derived from the root *gheu- ("to pour, pour a libation"). The term *gheu- is also the source of the Greek khein "to pour".[36] Originally the German root was a neuter noun. The gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity.[31]: 230–31 [36] In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities.[35]

Definitions[edit]

There is no universally accepted consensus on what a deity is,[1] and concepts of deities vary considerably across cultures.[1] Huw Owen states that the term "deity or god or its equivalent in other languages" has a bewildering range of meanings and significance.[39]: vii–ix  It has ranged from "infinite transcendent being who created and lords over the universe" (God), to a "finite entity or experience, with special significance or which evokes a special feeling" (god), to "a concept in religious or philosophical context that relates to nature or magnified beings or a supra-mundane realm", to "numerous other usages".[39]: vii–ix 

A deity is typically conceptualized as a supernatural or divine concept, manifesting in ideas and knowledge, in a form that combines excellence in some or all aspects, wrestling with weakness and questions in other aspects, heroic in outlook and actions, yet tied up with emotions and desires.[40][41] In other cases, the deity is a principle or reality such as the idea of "soul". The Upanishads of Hinduism, for example, characterize Atman (soul, self) as deva (deity), thereby asserting that the deva and eternal supreme principle (Brahman) is part of every living creature, that this soul is spiritual and divine, and that to realize self-knowledge is to know the supreme.[42][43][44]

Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more deities.[45][46]Polytheism is the belief in and worship of multiple deities,[47] which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, with accompanying rituals.[47] In most polytheistic religions, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, and can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendentalabsolute principle (monistic theologies), which manifests immanently in nature.[47]Henotheism accepts the existence of more than one deity, but considers all deities as equivalent representations or aspects of the same divine principle, the highest.[8][48][49]Monolatry is the belief that many deities exist, but that only one of these deities may be validly worshipped.[50][51]

Monotheism is the belief that only one deity exists.[52][53][54][55][56][57][58] A monotheistic deity, known as "God", is usually described as omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, omnibenevolent and eternal.[11][59] However, not all deities have been regarded this way[13][15][60][61] and an entity does not need to be almighty, omnipresent, omniscient, omnibenevolent or eternal to qualify as a deity.[13][15][60]

Deism is the belief that only one deity exists, who created the universe, but does not usually intervene in the resulting world.[62][63][64][page needed] Deism was particularly popular among western intellectuals during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.[65][66]Pantheism is the belief that the universe itself is God[37] or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent deity.[38]Pandeism is an intermediate position between these, proposing that the creator became a pantheistic universe.[67]Panentheism is the belief that divinity pervades the universe, but that it also transcends the universe.[68]Agnosticism is the position that it is impossible to know for certain whether a deity of any kind exists.[69][70][71]Atheism is the non-belief in the existence of any deity.[72]

Prehistoric[edit]

Further information: Prehistoric religion

Scholars infer the probable existence of deities in the prehistoric period from inscriptions and prehistoric arts such as cave drawings, but it is unclear what these sketches and paintings are and why they were made.[75] Some engravings or sketches show animals, hunters or rituals.[76] It was once common for archaeologists to interpret virtually every prehistoric female figurine as a representation of a single, primordial goddess, the ancestor of historically attested goddesses such as Inanna, Ishtar, Astarte, Cybele, and Aphrodite;[77] this approach has now generally been discredited.[77] Modern archaeologists now generally recognize that it is impossible to conclusively identify any prehistoric figurines as representations of any kind of deities, let alone goddesses.[77] Nonetheless, it is possible to evaluate ancient representations on a case-by-case basis and rate them on how likely they are to represent deities.[77] The Venus of Willendorf, a female figurine found in Europe and dated to about 25,000 BCE has been interpreted by some as an exemplar of a prehistoric female deity.[76] A number of probable representations of deities have been discovered at 'Ain Ghazal[77] and the works of art uncovered at Çatalhöyük reveal references to what is probably a complex mythology.[77]

Regional cultures[edit]

Sub-Saharan African[edit]

Main articles: List of African mythological figures, Traditional African religion, Afro-American religion, and Orisha

Yoruba deity from Nigeria

Diverse African cultures developed theology and concepts of deities over their history. In Nigeria and neighboring West African countries, for example, two prominent deities (locally called Òrìṣà)[78] are found in the Yoruba religion, namely the god Ogun and the goddess Osun.[78] Ogun is the primordial masculine deity as well as the archdivinity and guardian of occupations such as tools making and use, metal working, hunting, war, protection and ascertaining equity and justice.[79][80] Osun is an equally powerful primordial feminine deity and a multidimensional guardian of fertility, water, maternal, health, social relations, love and peace.[78] Ogun and Osun traditions were brought into the Americas on slave ships. They were preserved by the Africans in their plantation communities, and their festivals continue to be observed.[78][79]

In Southern African cultures, a similar masculine-feminine deity combination has appeared in other forms, particularly as the Moon and Sun deities.[81] One Southern African cosmology consists of Hieseba or Xuba (deity, god), Gaune (evil spirits) and Khuene (people). The Hieseba includes Nladiba (male, creator sky god) and Nladisara (females, Nladiba's two wives). The Sun (female) and the Moon (male) deities are viewed as offspring of Nladiba and two Nladisara. The Sun and Moon are viewed as manifestations of the supreme deity, and worship is timed and directed to them.[82] In other African cultures the Sun is seen as male, while the Moon is female, both symbols of the godhead.[83]: 199–120  In Zimbabwe, the supreme deity is androgynous with male-female aspects, envisioned as the giver of rain, treated simultaneously as the god of darkness and light and is called Mwari Shona.[83]: 89  In the Lake Victoria region, the term for a deity is Lubaale, or alternatively Jok.[84]

Ancient Near Eastern[edit]

Main article: Religions of the ancient Near East

Egyptian[edit]

Main articles: Ancient Egyptian deities, Egyptian mythology, and Ancient Egyptian religion

Ancient Egyptian culture revered numerous deities. Egyptian records and inscriptions list the names of many whose nature is unknown and make vague references to other unnamed deities.[86]: 73 EgyptologistJames P. Allen estimates that more than 1,400 deities are named in Egyptian texts,[87] whereas Christian Leitz offers an estimate of "thousands upon thousands" of Egyptian deities.[88]: 393–94  Their terms for deities were nṯr (god), and feminine nṯrt (goddess);[89]: 42  however, these terms may also have applied to any being – spirits and deceased human beings, but not demons – who in some way were outside the sphere of everyday life.[90]: 216 [89]: 62  Egyptian deities typically had an associated cult, role and mythologies.[90]: 7–8, 83 

Around 200 deities are prominent in the Pyramid texts and ancient temples of Egypt, many zoomorphic. Among these, were Min (fertility god), Neith (creator goddess), Anubis, Atum, Bes, Horus, Isis, Ra, Meretseger, Nut, Osiris, Shu, Sia and Thoth.[85]: 11–12  Most Egyptian deities represented natural phenomenon, physical objects or social aspects of life, as hidden immanent forces within these phenomena.[91][92] The deity Shu, for example represented air; the goddess Meretseger represented parts of the earth, and the god Sia represented the abstract powers of perception.[93]: 91, 147  Deities such as Ra and Osiris were associated with the judgement of the dead and their care during the afterlife.[85]: 26–28  Major gods often had multiple roles and were involved in multiple phenomena.[93]: 85–86 

The first written evidence of deities are from early 3rd millennium BCE, likely emerging from prehistoric beliefs.[94] However, deities became systematized and sophisticated after the formation of an Egyptian state under the Pharaohs and their treatment as sacred kings who had exclusive rights to interact with the gods, in the later part of the 3rd millennium BCE.[95][86]: 12–15  Through the early centuries of the common era, as Egyptians interacted and traded with neighboring cultures, foreign deities were adopted and venerated.[96][88]: 160 

Levantine[edit]

Main articles: Ancient Canaanite religion, Origins of Judaism, Ancient Semitic religion, Yahweh, Second Temple Judaism, and History of ancient Israel and Judah

