Nervio en ingles

Nervio en ingles DEFAULT

Int. J. Morphol., 27(1),


Anatomy of the Facial Nerve and its Implication in the Surgical Procedures


Anatomía del Nervio Facial y sus Implicancias en los Procedimientos Quirúrgicos


*Antonio de Castro Rodrigues; *Jesus Carlos Andreo; **Laura de Freitas Menezes; ***Tatiana Pimentel Chinellato & *Geraldo Marco Rosa Júnior

*Department of Biological Sciences, FOB / USP, Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
**Laboratory of Anatomy Intern FOB/USP/Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
*** University of Sacrated Heart, Student USC/Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Correspondence to:

SUMMARY: Facial palsy, parotid diseases and others are a relatively common clinical condition with a variety of causes. Irrespective of its etiology, facial palsy always represents a very serious problem for the patient. Parotid gland diseases also are very common occurrence. In this particular case, the knowledge of surgical anatomy of the facial nerve and its correlations with the parotid gland is very important for an adequate preservation in the cases of surgery of benign and malignant diseases of the parotid gland. Although the surgical anatomy of the facial nerve has been well documented, the concept of surgical treatment for parotid tumors, facial palsy (neurorraphy techniques) and submandibular surgical approach are rarely challenged now.

KEY WORDS: Facial nerve; Surgical anatomy; Facial palsy; Parotid gland.

RESUMEN: La parálisis facial, enfermedades de la parótida y otras patologías son una condición clínica relativamente común con una variedad de causas. Independientemente de su etiología, la parálisis facial siempre representa un problema muy serio para el paciente. Las enfermedades de la glándula parótida son también de una ocurrencia común. En este caso particular, el conocimiento de la anatomía quirúrgica del nervio facial y su correlación con la glándula parótida es de mucha importancia para una adecuada preservación de la misma, en casos de cirugía como tratamiento de enfermedades benignas o malignas. Aunque la anatomía quirúrgica del nervio facial es bien documentada, el concepto de tratamiento quirúrgico para los tumores parotídeos, parálisis facial (técnicas de neurorrafia) y acercamiento quirúrgico submandibular son raramente impugnados hoy en día.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Nervio facial; Anatomía quirúrgica; Parálisis facial; Glándula parótida.



The facial nerve consists of the facial nerve proper and the intermedius nerve. The former originates from motoneurons in the facial nucleus situated ventrolaterally in the caudal portion of the pons. The motor axons first turn dorso-medially towards the abducens nucleus round the dorsal side of this nucleus and then course ventrolaterally. Both the facial nerve proper and the intermedius nerve emerge from the CNS in the cerebellopontine angle at the caudal border of the pons, between the abducens nerve and the stato-acoustic nerve (Machado, ).

As it exits through the stylomastoid foramen, the extracranial portion of the facial nerve may be located 5 cm below the skin. Here, it immediately gives off branches to the auricular muscles, the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and the stylohyoid muscle. It supplies sensory (vagal) fibers to parts of the external auditory canal and some areas to the auricle, including the lobulus (Ranson & Clark, ; Barr & Kiernan, ; May & Schaitkin, ). The nerve then courses ventrally and at the posterior edge of the parotid gland, it splits into upper and lower divisions. Within the parotid gland, there is further branching with many individual variations (Davis et al., ). As a rule, the upper division of the facial nerve gives off temporal, zygomatic and buccal branches, whereas the lower division emits marginal mandibular and cervical branches.

There are 23 facial muscles, most of which are paired. In facial expressions, 17 muscles are activated (Freilinger et al, ).

The knowledge of surgical anatomy of the facial nerve and its correlations with the parotid gland and facial muscles are very important for an adequate preservation in the cases of surgery in this area. The iatrogenic injury in this facial region is very common. The choice of the surgical approach is very relevant in the parotid surgery because of the extreme anatomic variability of the parotideal area and the functional importance of the branches of facial nerve.


Fifteen cadavers were dissected. They came from Laboratory of Anatomy (University of Sao Paulo - FOB/ USP/Bauru). All of them were fixed in 10% formalin solution before dissection procedures. Ages ranged from 35 to 74 years, of which 12 were males and 3 females.

