How did the development of a porcelain filter, called the Chamberland-Pasteur filter, help scientists discover viruses?
- After filtering a liquid plant extract, the scientists could see the virions using the light microscope.
- After filtering a liquid plant extract, the disease was still transferred to a healthy plant.
- After filtering a liquid plant extract, the virus cells multiplied.
- After filtering a liquid plant extract, scientists were able to trace historical footprints.
Scientists have a few hypotheses about virus origins. Why might they develop and refine further hypotheses to explain the origin of viruses?
- Advances in technology provide historic evidence.
- Biochemical and genetic information provide historic evidence.
- Advances in technology provide new information for scientists.
- Advances in technology have proven that viruses have a single common ancestor.
Why don’t dogs catch the measles?
- Measles is a DNA virus, and DNA viruses cause human diseases.
- Dogs do not have glycoproteins.
- The virus can’t attach to dog cells.
- Dogs do not get RNA viruses.
The Baltimore classification system groups viruses according to how the mRNA is produced. When classified this way, the viruses in each group _____.
- behave in a similar manner
- look very similar
- connect with living things
- are based on the type of disease they cause
Researchers have been able to develop a variety of anti-HIV drugs, such as the drug AZT. How does the drug AZT work?
- AZT blocks the enzyme called HIV protease, which the virus uses to reproduce itself.
- AZT blocks the HIV integrase enzyme, which the virus uses to insert its viral DNA into the DNA of the host cell.
- AZT prevents reverse transcriptase and HIV protease enzyme from functioning inside the body.
- AZT prevents reverse transcriptase from making DNA from the viral RNA genome.
Compare the lytic and lysogenic cycles and explain which cycle has the potential to produce the most virions.
- The lytic cycle can theoretically produce more virions as the viral genome is incorporated into the host cell’s genome replicating along with the host cell.
- The lysogenic cycle can theoretically produce more virions as the reproductive cycle of viruses undergoing lysogeny is much faster than the reproductive cycle of viruses following lytic cycle.
- The lysogenic cycle can theoretically produce more virions as the viral genome is incorporated into the host cell’s genome replicating along with the host cell.
- The lytic cycle can theoretically produce more virions as the prophage following lysogenic cycle ultimately gets excised from the host cell’s genome and enter the lytic cycle.
Would a person who has never been in contact with the varicella-zoster virus be at risk of developing chickenpox or shingles if they come in close contact with a person with shingles? Explain your reasoning.
- The person is at risk of developing chickenpox. Chickenpox is the first infection with the virus before it enters latency in the host.
- The person is at risk of developing shingles. Shingles is the first infection with the virus before it enters latency in the host.
- The person is at risk of developing chickenpox. Chickenpox is the first infection with the virus that is already latent in the body.
- The person is at risk of developing shingles. The virus enters the person and gets activated when a person with shingles comes in close contact.
Which step in the replication cycle of viruses do you think is most critical for the virus to infect cells? Explain why.
- The attachment step is the most critical, as infection cannot begin if virus does not attach to the host cell.
- The replication step is the most critical as this step directs protein synthesis.
- The assembly step is the most critical because new virions are assembled to infect cells.
- The entry step is the most critical as nucleic acid of virus needs to enter the host cell naked, leaving the capsid outside.
For most people, the measles virus does not cause a serious illness. Symptoms include fever and a rash, but the symptoms are usually gone in about a week. However, for some, the measles virus can be much more serious. How can the measles virus cause a potentially fatal illness?
- Measles can cause meningococcal disease, which causes severe headaches, seizures and in severe cases can be life-threatening.
- Measles can cause variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, which causes severe headaches, seizures and in severe cases can be life-threatening.
- Measles can cause encephalitis/meningitis, which causes severe headaches, seizures and in severe cases can be life-threatening.
- Measles can cause Legionnaires’ disease, which causes severe headaches, seizures and in severe cases can be life-threatening.
Why is immunization after being bitten by a rabid animal so effective and why aren’t people vaccinated for rabies like dogs and cats are?
- It takes a month for the virus to travel from the site of the bite to the central nervous system. People are not vaccinated beforehand as routine vaccination of domestic animals makes it unlikely that humans will contract rabies from an animal bite.