The ancient Canaanites were polytheists who believed in a pantheon of deities,[97][98][99] the chief of whom was the god El, who ruled alongside his consort Asherah and their seventy sons.[97]: 22–24 [98][99]Baal was the god of storm, rain, vegetation and fertility,[97]: 68–127  while his consort Anat was the goddess of war[97]: 131, 137–39  and Astarte, the West Semitic equivalent to Ishtar, was the goddess of love.[97]: 146–49  The people of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah originally believed in these deities,[97][99][100] alongside their own national godYahweh.[101][102] El later became syncretized with Yahweh, who took over El's role as the head of the pantheon,[97]: 13–17  with Asherah as his divine consort[103]: 45 [97]: 146  and the "sons of El" as his offspring.[97]: 22–24  During the later years of the Kingdom of Judah, a monolatristic faction rose to power insisting that only Yahweh was fit to be worshipped by the people of Judah.[97]: 229–33  Monolatry became enforced during the reforms of King Josiah in 621 BCE.[97]: 229  Finally, during the national crisis of the Babylonian captivity, some Judahites began to teach that deities aside from Yahweh were not just unfit to be worshipped, but did not exist.[104][39]: 4  The "sons of El" were demoted from deities to angels.[97]: 22 

Mesopotamian[edit]

Wall relief of the Assyrian national god Aššur in a "winged male" hybrid iconography

Main articles: List of Mesopotamian deities, Ancient Mesopotamian religion, and Sumerian religion

Ancient Mesopotamian culture in southern Iraq had numerous dingir (deities, gods and goddesses).[17]: 69–74 [105] Mesopotamian deities were almost exclusively anthropomorphic.[106]: 93 [17]: 69–74 [107] They were thought to possess extraordinary powers[106]: 93  and were often envisioned as being of tremendous physical size.[106]: 93  They were generally immortal,[106]: 93  but a few of them, particularly Dumuzid, Geshtinanna, and Gugalanna were said to have either died or visited the underworld.[106]: 93  Both male and female deities were widely venerated.[106]: 93 

In the Sumerian pantheon, deities had multiple functions, which included presiding over procreation, rains, irrigation, agriculture, destiny, and justice.[17]: 69–74  The gods were fed, clothed, entertained, and worshipped to prevent natural catastrophes as well as to prevent social chaos such as pillaging, rape, or atrocities.[17]: 69–74 [108]: 186 [106]: 93  Many of the Sumerian deities were patron guardians of city-states.[108]

The most important deities in the Sumerian pantheon were known as the Anunnaki,[109] and included deities known as the "seven gods who decree": An, Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, Nanna, Utu and Inanna.[109] After the conquest of Sumer by Sargon of Akkad, many Sumerian deities were syncretized with East Semitic ones.[108] The goddess Inanna, syncretized with the East Semitic Ishtar, became popular,[110][111]: xviii, xv [108]: 182 [106]: 106–09  with temples across Mesopotamia.[112][106]: 106–09 

The Mesopotamian mythology of the first millennium BCE treated Anšar (later Aššur) and Kišar as primordial deities.[113]Marduk was a significant god among the Babylonians. He rose from an obscure deity of the third millennium BCE to become one of the most important deities in the Mesopotamian pantheon of the first millennium BCE. The Babylonians worshipped Marduk as creator of heaven, earth and humankind, and as their national god.[17]: 62, 73 [114] Marduk's iconography is zoomorphic and is most often found in Middle Eastern archaeological remains depicted as a "snake-dragon" or a "human-animal hybrid".[115][116][117]

Indo-European[edit]

Main article: Proto-Indo-European religion

Greek[edit]

Main articles: List of Greek mythological figures, Greek mythology, Ancient Greek religion, and Twelve Olympians

The ancient Greeks revered both gods and goddesses.[118] These continued to be revered through the early centuries of the common era, and many of the Greek deities inspired and were adopted as part of much larger pantheon of Roman deities.[119]: 91–97  The Greek religion was polytheistic, but had no centralized church, nor any sacred texts.[119]: 91–97  The deities were largely associated with myths and they represented natural phenomena or aspects of human behavior.[118][119]: 91–97 

Several Greek deities probably trace back to more ancient Indo-European traditions, since the gods and goddesses found in distant cultures are mythologically comparable and are cognates.[31]: 230–31 [120]: 15–19 Eos, the Greek goddess of the dawn, for instance, is cognate to Indic Ushas, Roman Aurora and Latvian Auseklis.[31]: 230–32 Zeus, the Greek king of gods, is cognate to Latin Iūpiter, Old German Ziu, and Indic Dyaus, with whom he shares similar mythologies.[31]: 230–32 [121] Other deities, such as Aphrodite, originated from the Near East.[122][123][124][125]

Greek deities varied locally, but many shared panhellenic themes, celebrated similar festivals, rites, and ritual grammar.[126] The most important deities in the Greek pantheon were the Twelve Olympians: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hermes, Demeter, Dionysus, Hephaestus, and Ares.[120]: 125–70  Other important Greek deities included Hestia, Hades and Heracles.[119]: 96–97  These deities later inspired the Dii Consentes galaxy of Roman deities.[119]: 96–97 

Besides the Olympians, the Greeks also worshipped various local deities.[120]: 170–81 [127] Among these were the goat-legged god Pan (the guardian of shepherds and their flocks), Nymphs (nature spirits associated with particular landforms), Naiads (who dwelled in springs), Dryads (who were spirits of the trees), Nereids (who inhabited the sea), river gods, satyrs (a class of lustful male nature spirits), and others. The dark powers of the underworld were represented by the Erinyes (or Furies), said to pursue those guilty of crimes against blood-relatives.[127]

The Greek deities, like those in many other Indo-European traditions, were anthropomorphic. Walter Burkert describes them as "persons, not abstractions, ideas or concepts".[120]: 182  They had fantastic abilities and powers; each had some unique expertise and, in some aspects, a specific and flawed personality.[128]: 52  They were not omnipotent and could be injured in some circumstances.[129] Greek deities led to cults, were used politically and inspired votive offerings for favors such as bountiful crops, healthy family, victory in war, or peace for a loved one recently deceased.[119]: 94–95 [130]

Germanic[edit]

The Kirkby Stephen Stone, discovered in Kirkby Stephen, England, depicts a bound figure, who some have theorized may be the Germanic god Loki.

Main articles: List of Germanic deities, Æsir, Vanir, Germanic paganism, Germanic mythology, Common Germanic deities, Norse religion, and Norse mythology

In Norse mythology, Æsir means gods, while Ásynjur means goddesses.[131]: 49–50  These terms, states John Lindow, may be ultimately rooted in the Indo-European root for "breath" (as in "life giving force"), and to the cognates os which means deity in Old English and anses in Gothic.[131]: 49–50 

Another group of deities found in Norse mythology are termed as Vanir, and are associated with fertility. The Æsir and the Vanirwent to war, according to the Norse and Germanic mythologies. According to the Norse texts such as Ynglinga saga, the Æsir–Vanir War ended in truce and ultimate reconciliation of the two into a single group of deities, after both sides chose peace, exchanged ambassadors (hostages),[132]: 181  and intermarried.[131]: 52–53 [133]

The Norse mythology describes the cooperation after the war, as well as differences between the Æsir and the Vanir which were considered scandalous by the other side.[132]: 181  The goddess Freyja of the Vanir taught magic to the Æsir, while the two sides discover that while Æsir forbid mating between siblings, Vanir accepted such mating.[132]: 181 [134][135]

Temples hosting images of Nordic deities (such as Thor, Odin and Freyr), as well as pagan worship rituals, continued in Nordic countries through the 12th century, according to historical records. This shocked Christian missionaries, and over time Christian equivalents were substituted for the Nordic deities to help suppress paganism.[132]: 187–88 

Roman[edit]

Main articles: List of Roman deities, Roman mythology, Religion in ancient Rome, and Capitoline Triad

4th-century Roman sarcophagusdepicting the creation of man by Prometheus, with major Roman deities Jupiter, Neptune, Mercury, Juno, Apollo, Vulcan watching.