Dissection of the facial nerve of these cadavers was performed after opening the skin during the classes of the dentistry graduation course.

To dissect the facial nerve, facial muscles and parotid gland a surgical microscope (DF-Vasconcelos) was used in order to avoid sectioning delicate branches.

To obtain a descriptive explanation about the facial nerve and its branches proposed in this study, special dissecting instruments and digital photographic machine were utilized. Special attention was taken for observation of the branches going to the mimic muscles.


After emerging from stylomastoid foramen, the facial nerve gives off branches to the auricular muscles, the posterior belly of the digastricus muscle and the stylohyoid muscle before it penetrates in the posterior edge of the parotid gland. Inside parotid gland the facial nerve normally constitutes a small trunk about one cm longer. After that, it splits into upper and lower divisions. Within the parotid gland, there is further branching with many individual variations. It was found that the upper division of the facial nerve gives off temporal, zygomatic and buccal branches, whereas the lower division emits marginal mandibular and cervical branches (Fig.l). The latter innervate the platysma and may communicate with the cervical plexus and/or tertiary branches of the facial nerve are interconnected. Subsequently, the facial nerve branches leave de parotid gland and enter the face, where they continue further distally covered by the skin, subcutaneous tissue and facial muscles.

Fig Distribution of the facial nerve branches in the face. A. Draw of the facial nerve and its branches: rt (temporal branch); rz (zigomatic branch); rb (buccal branch); rm (marginal branch) and re (cervical branch). Note the relation between facial branches and masseter muscle (M). B. Dissection of the face used in this research. Note a superficial nerve from cervical plexus (Great auricular nerve) crossing the sternocleidomastoid muscle.


Posterior to the facial artery the marginal mandibular branch run above the inferior margin of the mandible and divided into two branches at the point of emergence from the parotid gland. The facial nerve branches normally penetrate de facial muscles for the deep surface. Some variations in this particular distribution could be found in some cadavers. For instance, zygomatic nerve branch passing over the zygomatic muscle was observed in two cadavers. As regard to the marginal mandibular branch, we could find that in the majority ran above the inferior border of the mandible. In some cases, below the inferior border of the mandible it was divided into two branches at the crossing point with the facial artery.


The surgical treatment for tumors, especially in the parotid gland, is rarely challenged at the present time, although the surgical anatomy of the facial nerve has been well documented. Heeneman () and de Ru (), claims that the principle with functional and anatomical preservations of all branches of the facial nerve whenever possible, the amount of normal tissue to be removed in continuity with the tumor is very difficult to manage during the surgery. For this reason we decided to do a short outline of anatomical relations between the facial nerve and its branches and other anatomical structures in the face in order to avoiding, isolating and protecting the referred nerve during surgical procedures.

Several descriptions about the parotid gland and its relation with the facial nerve can be found in the literature (Dingman & Grabb, ; Guerrero-Santos, ; Baker & Conley, ). By the other hand, the correlation between the anatomy of facial nerve and surgical procedures deserve more detailed descriptions. Some authors describe surface landmarks to identify the facial nerve branches (Furnas, ; Dingman & Grabb; Bernstein & Nelson, ; Niccoli-Filho & Varandas, ). It is important to notice that, because of the anterolateral course of the facial nerve, the peripheral branches are located more superficially.

In 28% of cases the facial nerve gives off five branches: temporal, zigomatic, bucal, marginal and cervical branches.

In relation to the temporal and zigomatic branchs, our results are similar to the Furnas. It is running between the lower part of the ear lobe and the lateral edge of the eyebrow. It is possible to reach this branch within an area bounded by a line from the earlobe to the lateral edge of the eyebrow inferior and a second line from the tragus to the lateral coronal suture just above and behind the highest forehead crease. In this area nerve injury near to the temporal vessels is more likely, since we could find great variability to the course of these vessels in relation to the temporal branches of the facial nerve.

The buccal branches of the facial nerve in relation to the parotid duct associated with surgical procedures such as rhytidectomy and parotid gland surgery are relevant. It was find a vertical and horizontal relationship between the buccal branches, tragus, and parotid duct. This relationship was variable in the studied specimens. We could find simple branch beneath and above the parotid duct. In one case buccal and other branches formed a plexus. Finally, it was possible observing two branches of buccal branch: one superior and one inferior to the duct at the point of emergence from the parotid gland. These results are similar to the others authors (Saylam et al., ).