- It takes a week for the virus to travel from the site of the bite to the peripheral nervous system. People are not vaccinated beforehand as routine vaccination of domestic animals makes it unlikely that humans will contract rabies from an animal bite.
- It takes a week for the virus to travel from the site of the bite to the central nervous system. People are not vaccinated beforehand as routine vaccination of domestic animals makes it unlikely that humans will contract rabies from an animal bite, and also.
- It takes a week for the virus to travel from the site of the bite to the central nervous system. People are not vaccinated beforehand, as routine vaccination of domestic animals makes it fully sure that humans will contract rabies from an animal bite, and also.
Why don’t dogs and cats catch human colds from humans?
- As cats and dogs have different proteins than humans, the virus that causes colds in humans cannot find receptors in dogs and cats.
- As cats and dogs have different receptors than humans, the virus that causes colds in humans cannot find receptors in dogs and cats.
- As cats and dogs’ immune system attacks the virus unlike humans, so the virus that causes colds in humans cannot find receptors in dogs and cats.
- As natural killer cells of cats and dogs attack the virus, the virus that causes colds in humans cannot find receptors in dogs and cats.
Prions are responsible for variant CJD (Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease). How has this disease been documented to spread from human to human?
- Surgery with instruments previously used in a patient with vCJD that were not adequately sterilized and contaminated pineal growth hormones taken from human pineal glands from infected cadavers.
- Through human consumption of infected meat and contaminated pituitary growth hormones taken from human pituitary glands from infected cadavers.
- Surgery with instruments previously used in a patient with vCJD that were not adequately sterilized and contaminated pituitary growth hormones taken from human pituitary glands from unwell individuals.
- Surgery with instruments previously used in a patient with vCJD that were not adequately sterilized and contaminated pituitary growth hormones taken from human pituitary glands from infected cadavers.
What characteristics do viroids and viruses have in common?
- They both replicate within a host cell and contain nucleic acids.
- They both replicate within a host cell and do not contain nucleic acids.
- They both replicate within a host cell and contain proteins.
- They both replicate within a host cell and contain only RNA.
Why is the transmission of a prion not reliant upon genes made of DNA or RNA?
- DNA or RNA, though present, is not transmitted when a prion causes infection.
- The prion does not contain DNA or RNA.
- Only parts of DNA or RNA are transmitted in a prion.
- More of protein and less of DNA or RNA is transmitted.
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In whole-genome shotgun approach the genome is cut by multiple restriction enzymes into short fragments which are cloned and sequenced. Computer programs are used to then identify overlapping regions within the fragments.
Work Step by Step
Answers are in figure 21.2, which lists the steps in the whole-genome shotgun approach in detail.
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Assignments: 1st Semester
8/20/18: Book checkout, What do we remember from summer work?, AP Bio Overview, Bozeman Science
8/21/18: Ecology Speciation pogil, Chapter 51 Reading guide, Bozeman Sci,
8/23/18: Review Speciationn Pogil, Chapter 51 Reading Guide, Start Chapter 2: Bio Chem, Notes, Bio Chem pogil, Bozeman Sci
8/27/18: Chapter 2 Reading guide review (if completed), Bio Chem pogil, Water Pogil, hand out Chapter 3 Reading Guide. Chapter 2 Mastering Biology Chapter 2 due 9/1
8/29/18: Pill Bug Lab
9/5/18: Chapter 3 Notes, clicker questions, Reading Guide, Mastering Biology Chapter 2 Due