The Roman pantheon had numerous deities, both Greek and non-Greek.[119]: 96–97  The more famed deities, found in the mythologies and the 2nd millennium CE European arts, have been the anthropomorphic deities syncretized with the Greek deities. These include the six gods and six goddesses: Venus, Apollo, Mars, Diana, Minerva, Ceres, Vulcan, Juno, Mercury, Vesta, Neptune, Jupiter (Jove, Zeus); as well Bacchus, Pluto and Hercules.[119]: 96–97 [136] The non-Greek major deities include Janus, Fortuna, Vesta, Quirinus and Tellus (mother goddess, probably most ancient).[119]: 96–97 [137] Some of the non-Greek deities had likely origins in more ancient European culture such as the ancient Germanic religion, while others may have been borrowed, for political reasons, from neighboring trade centers such as those in the Minoan or ancient Egyptian civilization.[138][139][140]

The Roman deities, in a manner similar to the ancient Greeks, inspired community festivals, rituals and sacrifices led by flamines (priests, pontifs), but priestesses (Vestal Virgins) were also held in high esteem for maintaining sacred fire used in the votive rituals for deities.[119]: 100–01  Deities were also maintained in home shrines (lararium), such as Hestia honored in homes as the goddess of fire hearth.[119]: 100–01 [141] This Roman religion held reverence for sacred fire, and this is also found in Hebrew culture (Leviticus 6), Vedic culture's Homa, ancient Greeks and other cultures.[141]

Ancient Roman scholars such as Varro and Cicero wrote treatises on the nature of gods of their times.[142] Varro stated, in his Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum, that it is the superstitious man who fears the gods, while the truly religious person venerates them as parents.[142] Cicero, in his Academica, praised Varro for this and other insights.[142] According to Varro, there have been three accounts of deities in the Roman society: the mythical account created by poets for theatre and entertainment, the civil account used by people for veneration as well as by the city, and the natural account created by the philosophers.[143] The best state is, adds Varro, where the civil theology combines the poetic mythical account with the philosopher's.[143] The Roman deities continued to be revered in Europe through the era of Constantine, and past 313 CE when he issued the Edict of Toleration.[128]: 118–20 

Native American[edit]

Inca[edit]

Left: Inti Raymi, a winter solstice festival of the Inca people, reveres Inti, the sun deity—offerings include round bread and maize beer; Right: Deity Viracocha

Main articles: Inca mythology, Religion in the Inca Empire, and Inca religion in Cusco

The Inca culture has believed in Viracocha (also called Pachacutec) as the creator deity.[144]: 27–30 [145]: 726–29 Viracocha has been an abstract deity to Inca culture, one who existed before he created space and time.[146] All other deities of the Inca people have corresponded to elements of nature.[144][145]: 726–29  Of these, the most important ones have been Inti (sun deity) responsible for agricultural prosperity and as the father of the first Inca king, and Mama Qucha the goddess of the sea, lakes, rivers and waters.[144]Inti in some mythologies is the son of Viracocha and Mama Qucha.[144][147]

Inca Sun deity festival

Oh creator and Sun and Thunder,
be forever copious,
do not make us old,
let all things be at peace,
multiply the people,
and let there be food,
and let all things be fruitful.

—Inti Raymi prayers[148]

Inca people have revered many male and female deities. Among the feminine deities have been Mama Kuka (goddess of joy), Mama Ch'aska (goddess of dawn), Mama Allpa (goddess of harvest and earth, sometimes called Mama Pacha or Pachamama), Mama Killa (moon goddess) and Mama Sara (goddess of grain).[147][144]: 31–32  During and after the imposition of Christianity during Spanish colonialism, the Inca people retained their original beliefs in deities through syncretism, where they overlay the Christian God and teachings over their original beliefs and practices.[149][150][151] The male deity Inti became accepted as the Christian God, but the Andean rituals centered around Inca deities have been retained and continued thereafter into the modern era by the Inca people.[151][152]

Maya and Aztec[edit]

The zoomorphic feathered serpent deity (Kukulkan, Quetzalcoatl)

Main articles: List of Maya gods and supernatural beings, Maya religion, List of Aztec gods and supernatural beings, and Aztec mythology

In Maya culture, Kukulkan has been the supreme creator deity, also revered as the god of reincarnation, water, fertility and wind.[145]: 797–98  The Maya people built step pyramid temples to honor Kukulkan, aligning them to the Sun's position on the spring equinox.[145]: 843–44  Other deities found at Maya archaeological sites include Xib Chac – the benevolent male rain deity, and Ixchel – the benevolent female earth, weaving and pregnancy goddess.[145]: 843–44  The Maya calendar had 18 months, each with 20 days (and five unlucky days of Uayeb); each month had a presiding deity, who inspired social rituals, special trading markets and community festivals.[152]

A deity with aspects similar to Kulkulkan in the Aztec culture has been called Quetzalcoatl.[145]: 797–98  However, states Timothy Insoll, the Aztec ideas of deity remain poorly understood. What has been assumed is based on what was constructed by Christian missionaries. The deity concept was likely more complex than these historical records.[153] In Aztec culture, there were hundred of deities, but many were henotheistic incarnations of one another (similar to the avatar concept of Hinduism). Unlike Hinduism and other cultures, Aztec deities were usually not anthropomorphic, and were instead zoomorphic or hybrid icons associated with spirits, natural phenomena or forces.[153][154] The Aztec deities were often represented through ceramic figurines, revered in home shrines.[153][155]

Polynesian[edit]

Deities of Polynesia carved from wood (bottom two are demons)

Main article: Polynesian narrative

The Polynesian people developed a theology centered on numerous deities, with clusters of islands having different names for the same idea. There are great deities found across the Pacific Ocean. Some deities are found widely, and there are many local deities whose worship is limited to one or a few islands or sometimes to isolated villages on the same island.[156]: 5–6 

The Māori people, of what is now New Zealand, called the supreme being as Io, who is also referred elsewhere as Iho-Iho, Io-Mataaho, Io Nui, Te Io Ora, Io Matua Te Kora among other names.[157]: 239  The Io deity has been revered as the original uncreated creator, with power of life, with nothing outside or beyond him.[157]: 239 Other deities in the Polynesian pantheon include Tangaloa (god who created men),[156]: 37–38 La'a Maomao (god of winds), Tu-Matauenga or Ku (god of war), Tu-Metua (mother goddess), Kane (god of procreation) and Rangi (sky god father).[157]: 261, 284, 399, 476 

The Polynesian deities have been part of a sophisticated theology, addressing questions of creation, the nature of existence, guardians in daily lives as well as during wars, natural phenomena, good and evil spirits, priestly rituals, as well as linked to the journey of the souls of the dead.[156]: 6–14, 37–38, 113, 323 

Religions[edit]

Abrahamic religions[edit]

Christianity[edit]

Main articles: God in Christianity, Trinity, God the Father, God the Son, Jesus in Christianity, Holy Spirit in Christianity, Names of God in Christianity, and Christian theology

Christianity is a monotheistic religion in which most mainstream congregations and denominations accept the concept of the Holy Trinity.[158]: 233–34  Modern orthodox Christians believe that the Trinity is composed of three equal, cosubstantial persons: God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit.[158]: 233–34  The first person to describe the persons of the Trinity as homooúsios (ὁμοούσιος; "of the same substance") was the Church FatherOrigen.[159] Although most early Christian theologians (including Origen) were Subordinationists,[160] who believed that the Father was superior to the Son and the Son superior to the Holy Spirit,[159][161][162] this belief was condemned as heretical by the First Council of Nicaea in the fourth century, which declared that all three persons of the Trinity are equal.[160] Christians regard the universe as an element in God's actualization[158]: 273  and the Holy Spirit is seen as the divine essence that is "the unity and relation of the Father and the Son".[158]: 273  According to George Hunsinger, the doctrine of the Trinity justifies worship in a Church, wherein JesusChrist is deemed to be a full deity with the Christian cross as his icon.[158]: 296 

The theological examination of Jesus Christ, of divine grace in incarnation, his non-transferability and completeness has been a historic topic. For example, the Council of Chalcedon in 451 CE declared that in "one person Jesus Christ, fullness of deity and fullness of humanity are united, the union of the natures being such that they can neither be divided nor confused".[163] Jesus Christ, according to the New Testament, is the self-disclosure of the one, true God, both in his teaching and in his person; Christ, in Christian faith, is considered the incarnation of God.[39]: 4, 29 [164][165]

Islam[edit]

Main articles: Allah, Ilah, God in Islam, and Names of God in Islam

Ilah, ʾIlāh (Arabic: إله‎; plural: آلهةʾālihah), is an Arabic word meaning "god".[166][167] It appears in the name of the monotheistic god of Islam as Allah (al-Lāh).[168][169][170] which literally means "the god" in Arabic.[166][167] Islam is strictly monotheistic[171] and the first statement of the shahada, or Muslim confession of faith, is that "there is no ʾilāh (deity) but al-Lāh (God)",[172] who is perfectly unified and utterly indivisible.[171][172][173]

The term Allah is used by Muslims for God. The Persian word Khuda (Persian: خدا) can be translated as god, lord or king, and is also used today to refer to God in Islam by Persian and Urdu speakers. The Turkic word for god is Tengri; it exists as Tanrı in Turkish.

Judaism[edit]

The tetragrammaton in Phoenician(12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew(10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew(3rd century BCE to present) scripts.