The marginal branch deserves a very careful description. Normally this branch is described in relationship to the lower border of the mandible. In our dissections we could find that one or more rami of marginal branch formed a downward arc whose lowest point extended up cm below the inferior border of the mandible. This result is similar to the other authors that have found the same disposition in 19% of the studied specimens (Niccoli-Filho & Varandas). For this reason, an incision 3 cm beneath the inferior border of the mandible is recommended when it is necessary to reach the submandibular region.

Finally, the cervical branch normally is smaller if compared to the other branches. It emerges from inferior border of parotid gland and runs to the cervical region. It innervates the inferior portion of the platisma muscle while the superior portion is innervated for marginal branches. This result is different of Zani (). For this author the platisma muscle is totally innervated for cervical branches. Lesions in the cervical branch are not so important under functional point of view if compared to the other facial nerve branches.

In brief, the facial nerve can be injured in different regions besides cited above: a) it can be injured in the intracranial portion. In this case traumatic lesions such as skull base fractures are observed; b) it can be injured in the extracranial portion. In this case the facial nerve can be affected by a Schwannoma at its exit through the stylomastoideum foramen.

Furthermore, some other conditions, such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome, infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus infection, sarcoidosis, acute porphyries, amyloidosis and botulism may cause facial damage. Conduction block, or first-degree injury (Sunderland, ), is the mildest nerve lesion.


The authors thank Miss Vivian Cristina Rosa for the technical support.



Baker, D. C. & Conley, J. Avoiding facial nerve injuries in rhytidectomy. Anatomical variations and pitfalls. Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 64(6),         [&#;Links&#;]

Barr, M & Kiernan, J. The human nervous system: an anatomical viewpoint. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Harper & Row,         [&#;Links&#;]

Bernstein, L. & Nelson, R. H. Surgical anatomy of the extraparotid distribution of the facial nerve. Arch. Otolaryngol, (3),         [&#;Links&#;]

Davis, R. A.; Anson, B. J.; Budinger, J. M. & Kurth, L. R. Surgical anatomy of the facial nerve and parotid gland based upon a study of cervical facial halves. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., (4),         [&#;Links&#;]

de Ru, J. A.; van Benthem, P. P.; Bleys, R. L.; Lubsen, H. & Hordijk, G. J. Landmarks for parotid gland surgery. J. Laryngol. Otol, ,         [&#;Links&#;]

Dingman, R. O. & Grabb, W. C. Surgical anatomy of the mandibular ramus of the facial nerve based on the dissection of facial halves. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.TransplantBull., ,         [&#;Links&#;]

Freilinger, G; Happak, W.; Burggasser, G & Gruber, H. Histochemical mapping and fiber size analysis of mimic muscles. Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 86(3),         [&#;Links&#;]

Fumas, D. W. Landmarks for the trunk and temporal division of the facial nerve. Br. J. Surg., ,        [&#;Links&#;]

Guerrero-Santos, J. The role of the platysma muscle in rhytidoplasty. Clin. Plast. Surg., 5(1),         [&#;Links&#;]

Heeneman, H. Identification of the facial nerve in parotid surgery. Can. J. Otolaryngol, 4(1): ,         [&#;Links&#;]

Machado, A. Neuroanatomia functional. 2nd ed. Sao Paulo. Ed. Atheneu,         [&#;Links&#;]

May, M. & Schaifkin, B. The facial nerve. 2nd ed. New York, Thieme,         [&#;Links&#;]

Niccoli-Filho, W. & Varandas, J. T. Surgical anatomy of the facial nerve and the parotid gland. Rev. Odontol. USP, ,         [&#;Links&#;]

Ranson, S. & Clark, S. The anatomy of the nervous system-Its development and function. 10th ed. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Comp,         [&#;Links&#;]

Saylam, C; Ucerler, H.; Ornan, M.; Uckan, A. & Ozek, C Localization of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve. J. Craniofac. Surg., 18(1),         [&#;Links&#;]