9/7/18: Chapter 3 Notes, Sample questions Chapter 2&3
9/11/18; Test Chapters 2 & 3
9/13/18 Chapter 4, Notes, Ch.4 reading Guide passed out and Due Wed 9/13, MAstering Bio Homework -Ch4 due Wed
9/13-14/17 Chapter 4 MAstering Bio Due,
9/15/17: Homecoming Video
9/18-19/17: Chapter 5, Macromolecules notes Carbs/Lipids, Bozeman Sci: Biological Molecules, Chapter 5 Reading Guide
9/20-21/17: Ch5 Notes Proteins, Pogil - Proteins
9/22-25/17: Ch5 Notes - Nucleic Acids, Bozeman Sci
9/26-27/17: DNA Extraction Lab, reveiw questions for Chapter 4&5 Test
9/29/17 Test Chapter 4 and 5 - 6th block
10/2/17 Test Chapter 4 and 5 - 4th block
10/3-4/17: Start Chapter 6 Notes, Chapter 6 Reading Guide due 10/4-5/17, Mastering Bio HW due 10/4/17
10/5-6/17: Finish Chapter 6, handout Chapter 7 Reading Guide, MAstering Bio Chapter 7 asssigned due 10/17
10/9-10/17: Start Chapter 7 Membrane Function
10/16-17/17: Chapter 7 Reading Guide due, Mastering Bio Ch7 HW due; Notes, Bozeman Sci: Membranes
1/9/18: Start Chapter 17 Genes to Protein, Chapter 17 Reading Guide due 1/16/18, Notes, Mastering Biology Chapter 17 due Tues 1/16/18, video "Genes to Proteins" Florida PASS
1/11/18: Chapter 17 Notes, Transcription/Translation Pogils
1/16/18: Chapter 17 Mastering Bio due, Ch 17 Reading Guide due,(questions/grade), Mutations Pogil, handout Chapter 18 Reading Guide
1/18-19/18: Chapter 18 reading guide, Bozeman Sci: gene expression, Notes posted
1/22-23/18: Chapter 18 Reading guide due. Gene Expression in Prokaryotes Pogil, Sample test questions Chapter 17 and 18
1/24-25/18: Reveiw Chapter 17 and 18. work on sample test questions
1/26-29/18: Test Chapter 17 and 18
1/31- 2/1/18: Chapter 19, video, notes
2/2-5/18: Ch 19 grade reading guide, pass out chapter 20 reading guide, Mastering bio 20, Bio tech paper assigned
2/6-7/18: grade Chapter 20 Reading guide, pass out CH22 Reading Guide
2/9-12/18: Video on Darwin with video guide, Mastering Bio Ch21 assigned
2/13-14/18: Bio Tech papers due, Grade Chapter 21 and 22 reading guides
2/15-20/18: Mastering Bio Chapter 21 due, Reading guide due
2/20-21/18: Bozeman Sci "evolution"
2/22-23/18: Chapter 23 assigned, mastering Bio ch23 assigned
2/26-27/18: Grade Chapter 23 reading guide, assign Ch24
3/1-2/18: Test Chapters 22, 23 and 24
3/5-6/18: Test corections, assign Ch25,
3/7-8/18: Grade Ch25 reading guide, notes
3/9-12/18: Chapter 26, Pogils Mass Extinction, and Phylogenic trees.
3/14-27/18: Spring Break. Chapter 26 Due
3/26-27/18: FRQ's sample questions on Big Idea 1, Assign Ch28
2/28-29/18: Revisions of FRQ's using rubrics. Assign Ch 29 and Ch30
Ap Biology Test Chapters 21, 22, 23, 26
an individual who has both female and male parts and produces both sperm and eggs.
any cell in a multicellular organisms except a sperm or egg.
"creation of form"
physical process that gives an organism its shape.
the development of a spatial organization in which the tissues and organs of an organism are all in their characteristic places.
in plants- pattern formation occurs continually in the APICAL MERISTEMS.
IN ANIMALS- PATTERN FORMATION IS MOSTLY LIMITED TO EMBRYOS AND JUVENILES, EXCEPT IN THOSE SPECIES WHERE LOST PARTS CAN BE REGENERATED.
in plants, at least, mature cells that can dedifferentiate and then give rise to all specialized cells and create organs and everything else.
unlike totipotency because instead of being able to raise all kinds of specialized cells, it can only raise a few.
for example, bone marrow can raise different kinds of blood cells.
perpetually embryonic regions in the tips of roots and shoots in plants.
specialized macrophages who live in the bone marrow.
help create red blood cells.
nearly all cells in an organism have the same genes.
differential gene expression
the expression of different sets of genes with the same genome.
what is apoptosis triggered by?
signals that activate a cascade of "suicide" proteins in the cells destined to die.
what happens during cell apoptosis?
cell shrinks and becomes lobed [called blebbing].