Main articles: God in Judaism, Yahweh, Tetragrammaton, Elohim, and Names of God in Judaism

Judaism affirms the existence of one God (Yahweh, or YHWH), who is not abstract, but He who revealed himself throughout Jewish history particularly during the Exodus and the Exile.[39]: 4  Judaism reflects a monotheism that gradually arose, was affirmed with certainty in the sixth century "Second Isaiah", and has ever since been the axiomatic basis of its theology.[39]: 4 

The classical presentation of Judaism has been as a monotheistic faith that rejected deities and related idolatry.[174] However, states Breslauer, modern scholarship suggests that idolatry was not absent in biblical faith, and it resurfaced multiple times in Jewish religious life.[174] The rabbinic texts and other secondary Jewish literature suggest worship of material objects and natural phenomena through the medieval era, while the core teachings of Judaism maintained monotheism.[174][175][page needed]

According to Aryeh Kaplan, God is always referred to as "He" in Judaism, "not to imply that the concept of sex or gender applies to God", but because "there is no neuter in the Hebrew language, and the Hebrew word for God is a masculine noun" as he "is an active rather than a passive creative force".[176]

Eastern religions[edit]

Anitism[edit]

Left: Bakunawa depicted in a Bisaya sword hilt; Right: Ifugao rice deity statues

Further information: Indigenous Philippine folk religions, Philippine mythology, and List of Philippine mythological figures

Anitism, composed of a diverse array of indigenous religions from the Philippines, has multiple pantheon of deities, with each ethnic group having their own. The most notable deities are almost always the deity or deities considered by specific ethnic groups as their supreme deity or deities.[177]

Bathala is the Tagalog supreme deity,[178] while Mangechay is the Kapampangan supreme deity.[179] The Sambal supreme deity is Malayari,[180] the Blaan supreme deity is Melu,[181] the Bisaya supreme deity is Kaptan,[182] and so on. There are more than a hundred different ethnic groups in the Philippines, each having their own supreme deity or deities. Each supreme deity or deities normally rules over a pantheon of deities, contributing to the sheer diversity of deities in Anitism.[177]

Buddhism[edit]

Left: Buddhist deity in Ssangbongsa in South Korea; Right: Chinese deity adopted into Buddhism

Further information: Creator in Buddhism and Buddhist deities

Buddhists do not believe in a creator deity.[183] However, deities are an essential part of Buddhist teachings about cosmology, rebirth, and saṃsāra.[183] Buddhist deities (such as devas and bodhisattvas) are believed to reside in a pleasant, heavenly realm within Buddhist cosmology, which is typically subdivided into twenty six sub-realms.[184][183][9]: 35 

Devas are numerous, but they are still mortal;[184] they live in the heavenly realm, then die and are reborn like all other beings.[184] A rebirth in the heavenly realm is believed to be the result of leading an ethical life and accumulating very good karma.[184] A deva does not need to work, and is able to enjoy in the heavenly realm all pleasures found on Earth. However, the pleasures of this realm lead to attachment (upādāna), lack of spiritual pursuits, and therefore no nirvana.[9]: 37  The vast majority of Buddhist lay people in countries practicing Theravada, states Kevin Trainor, have historically pursued Buddhist rituals and practices because they are motivated by their potential rebirth into the deva realm.[184][185][186] The deva realm in Buddhist practice in Southeast Asia and East Asia, states Keown, include gods found in Hindu traditions such as Indra and Brahma, and concepts in Hindu cosmology such as Mount Meru.[9]: 37–38 

Mahayana Buddhism also includes different kinds of deities, such as numerous Buddhas, bodhisattvas and fierce deities.

Hinduism[edit]

Main articles: Hindu deities, Deva (Hinduism), Devi, God in Hinduism, Ishvara, and Bhagavan

Left: Ganesha deity of Hinduism; Right: Saraswati, Hindu goddess of knowledge and music

The concept of God varies in Hinduism, it being a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning henotheism, monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism and monism among others.[187][188]

In the ancient Vedic texts of Hinduism, a deity is often referred to as Deva (god) or Devi (goddess).[32]: 496 [34] The root of these terms mean "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence".[32]: 492 [34] Deva is masculine, and the related feminine equivalent is devi. In the earliest Vedic literature, all supernatural beings are called Asuras.[189]: 5–11, 22, 99–102 [32]: 121  Over time, those with a benevolent nature become deities and are referred to as Sura, Deva or Devi.[189]: 2–6 [190]

Devas or deities in Hindu texts differ from Greek or Roman theodicy, states Ray Billington, because many Hindu traditions believe that a human being has the potential to be reborn as a deva (or devi), by living an ethical life and building up saintly karma.[191] Such a deva enjoys heavenly bliss, till the merit runs out, and then the soul (gender neutral) is reborn again into Saṃsāra. Thus deities are henotheistic manifestations, embodiments and consequence of the virtuous, the noble, the saint-like living in many Hindu traditions.[191]

Jainism[edit]

Padmavati, a Jain guardian deity

Main articles: God in Jainism and Deva (Jainism)

Like many ancient Indian traditions, Jainism does not believe in a creator, omnipotent, omniscient, eternal God; however, the cosmology of Jainism incorporates a meaningful causality-driven reality, and includes four realms of existence (gati), and one of them for deva (celestial beings, gods).[10]: 351–57  A human being can choose and live an ethical life (karma), such as being non-violent (ahimsa) against all living beings, thereby gain merit and be reborn as deva.[10]: 357–58 [192]

Jain texts reject a trans-cosmic God, one who stands outside of the universe and lords over it, but they state that the world is full of devas who are in human-image with sensory organs, with the power of reason, conscious, compassionate and with finite life.[10]: 356–57  Jainism believes in the existence of the soul (Self, atman) and considers it to have "god-quality", whose knowledge and liberation is the ultimate spiritual goal in both religions. Jains also believe that the spiritual nobleness of perfected souls (Jina) and devas make them worship-worthy beings, with powers of guardianship and guidance to better karma. In Jain temples or festivals, the Jinas and Devas are revered.[10]: 356–57 [193]

Zoroastrianism[edit]

Main article: Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda ();[194] is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism.[195] The literal meaning of the word Ahura is "mighty" or "lord" and Mazda is wisdom.[195]Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism, taught that Ahura Mazda is the most powerful being in all of the existence[196] and the only deity who is worthy of the highest veneration.[196] Nonetheless, Ahura Mazda is not omnipotent because his evil twin brother Angra Mainyu is nearly as powerful as him.[196] Zoroaster taught that the daevas were evil spirits created by Angra Mainyu to sow evil in the world[196] and that all people must choose between the goodness of Ahura Mazda and the evil of Angra Mainyu.[196] According to Zoroaster, Ahura Mazda will eventually defeat Angra Mainyu and good will triumph over evil once and for all.[196] Ahura Mazda was the most important deity in the ancient Achaemenid Empire.[197] He was originally represented anthropomorphically,[195] but, by the end of the Sasanian Empire, Zoroastrianism had become fully aniconic.[195]

Rational interpretations[edit]

The Greek philosopher Democritusargued that belief in deities arose when humans observed natural phenomena such as lightningand attributed such phenomena to supernatural beings.

See also: Evolutionary origin of religions, Evolutionary psychology of religion, and Neurotheology

Attempts to rationally explain belief in deities extend all the way back to ancient Greece.[120]: 311–17  The Greek philosopher Democritus argued that the concept of deities arose when human beings observed natural phenomena such as lightning, solar eclipses, and the changing of the seasons.[120]: 311–17  Later, in the third century BCE, the scholar Euhemerus argued in his book Sacred History that the gods were originally flesh-and-blood mortal kings who were posthumously deified, and that religion was therefore the continuation of these kings' mortal reigns, a view now known as Euhemerism.[198]Sigmund Freud suggested that God concepts are a projection of one's father.[199]

A tendency to believe in deities and other supernatural beings may be an integral part of the human consciousness.[200][201][202][203]: 2–11  Children are naturally inclined to believe in supernatural entities such as gods, spirits, and demons, even without being indoctrinated into a particular religious tradition.[203]: 2–11  Humans have an overactive agency detection system,[200][204][203]: 25–27  which has a tendency to conclude that events are caused by intelligent entities, even if they really are not.[200][204] This is a system which may have evolved to cope with threats to the survival of human ancestors:[200] in the wild, a person who perceived intelligent and potentially dangerous beings everywhere was more likely to survive than a person who failed to perceive actual threats, such as wild animals or human enemies.[200][203]: 2–11  Humans are also inclined to think teleologically and ascribe meaning and significance to their surroundings, a trait which may lead people to believe in a creator-deity.[205] This may have developed as a side effect of human social intelligence, the ability to discern what other people are thinking.[205]