Sunderland, S. Nerves and nerve injuries. 2nd ed. London, Churchill Livingstone,         [&#;Links&#;]

Zani, R. Ritidoplastias e Nervo Facial: Como Evitar as Lesoes dos seus Ramos. Rio de Janeiro, Ed. Revinter,         [&#;Links&#;]

Correspondence to:

Antonio de Castro Rodrigues, PhD
Department of Biological Science -Anatomy
Av. Otávio Pinheiro Brisóla - Aeroporto

Bauru/Sao Paulo
Email: [email protected]   



"parálisis del nervio obturador "

parálisis del nervio obturador | parálisis del nervio obturador | músculo obturador | nervio obturador | parálisis del nervio motor ocular externo | rama cutánea del nervio obturador -*- paralysis of the obturator nerve | Obturator neuropathy | obturator nerve | abducens paralysis 2.sixth nerve paralysis | Hughlings-Jackson syndrome | Obturator nerve cutaneous branch

parálisis del nervio obturador

paralysis of the obturator nerve

IATE - Health

parálisis del nervio obturador

Obturator neuropathy

SNOMEDCT-ES (trastorno) /

músculo obturador | nervio obturador

obturator nerve

IATE - Health

parálisis del nervio motor ocular externo

abducens paralysis 2.sixth nerve paralysis

IATE - Health

parálisis del nervio vago, nervios espinal e hipogloso

Hughlings-Jackson syndrome

SNOMEDCT-ES (trastorno) /

rama cutánea del nervio obturador

Obturator nerve cutaneous branch

SNOMEDCT-ES (estructura corporal) /

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Meaning of nerve in English

The section on anatomy is par ticularly useful for understanding how the nerves and muscles work.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

The effect of chronically elevated intraocular pressure on the rat optic nerve head extracellular matrix.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

The distance of the cell to the center of the optic nerve head was measured and taken as the cell's eccentricity.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Each micrograph in a pair is taken from the same eccentricity of the intact and nerve-transected retinas.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Analysis of the wave forms allows information to be obtained about the middle ear, the cochlea, the eighth nerve and the central auditory connections.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

It was no longer followed by movement of the muscle, as though the nerve vessel had been exhausted of fluid.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Experimental animals received a total of four crush injuries to the right facial nerve over the course of 1 year.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Direct and indirect activation of nerve cells by electrical pulses applied extracellularly.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Similarly, the nerve injury-induced proinflammatory gene expression in the spinal cord is also reduced in the toll-like receptor 2 knockout mice.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

The nerve injury-induced spinal cord microglia and astrocyte activation is reduced in the toll-like receptor 2 knockout mice.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

From there, efferent impulses are carried by the vagus and phrenic nerves to the stomach and abdominal musculature, resulting in vomiting.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

The inhibition of sodium currents in myelinated nerve by quaternary derivatives of lidocaine.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Cancer can cause peripheral neuropathy as a result of direct invasion or compression of the nerve or through remote (paraneoplastic) effects.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

See all examples of nerve

These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.



Dictionary Spanish-English

Si los músculos no funcionan correctamente, es

[] posible que elnervio cubitaltampoco lo haga.

If the muscles do not function properly, this may

[] indicate that the ulnar nerve is not functioning []


examen para evaluar la

[] función muscular y nerviosa; un examen de los músculos del antebrazo controlados por elnervio cubital.

a test to evaluate nerve and muscle function; a test of the forearm muscles controlled by the ulnar nerve.

El síndrome del túnel cubital se

[] produce cuando elnervio cubital,queatraviesa []

el túnel cubital (un túnel compuesto de


músculo, ligamento y hueso) ubicado en la parte interna del codo, se irrita como consecuencia de una lesión o presión.

Cubital tunnel syndrome

[] occurs when the ulnar nerve, which passes through []

the cubital tunnel (a tunnel of muscle, ligament,


and bone) on the inside of the elbow, becomes irritated due to injury or pressure.

El "huesito"

[] del codo es en realidad elnervio cubital,unnervioque cruza el codo (se inicia []

en la parte lateral del cuello


y se extiende hasta los dedos).