DNA is fragmented
neighboring cells EAT IT.
what are apoptosis genes?
master regulator of apoptosis
the main protease of apoptosis
using one or more somatic cells from a multicellular organism to make another genetically identical individual.
to remove the nucleus of an unfertilized egg and replace it with the nucleus of a differentiated cell.
inheritance of traits transmitted by mechanisms not directly involving the nucleotides sequence.
the complex of DNA and proteins that make up the eukaryotic chromosome.
a small protein with a high proportion of positively charged amino acids that bind to negatively charged DNA play a key role in chromatic structure.
a regulatory protein that binds to the DNA and stimulates transcription of certain genes/.
the anatomical identity of the segments is a set by the master regulatory gene called homeotic gene.
the genes of the embryo's whose products direct formation of segments after the embryo's major body axes are defined.
they control the orientation [polarity] of egg and the fly at the same time. one group of these genes sets up anterior - posterior axis of the embryo, while other one makes dorsal-ventral section.
establish an embryo's axes and other features of its form.
inactivates the repressor of an operon.
a 180-nucleotide sequence within homeotic genes and some other developmental genes that is widely conserved in animals. related things occur in plants and prokaryotes.
FOUNDER OF TAXONOMY
two part system of genus and species.
nesting method of classification; listing similar things in increasingly general categories.
largely developed paleontology.
claimed that the deeper levels are older then the new levels.
leading geologist of Darwin's time.
made uniformarianism. Lyell proposed that the same geological process now were the same in the past, and were occurring at the same rate.
inspired Darwin's idea of overpopulation. claimed that we all always out compete for food, shelter so on. which is why fro9gs have so many babies, so on.
great friend of Darwin.
was his botany professor,m sent him off on the Beagle.
population can change over generations if individuals possess certain heritable traits that leave more offspring then others.
the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation.
explains hwy certain characteristics in a related species have an underlying similarity though they have different functions.
look alike, NOT SAME FUNCTION.
same function, but not same appearance. not evolved.
genetic additions or subtractions from a population resulting from movement of fertile individuals or gametes.
evolutionary process of change in the allele frequencies (or gene frequencies) of a population from one generation to the next due to the phenomena of probability in which purely chance events determine which alleles (variants of a gene) within a reproductive population will be carried forward while others disappear.
chromosome segment that is transferred to a new position on the same or different chromosome.
intron is non coding, weaves in between exons.
exons are coding segments.
natural selection that favors individuals on both extremes of the phenotype.
natural selection that favors individuals at one end of the phenotype range.
natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes.
selection for mating success.
nitrogen/oxides. hydrogen and hydrogen sulfides. hydrogen escaped into space while the vapor of water became oceans.
set up a closed system to stimulate the way earth was before life began. put it all in interconnected tubes and flasks. electrified the hydrogen ammonia and methane. in a short period of time, things like amino acids already started forming.
abiotically produced molecules surrounded by membrane or membrane-like structure.
simple reproduction and metabolism, maintains its own interior environment.
a polynucelodide with a free 3' end, bound to a complementary template strand, and is elongated during DNA replication.
takes light and drives synthesis of CO2.
most animals appear within first 20 million years of Cambrian period, known as the Cambrian explosion.
boundary between Paleozoic and mesozoic.
96% of marine species died.
8 out of 27 insect died out.
251 million years ago
occurred in less than 5 million years.
mesozoic and Cenozoic eras
65 million years ago
1.8 million years ago
led ot the birth of mitochondira and plasmids. lived in larger cells and eventually became part of them.
21 chapter ap bio
Wiping away tears with dirty hands, Varya got to her feet and moved into the back room. Rogulin in one hand, iPhone in the other. Mishin's lifeless body hung in the middle of the back room. Varya dropped her rogulin and covered her mouth with her hands so as not to scream.
The peaceful silence of the backyard, brightened up by the crackling of.AP Bio Chapter 21
Thank you Doing sports Doing It is noticeable Yevgeny Fyodorovich walk around and feel me with his nasty old hands. His bald head was sweating. He grabbed my chest, as if it were a woman's, stroked my back and stomach, squeezed my buttocks and thighs, again felt my penis and testicles. It was noticeable that he was very aroused, so what should I do with you.
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I looked inquiringly. He grinned, stuffing them into his pocket: We must show proof. This will be your check. Cash out. Or do you want to take them by the cheek as proof.