Stories of encounters with supernatural beings are especially likely to be retold, passed on, and embellished due to their descriptions of standard ontological categories (person, artifact, animal, plant, natural object) with counterintuitive properties (humans that are invisible, houses that remember what happened in them, etc.).[206] As belief in deities spread, humans may have attributed anthropomorphic thought processes to them,[207] leading to the idea of leaving offerings to the gods and praying to them for assistance,[207] ideas which are seen in all cultures around the world.[200]

Sociologists of religion have proposed that the personality and characteristics of deities may reflect a culture's sense of self-esteem and that a culture projects its revered values into deities and in spiritual terms. The cherished, desired or sought human personality is congruent with the personality it defines to be gods.[199] Lonely and fearful societies tend to invent wrathful, violent, submission-seeking deities, while happier and secure societies tend to invent loving, non-violent, compassionate deities.[199]Émile Durkheim states that gods represent an extension of human social life to include supernatural beings. According to Matt Rossano, God concepts may be a means of enforcing morality and building more cooperative community groups.[208]

See also[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Deity

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcO'Brien, Jodi (2009). Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Los Angeles: Sage. p. 191. ISBN . Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  2. ^Stevenson, Angus (2010). Oxford Dictionary of English (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 461. ISBN . Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  3. ^Littleton, C. Scott (2005). Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology. New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 378. ISBN . Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  4. ^Becking, Bob; Dijkstra, Meindert; Korpel, Marjo; Vriezen, Karel (2001). Only One God?: Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah. London: New York. p. 189. ISBN . Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  5. ^Korte, Anne-Marie; Haardt, Maaike De (2009). The Boundaries of Monotheism: Interdisciplinary Explorations Into the Foundations of Western Monotheism. Brill. p. 9. ISBN . Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  6. ^Brown, Jeannine K. (2007). Scripture as Communication: Introducing Biblical Hermeneutics. Baker Academic. p. 72. ISBN . Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  7. ^Taliaferro, Charles; Harrison, Victoria S.; Goetz, Stewart (2012). The Routledge Companion to Theism. Routledge. pp. 78–79. ISBN . Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  8. ^ abReat, N. Ross; Perry, Edmund F. (1991). A World Theology: The Central Spiritual Reality of Humankind. Cambridge University Press. pp. 73–75. ISBN . Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  9. ^ abcdeKeown, Damien (2013). Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction (New ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN . Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  10. ^ abcdefBullivant, Stephen; Ruse, Michael (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Atheism. Oxford University Publishing. ISBN . Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  11. ^ abTaliaferro, Charles; Marty, Elsa J. (2010). A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion. A&C Black. pp. 98–99. ISBN .
  12. ^Trigger, Bruce G. (2003). Understanding Early Civilizations: A Comparative Study (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 473–74. ISBN .
  13. ^ abcdHood, Robert Earl (1990). Must God Remain Greek?: Afro Cultures and God-talk. Fortress Press. pp. 128–29. ISBN .
  14. ^ abTrigger, Bruce G. (2003). Understanding Early Civilizations: A Comparative Study (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 441–42. ISBN .
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deity
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Deities

Title

Pagans
Pagan Gods
The Old Gods
Gods
Goddesses
Legion of Doom

Location

Earth
Others Dimensions

Deities, also called Gods, are a race of powerful, immortal beings who control all of the forces of nature, magic, and who ruled over the Earth, animals and mortals. They are worshiped by mortals and can procreate with them to birth Demigods.

Deities better known as pagan gods, or more accurately, The Old Gods - are a race of immortal supernatural entities, with each being a prime authority in the religion or pantheon that they established or belonged to. Despite having a role in the human ancient religions and possessing free will, the plurality of them are cruel, petty, uncaring, and only concerned with themselves and their survival. Some of them are neutral or indifferent to humans, and a handful of them have even been shown to be acting in accordance to the well being of humanity (like Prometheus), but most who appeared so far were evil. Many of them were known to have a taste for human flesh and were confirmed to use humans as a food source, as well as accepting offerings like virgin sacrifices.

It was revealed by Fortuna that God himself made the deities to take the blame for problems and tragedies on Earth and because they made for epic stories.

History[]

According to Fortuna, at some point after humanity beheld creation, they began to worship aspects of nature like the sun, the womb, the rain and the stars. This initially angered God as it prevented humans from seeing his supposed beneficence. However, God later created the pagan deities to take blame for misfortunes of humanity, and to create stories surrounding them. Eventually, God grew tired of and abandoned them due to his ego. Many of the pagan gods eventually forgot the truth of their origins.

In another point of History, Prometheus brought fire down from Olympus and gave it to mankind, to improve their lives and provide them protection from monsters.

Over time, they formed their own collective pantheons and religions amongst the humans, which attracted many followers across the Earth. These deities were worshipped for centuries, and in some cases, millennia. Through the tributes they received, the deities became immensely powerful, as Sam once described them as being "just short of invincible" at their prime days.

However, the majority of them lost at least a significant portion of their followers when the Abrahamic faiths arrived. Thus, the deities were left without worshippers, forcing them to rely on taking sacrifices by themselves, which significantly weakened many of them. Nowadays, most pagan deities are scattered across the world and surviving underground or in disguise, either by single worshippers and minor cults (like Moloch, Vesta and Fenrir), or by simply murdering people to feed themselves and increase their powers (Veritas, Calliope and Chronos)

Many are as old as the oldest civilizations of mankind, like Anansi, Osiris and Cacao, and there have been multiple generations of gods sired by other gods, like Artemis (fathered by Zeus), Loki (fathered by Odin), Fenrir, Sleipnir, and Narfi (fathered by Loki), Oliver (a very recent example, fathered by Prometheus with a mortal woman) and Anubis (fathered by Osiris). According to Kali, there are "billions" of pagan deities.

It is unknown if Deities have a soul, it is also never stated to where do deities go after they die, as they are neither monsters (who go to Purgatory) nor angels or demons (who go to the Empty after their deaths).

Despite numerous deities appearing in Supernatural, the most predominant deity in the show is the one that serves as the center icon of the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam), who is referred to simply as God, whose nigh-infinite power is independent of his worshipers, a trait that his sister, the Darkness, and his children, the Archangels, also hold.

Characteristics[]

Westerners, I swear. The sheer arrogance. You think you're the only ones on Earth? You pillage and you butcher in your god's name... but you're not the only religion, and he's not the only god. And now you think you can just rip the planet apart? You're wrong. There are billions of us, and we were here first. If anyone deserves to end this world, it's me.

WonderWoman gods big.jpg

Pagan deities often masquerade as normal humans. However, many of them have true forms that are more monstrous than human, similar to angels and demons. Madge and Edward Carrigan's true faces were akin to decomposing or demonic faces. Kali's true form had blue skin, fangs, and multiple pairs of arms and hands. Some deities possess animalistic features. Veritas had a feline true form. Ganesh had the ability to turn completely into an elephant and had the head of an elephant in his true form. Still, other deities take on shapes other than beastly or humanoid forms, and others may not even bother or need to hide their true appearance. The Vanir that Sam and Dean encountered was possessing an inanimate object in the form of a scarecrow, and was residing in or may have been his actual sacred tree, and Moloch kept his monstrous, goat-headed real form as he was already being hidden by the Bishop Family.

As pagan deities, they are mighty beings with many magical powers, but there are numerous differences between them, which go from their age to their abilities. They may also hold differing stances on certain events, and they may be sectarian and be against other beliefs and religions, including rebelling against their own pantheon's beliefs like Prometheus, who defied Zeus and became persona non grata among the Greek gods. Many of them are arrogant and tyrannical, and see themselves as all-powerful supreme beings.

The majority of them also look down on humans, seeing them as only food, subjects, entertainment or sacrifices to boost their magical powers (like Chronos' time travel ability). Some even openly attack humans simply for their own amusement and have shown sadistic pleasure in harming, torturing, and killing humans (like Osiris and Zeus). Besides Prometheus, Artemis, and Anubis, no deity so far has ever shown any opposition to harming, killing or manipulating humans.

Many deities have preferences for virgins, as was the case with Vesta, Mr. Vili, and some of the deities that convened with Kali.

They also do not hold much loyalty to each other (except for perhaps other deities from the same pantheon) and seem to have as much hostility toward each other as they do with humans. Lucifer even points this out against Mercury. Normally, a deity's main interest is looking after themselves, and some have been known to betray other deities as soon as they received a better offer. Because of a trivial grudge against Kali, Mercury called up Lucifer and tried to sell the Winchesters and the other deities at the Elysian Fields Hotel in exchange for mercy, but Lucifer outwardly shows his profound disgust for pagan gods, pointing their hubris and their total lack of loyalty to one another, calling them petty and worse than humans or demons. Lucifer then snaps Mercury's neck, killing him and almost every other deity in the hotel with ease. Likewise, Baldur congratulates many deities for being able to put aside their differences when they meet to discuss the Apocalypse.

Another important thing for deities is to carry out rituals and ceremonies, and many of them continue to follow pre-set ones, regardless of the number of worshipers they have left. Edward and Madge Carrigan followed a strict sacrificial ritual before killing their victims, and Cacao only granted his immortality power to those who performed his ancient Mayan ritual first.

While talking about the Norse pantheon, Gabriel stated that they were unique and called them "god-begotten monsters" and "demigods", indicating that this pantheon, specifically, performed an extensive deity-monster interbreeding (which actually make sense, since in the Norse mythology there is an extremely thin and vague line between gods, giants and other monsters), though he ditched the latter title when explaining what he meant to the Winchesters.

Oddly enough, not all deities live as pagans forever, and some end up serving God's plans to mankind. Atropos said that she and her sisters, the Fates, were given their jobs by God, and Oblivion was tasked by Heaven to erase memories of specific humans who have seen anything related to the supernatural and the Apocalypse. Anubis is another deity that works with Heaven, serving as a judge by measuring the souls of the dead on which goes to Heaven or Hell, covering for God who used to be the original judge of souls before he left Heaven.

Powers & Abilities[]

As deities, they are quite powerful, and some of them are powerful enough to be classified as higher beings. Unlike demons, angels, and all other supernatural species, the abilities of the deities vary between each other. Normally, it depends on each type of deity and how old and powerful they are. They also gain power through sacrifices, particularly blood and human sacrifices.

While each deity has unique magical powers, they do share certain powers and attributes. It is certain that they (or at least most of them) are more powerful than monsters, spirits and (at least most) demons. Some deities even possess powers beyond angels', with a few of pagan deities capable of magic affecting even archangels. For example, Atropos and her sisters had enough power to threaten an enhanced Seraph to a stalemate. Kali cast a blood spell on the archangel Gabriel to bind him to her, and, much later, Loki's demigod children captured the same archangel with their own magic.

Due to these variations, the following list is split into standard powers which they all have, similar powers, which some have, and unique powers:

Standard Powers[]

  • Immortality - As pagan deities, they can live forever as they are immune to aging and disease. Many have been around for centuries or even millennia.
  • Invulnerability - They are unharmed by conventional weaponry, and are immune to pain, common physical ailments, and disease. They can, however, be harmed and killed by stronger beings, including other stronger deities. Divine weaponry, i.e. weapons belonging to (and presumably made by) other pagan deities (like Thor's hammer and Artemis' blade) also seem to be effective against them to some extent. According to Sam, while they were still being worshiped, they were almost invincible. Despite having lost most of their worshippers, however, they are still almost indestructible.
  • Superhuman Strength - They are exceedingly strong, with the weakest deities being able to fight toe to toe with strong men like, while the strongest can easily lift cars and casually overpower, maul, throw and lift full-grown humans with one arm. Some can even overpower a Seraphim with ease.
  • Superhuman Stamina - Deities never tire regardless of what they go through.
  • Magic - Deities possess incredible magical powers and knowledge, with some being truly god-like. A deity's powers depend on the type of deity it is, and how old or how many followers they still retain.
  • Sacrifice Empowerment - Pagan gods gain temporary power boost from sacrifices they recently received, more sacrifice means more power. Also some gods like Vesta, the Vanir, Chronos or Moloch need specific sacrifices to unlock some of their powers.
  • Omnilingualism - The ability to understand any language without training in it. A group of English speakers deities reunited at Elysian Fields Hotel could understand which Zao Shen speaking in Cantonese.

Similar Powers[]

  • Superhuman Speed - Some deities, such as Leshi, Osiris, and most notably, Mercury, can move at incredible speeds.
  • Telekinesis - The ability to move objects with the power of the mind. Many deities possess this power, such as Kali, Osiris, Leshi, Beau, Veritas, Artemis and Zeus.
  • Telepathy - Many deities possess the power to read the thoughts of other beings in a variety of degrees. Leshi used this to learn whom their victims' idolized, and Osiris could feel if a person felt guilty for something just by looking at them.
  • Superhuman Senses - Some deities, such as Leshi and Osiris, possess superhuman senses that enabled them to reflect blows and feel the presence of others, even if they are hidden.
  • Teleportation - Some of the older and more powerful deities have this power. Kali, Baldur, Osiris, Atropos, Plutus, Chronos, and Artemis have all displayed this ability.
  • Biokinesis - The ability to control a person's body, either through harm or transfiguration. Kali has been shown capable of using this power against another deity (Mercury), making him choke in his own blood. Zeus was able to strangle a person with a twist of his wrist and casually tortured Prometheus from a distance. Also, Harmonia, the mother of the original Amazons, transform them into supernatural creatures in the point to prevent them from extinction.
  • Chronokinesis - The power to manipulate time. Atropos and her sisters were able to stop time and selectively manipulate its flow. Along with her prediction of events, she uses this to assist herself in manipulating events to bring about people's deaths and fates. Chronos was able to travel through time and bring others with him. He could also manipulate the flow of time and have prescience of future events. Another type of time manipulation is the creation of time loops (where the victim will keep repeating events over and over again). This will last until the one responsible is killed or lets them out; otherwise, the time loop will not stop. Gabriel displayed this power while acting under the alias of a Trickster, however, it's unknown whether Tricksters possess the ability to create time loops as well.
  • Spell Casting - Several deities have shown the capability of casting spells and performing magic. Madge and Edward Carrigan performed rituals for their tributes. Kali's blood magic was called a blood spell by Gabriel, and Plutus had cast warding spells on his location to prevent even powerful beings like the King of Hell and angels from directly harming him.
  • Cosmic Awareness - While not a power per se, many deities have greater knowledge about mankind and the universe than other supernatural beings. Many deities, such as Atropos, Odin, Baldur, Kali, Ganesh, Chronos, Baron Samedi, and Mercury have access to incredible knowledge of events and people that many other beings have not the power to.
  • Shapeshifting - As a positive side effect of their reality warping powers, tricksters also develop amazing shapeshifting abilities. Leshi has the power to change his appearance completely, and Veritas and Ganesh also had this power to a limited degree, being able to turn themselves into a specific animal (an elephant, in the case of Ganesh) or anthropozoomorphic being (a cat-like humanoid, in the case of Veritas).
  • Possession - Vanir is able to possess the scarecrow at will, leaving or entering, depending on his will.
  • Conjuration - The power to create or to unmake something or someone from nothing. Tricksters are known to have this ability. Calliope could manifest creatures based on plays to protect the director.
  • Reality Warping - The power to change the laws of reality and to create new laws or realities entirely. Tricksters have this power. Mercury also showed this ability, able to change the Elysian Hotel from a broken down joint into a five-star hotel. Moloch granted the wishes of Bishop Family once they fed him with blood.
  • Chlorokinesis - The ability to have some influence over plants and vegetation such as returning dead plants to life. Mercury may have this ability, or at least his presence induces the same effect. The Vanir were able to make harvests more bountiful.
  • Weather Manipulation - Some of the deities could control the weather, such as preventing a harsh winter, or by providing a climate well-suited for planting and harvesting. Madge and Edward Carrigan have this ability. The Vanir has displayed this ability and was shown to unleash heavy rain when angered. Zeus and Thor (as well as the latter's hammer) could manipulate thunderbolts. A group of deities was able to lure Sam and Dean to them by creating an enormous storm.
  • Pyrokinesis - The ability to manipulate and generate fire by sheer will alone. Kali and Vesta both possess this power and been have shown using it at advanced levels - Kail uses hers like a flamethrower by channeling it through her hands, and Vesta using hers so precisely as to channel hers as a concussive force to knock others out instead of burning them.

Unique Powers[]

  • Clairvoyance - The ability to see and hear things and beings that are invisible. Atropos could tell who Castiel was while he was inside his vessel. Vesta had a variation of this power and could sense the damage to Sam's body, and unknowing and indirectly referred Gadreel as the tape holding him together. Those with this power are obviously unharmed by looking upon the true form of higher beings.
  • Truth Compulsion - The ability to compel humans to speak the truth. So far, only Veritas has displayed this power. She can also curse people so that they are told only the truth by other humans.
  • Electrokinesis - The ability to manipulate and generate electrical energy. Zeus had displayed incredible proficiency with lightning and electricity, and Thor's hammer is a safe indication of his owner's power over thunderbolts as well.
  • Necromancy - The power to have control over spirits/souls. Osiris is able to control the spirits of the dead and can turn them into vengeful spirits. Baron Samedi, although never displayed, is safely presumed to have this power as well.
  • Foresight - As the God of Time, Chronos could see into the future and change events according to his will.
  • Power Granting - The Mayan god Cacao could grant others immortality (as well as heightened physical capabilities) in exchange for regular human sacrifices.
  • Cursing - Zeus cursed Prometheus to die and be revived, only to die yet again every day. The curse was so powerful it passed down to Prometheus' son Oliver, something Zeus hadn't anticipated. In the same way, he could inflict a curse, he could also lift it. However, the curse was also tied to Zeus and with his death, it was broken.
  • Apportation - Beau possessed the power to teleport others with a gesture.
  • Resurrection - While posing as a Trickster, Gabriel resurrected Dean after the latter had been dead for six months, although it is unknown if true Trickster deities also possess this power. As a result of a curse, Prometheus possessed this power and was resurrected each day after dying.
  • Blessings - Deities had the power to convey blessings of prosperity and good luck, although most of them only conveyed it after being served of their due sacrifices. Vesta required virgins, and the Vanir accepted to devour one male and one female in order to provide better crops for harvest, prosperity, and protection to those who feed and worship them. If these tributes aren't meet to appease the deities, the blessings they gave will begin to withe soon afterwards, and eventually fade off completely. Fortuna, goddess of luck, was capable of counteracting a curse placed on the Winchesters by God himself.
  • Soul Control - Plutus would be able to remove Mrs. Tran's soul from her body after she closed a deal on him.
  • Astral Projection - The Gods Fenrir, Narfi and Sleipnir each displayed an astral form of their true faces over human form's faces. Fenrir showing a wolf face, Narfi showing a skull head, and Sleipnir showing a horses head when they became angered.
  • Clairsentience - Vesta could sense when a virgin or born-again virgin broke their vows to her.

All[]

Deities[]

Variations[]

Ascendancy Variations[]

Race Mimicry Variations[]

Types Mimicry Variations:[]

Cultural Mimicry Variations:[]

Weaknesses[]

Though they are powerful beings, deities can be killed by a variety of methods:

  • Specific Rituals - Leshi, Veritas, and the Vanir could be killed by a specific ritual assigned to them. Osiris could be incapacitated (but not killed) by a Ram's Horn.
    • Fire(non-canon) - In the non-canon novel Supernatural: Children of Anubis, Anubis could be killed by burning his body.
    • Wooden Stakes - Many deities are also vulnerable to certain types wooden stakes, which must usually be dipped in certain kinds of blood (Tricksters, Chronos, Zao Shen, Veritas, Plutus, Vesta, Calliope). The stakes were often made from trees that are common to the homeland or nation of the deity. Zeus was vulnerable to a wooden stake made of a tree struck by lightning.
    • Gabriel's swords - Four wooden swords created by the archangel Gabriel to kill Fenrir, Narfi, Sleipnir and Loki. They appear to be a sword version of the stakes generally used by hunters to kill deities with each sword created to kill a specific deity.
  • Divine Weapons - Since divine weapons are made for/by or have the power of gods itself, some of those weapons can kill gods as well.
    • Mjölnir - Sam killed Beau and Mr. Vili with it.
    • Artemis' Bow and Arrows - It was used to kill Zeus and Prometheus.
    • Fate-Killing Blade - One of the Heaven's Weapons, Balthazar tried to kill one of the fates, Atropos with it.
    • Artemis' Blade - Artemis was tasked with killing the Titan, Prometheus. She tried to kill him with this blade but it was knocked out of her hand, thanks to Prometheus' combat skills. Prometheus got hold of it and threatened Artemis with it.
    • Angel Blades - Fortuna stated that her demigod son Pax probably could be killed with an angel blade since he had a human father.
    • Non-Canon - Divine weapons from official, but non-canonical sources of the Supernatural franchise.
      • Paeon's Caduceus - Can harm and kill gods like Paeon himself.
      • Armament's Shotgun - It was capable of killing gods such like Armament himself.
  • The Colt - As seen with Moloch, the Colt can kill deities.
  • Higher Deities - Chief Gods like Odin and Zeus could easily overpower their children and specific types of deities like Tricksters and Titans, Kali almost killed Mercury by being suffocated with her biokinesis.
  • Archangels - Lucifer, an Archangel, was able to easily overpower and slaughter many high-level deities, as well as nullifying their powers. Gabriel claimed that at full power, he was easily capable of killing Loki and his sons. Even while weakened, Gabriel still proved capable of overpowering Loki's children but was unable to defeat Loki himself. It should be noted however, that Gabriel had to use a special weapon in order to defeat the pagan deities in his weakened state.
  • Lack of Tributes - Pagans get a lot of their power from tributes and sacrifices, so a lack of it can reduce the deities' overall power.

Types of Deities[]

As well as standard deities, there are also subspecies of deities, who fall into these categories:

  • Tricksters - A special type of deity and supposedly quite powerful, these beings are common in many cultures and thrive on creating mischief and mayhem. They have the power to make objects materialize out of thin air and can remove them just as quickly. To kill a Trickster, one must obtain a stake dipped in the blood of its victim and plunge it into the creature's heart. Famous Tricksters include Loki of the Scandinavian pantheon and Anansi of West African myths.
  • Vanir - The Vanir are Norse deities of fertility and prosperity; they offer these boons to lands or people in exchange for sacrifices.
  • Hold Nickar - Pagan deities of the winter, who grant mild weather in exchange for sacrifices. Madge and Edward Carrigan were both of this particular type of deity.
  • Chief Gods - Chief gods are the deities that are (or at least were) the leaders and rulers of their own pantheon. Due to this, they are (at least among) the most powerful of all deities, often possessing rare and incredible powers. Odin from the Norse gods, Cacao of the Mayan and Zeus from the Greek have all appeared on the show.
  • Titans - Described as "proto-gods" or "gods before the gods"; known in mythology for their raw power and immense strength.
  • Demigods - Despite not being deities properly speaking, the original Amazons, as well as Oliver, are both born from deities and are, in this sense, demigods and demigoddesses. The Amazons were conceived by Ares and Harmonia (both deities), and were human at their creation who became monsters when they made a deal with Harmonia to become stronger and survive extinction. Oliver, on the other hand, who is the son of a Titan with a mortal woman, was human as well as he had shown no sign of godhood except for the daily resurrection as a result of a curse he was suffering though as he was a young child, it is unclear if he would develop powers of his own as he grew older. Not all deities' children are human, as Artemis is clearly stated as a goddess and daughter of Zeus, and the children of Loki (Sleipnir, Narfi, and Fenrir), despite Gabriel's ambiguous descriptions about what they are, surely were also far from being human. On the other hand, Pax, a demigod born to Fortuna and a human, showed no special powers of his own and Fortuna indicated he could be easily killed. In addition, Noah Ophis revealed that his species, gorgons, were demigods rather than monsters, confirming that not all demigods are human and that they can in fact be a species rather than an individual.

List of known Gods[]

See: List of Deities

Notes[]

  • Most deities so far choose to feed on human flesh as food. However, some deities such as Osiris, Chronos, and Atropos do not seem to engage in the act.
  • The claiming of sacrifices and amoral personalities of many deities is often in stark contrast to their mythological counterpart--notably, many fans were angered over the portrayal of Kali and Ganesh as meat-eating and amoral.
  • Despite being an archangel, Lucifer is called and viewed as a god by some demons for being their creator. Ironically, he despises pagan gods more than he does humans or demons.
  • Oliver is the first known being with a lineage from a pagan deity. Although that would classify him as a demi-god, it was not stated in the show if he indeed was. It was also not stated if his immortality was lifted along with his father's curse.
  • Zeus was the only pagan deity so far to blame his pantheon's downfall to an event other than the arrival of the Abrahamic faiths. Instead, he blamed their decline to the theft of fire by Prometheus as a gift to mankind.
  • Prometheus was described as a 'Titan' and a 'proto-god'. However, the differences between proto-gods and gods, if any, were not described nor explained. Prometheus is the only good god seen so far that only wished to help humans and shown no signs of ruling, killing, or consuming them.
  • An interesting note is that some of the deities are employed into God's plans. Atropos and her sisters, the Fates, were given their positions by God, and Oblivion was tasked to erase memories of humans who have seen anything related to the supernatural and the Apocalypse. Anubis was chosen to replace God as the judge of souls after he left Heaven.
  • As confirmed in the last Salute to Supernatural for Season 6, deities are one of few supernatural species that do not go to Purgatory if they are killed. It would mean that they are not monsters or related to Eve, which make their origin even more mysterious.
    • Chronos and Gorgon Noah Ophis refused to be called "monsters", which sustains this information.
    • In A Very Supernatural Christmas, Madge Carrigan implies that deities are not monsters.
    • It is also unknown where they are sent after death.
    • In The Gamblers is finally revealed by Fortuna that the deities were created by God, after the humans had evolved and started to pray to the "sun, the womb, the rain, and the stars".
    • Despite that, Dean Winchester referred to a group of deities in Elysian Fields Hotel as a "bunch of monsters".
  • In Supernatural, it has been confirmed that the deities' powers do not come from worship. What separates the strength of individual deities is unknown. However, Sam states that deities at least gain more power when given tributes, sacrifices, or offerings. Chronos also stated that he required three sacrifices in order to control when and where he lands in time. It is shown that he can take sacrifices from any human, not just ones who willingly worshiped him, in order to focus his time travel abilities.
  • In the novel Supernatural: Coyote's Kiss, Castiel says that the angels made a deal with the pagan deities in which the angels promised to stay out of the deities' business as long as they did not intervene in the Apocalypse. This is directly contradicted in the Season 5 episode Hammer of the Gods. However, these may be a faction of Pagan Gods who disagreed with the deal or decided to break it.
  • Pagan deities are one of two races of supernatural beings whose individual members have not been seen for more than one episode. Most or all the deities are either killed, banished, or vanquished in the episode they appear in. This trait is shared with fairies.
  • The Colt can kill pagan deities as seen in The Memory Remains.
  • The Vanir was the first deity to appear in the show.
  • Edward and Madge Carrigan, Vesta and some other deities mention Jesus Christ by name when blaming the responsible for taking over their followers and lowering their sacrifices.
  • Rowena lived in "The Aradia Apts". Aradia is an Italian deity worshiped by witches in Tuscany.
  • Although not considered a deity within the series, once God was referred by Crowley as "a rascally deity".

External links[]

Sours: https://unnaturalworld.fandom.com/wiki/Deities

deity

Sours: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/deity

Deities what are

Look up a word, learn it forever.

types:
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daemon, demigod

a person who is part mortal and part god

sea god

a deity that personifies the sea and is usually believed to live in or to control the sea

sun god

a god that personifies the sun or is otherwise associated with the sun

Celtic deity

a deity worshipped by the Celts

Egyptian deity

a deity worshipped by the ancient Egyptians

Semitic deity

a deity worshipped by the ancient Semites

Hindu deity

a deity worshipped by the Hindus

Persian deity

a deity worshiped by the ancient Persians

Chinese deity

a deity worshipped by the ancient Chinese

Japanese deity

a deity worshipped by the Japanese

goddess

a female deity

earth god, earth-god

a god of fertility and vegetation

demiurge

a subordinate deity, in some philosophies the creator of the universe

Graeco-Roman deity, Greco-Roman deity

a deity of classical mythology

Greek deity

a deity worshipped by the ancient Greeks

Roman deity

a deity worshipped by the ancient Romans

Norse deity

a deity worshipped by the ancient Norsemen

Teutonic deity

(German mythology) a deity worshipped by the ancient Teutons

Anglo-Saxon deity

(Anglo-Saxon mythology) a deity worshipped by the Anglo-Saxons

Phrygian deity

deity of the ancient Phrygians of west central Asia Minor

saint

a person who has died and has been declared a saint by canonization

god of war, war god

a god worshipped as giving victory in war

snake god, zombi, zombie

a god of voodoo cults of African origin worshipped especially in West Indies

Grace

(Greek mythology) one of three sisters who were the givers of beauty and charm; a favorite subject for sculptors

Fomor, Fomorian

one of a group of Celtic sea demons sometimes associated with the hostile power of nature

Ler, Lir

the sea personified; father of Manannan; corresponds to Welsh Llyr

Llew Llaw Gyffes

son of Gwydion and Arianrhod; supported by magic of Gwydion; cursed by Arianrhod

Tuatha De, Tuatha De Danann

race of Celtic gods or demigods; ruled Ireland in the Golden Age

Amen, Amon, Amun

a primeval Egyptian personification of air and breath; worshipped especially at Thebes

Anunnaki, Enuki

any of a group of powerful Babylonian earth spirits or genii; servitors of the gods

Lilith

in ancient Semitic folklore: a female demon who attacks children

Aditya

one of 7 to 12 sons of Aditi; Hindu gods of celestial light

Ahura

(Zoroastrianism) title for benevolent deities

Asvins

(literally `possessing horses' in Sanskrit) in Hinduism the twin chariot warriors conveying Surya

Dharma

basic principles of the cosmos; also: an ancient sage in Hindu mythology worshipped as a god by some lower castes;

Garuda

a supernatural eagle-like being that serves as Vishnu's mount

Marut

any of a group of Hindu storm gods; offspring of Rudra

Rhibhus, Ribhus

one of three artisans of the Hindu gods

Soma

personification of a sacred intoxicating drink used in Vedic ritual

Vajra

Indra's thunderbolt

avatar

the manifestation of a Hindu deity (especially Vishnu) in human or superhuman or animal form

earth goddess, earth-goddess

a goddess of fertility and vegetation

faun

ancient Italian deity in human shape, with horns, pointed ears and a goat's tail; equivalent to Greek satyr

Adonis

(Greek mythology) a handsome youth loved by both Aphrodite and Persephone

forest god, satyr

one of a class of woodland deities; attendant on Bacchus; identified with Roman fauns

silenus

any of the minor woodland deities who were companions of Dionysus (similar to the satyrs)

nymph

(classical mythology) a minor nature goddess usually depicted as a beautiful maiden

Aether

personification of the sky or upper air breathed by the Olympians; son of Erebus and night or of Chaos and darkness

Moirae, Moirai

any of the three Greek goddesses of fate or destiny; identified with the Roman Parcae and similar to the Norse Norns

Parcae

any of the three Roman goddesses of fate or destiny; identified with the Greek Moirai and similar to the Norse Norns

Muse

in ancient Greek mythology any of 9 daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne; protector of an art or science

Pontos, Pontus

(Greek mythology) ancient personification of the sea; father of Nereus

Rhadamanthus

(Greek mythology) a judge of the dead in the underworld

Latona, Leto

wife or mistress of Zeus and mother of Apollo and Artemis in ancient mythology; called Latona in Roman mythology

Aesir

(Norse mythology) the chief race of gods living at Asgard

Vanir

(Norse mythology) race of ancient gods sometimes in conflict with the Aesir

Nanna

(Norse mythology) wife of Balder

Norn, weird sister

(Norse mythology) any of the three goddesses of destiny; identified with Anglo-Saxon Wyrd; similar to Greek Moirae and Roman Parcae

Sigyn

(Norse mythology) wife of Loki; held a cup over him during his punishment to spare him the pain of drops of poison

Ull, Ullr

(Norse mythology) one of the Aesir known for his beauty and skill with bow and skis; son of Sif and stepson of Thor

Vali

(Norse mythology) one of the Aesir and avenger of Balder; son of Odin

Vidar, Vithar, Vitharr

(Norse mythology) one of the Aesir; son of Odin; avenges his parent by slaying Fenrir at Ragnarok

Weird, Wyrd

fate personified; any one of the three Weird Sisters

patron saint

a saint who is considered to be a defender of some group or nation

Sours: https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/deity
5 Ancient Greek Gods - Greek Mythology Gods - Greek Gods and Goddesses - Most Powerful Greek God

Asked her aunt. Teach our guys. There was a short pause again, and my mother continued, saying in a whisper: Sex !!. You, that Tanya was stunned, this is an incest.

Now discussing:

Instinctively, I bent down and buried myself in a shock of wonderful hair, absorbing the scent of the delicate perfume that emanated from it. My lips came across the tip of my ear and I gently touched it ::. From this touch, her body tensed more, as if another revolution had taken place in the cocking of a spring.

Her ass, having made several oscillatory movements, as if looking for a more comfortable point, demandedly pressed against me. My body immediately responded to the call and now the protruding part of it was restrained only by tight swimming trunks hidden under long Bermuda shorts.



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