The "funny" bone in the elbow is

[] actually the ulnar nerve, a nerve thatcrosses the elbow (the ulnar nerve begins in the []

side of the neck and ends in the fingers).

Un examen de la mano y la muñeca puede

[] revelar la disfunción delnervio cubital.

An exam of the hand and

[] wrist can reveal ulnar nerve dysfunction.

El codo del celular, que también se conoce como síndrome del túnel cubital, corresponde al hormigueo o


adormecimiento en las manos causada por

[] comprensión delnervio cubital,quepuede ser []

causado por doblar el codo durante demasiado tiempo al hablar.

Cell phone elbow, otherwise known as cubital tunnel syndrome, is a tingling or


numbness in the hands caused by a

[] compression of the ulnar nerve, which can be brought []

on by flexing the elbow for too long while talking.

La neuropatía cubital ocurre

[] cuando hay daño alnervio cubital,el cual baja por []

todo el brazo.

Ulnar neuropathy occurs when there is

[] damage to the ulnar nerve, which travels down []the arm.

Es un problema con elnervio cubital,el cual va desde el hombro hasta la []

mano y permite el movimiento o la sensibilidad en la muñeca y la mano.

Ulnar nerve dysfunction is a problem with the ulnar nerve, which travels from []

the shoulder to the hand and allows movement


or sensation in the wrist or hand.

El daño a un

[] grupo de nervios, como elnervio cubital,se denomina mononeuropatía.

Damage to one nerve group, such as the ulnar nerve, is called a mononeuropathy.

Una presión prolongada sobre la base de la palma de la mano también puede

[] dañar parte delnervio cubital.

Long-term pressure on the base of the palm may also

[] damage part of the ulnar nerve.

Tiene síntomas de disfunción delnervio cubital.

You have symptoms of ulnar nerve dysfunction

Para palpar elnervio cubitalde una persona, []

agárrele la mano como si se la fuera a estrechar.

To feel a person&#;s ulnar nerve, hold their hand as []

if you were shaking hands with them.

Para examinar elnervio cubitalpedir a la persona []

separar el dedo meñique e intentar volver a llevarlo al mismo sitio con vuestro propio dedo.

To test the ulnar nerve, ask the person to []

hold out their little finger and then try to push it back with your own finger.

Si el nervio de un brazo se nota obviamente más

[] abultado que el del otro, quiere decir que la persona tiene engrosado elnervio cubital.

If the nerve in one arm feels obviously

[] larger than the nerve in the other, this means that the person has an enlarged ulnar nerve.

El daño alnervio cubitalpuede ser causado por

Damage to the ulnar nerve can be causedby

Puede aprender cómo hacer esto

[] palpándose su propionervio cubitaloelde sus amigos, []

esto le mostrará cómo es un nervio normal.

You can learn how to do this by

[] feeling your own ulnar nerve or a colleague&#;s - []

this will show you what a normal nerve feels like.

Elnervio cubital,en la parte posterior []

del codo, es el nervio que se engrosa más frecuentemente por la lepra.

The ulnar nerve, which is atthe back []

of the elbow, is the nerve most often enlarged in leprosy.

para palpar elnervio cubitalderecho.

Reverse your hands to examine the right ulnar nerve.

Se realiza la disección roma para proteger la rama

[] sensorial dorsal delnervio cubitalque se puede ver []

en la parte volar distal de la incisión.

Blunt dissection is carried down to protect the dorsal sensory

[] branch of the ulnar nerve, which may be seen []

on the volar distal portion of the incision.

Daño DelNervio CubitalImages & Health Info

Ulnar Nerve Damage Images & Health Info

Notará que elnervio cubitalessituado entre []

dos puntos de hueso.

You will feel the ulnar nerve lying betweentwo points []

of bone.

Neuropatía delnervio cubital;Parálisis delnervio cubital

Neuropathy - ulnar nerve; Ulnar nerve palsy

La persona de la imagen 3b tenía pérdida de sensibilidad en la palma de una mano,

[] engrosamiento delnervio cubitalyelfrotis cutáneo []

dio positivo.

The person in 3b had loss of feeling in the palm of one

[] hand, an enlarged ulnar nerve and a positive skin smear.

El tornillo penetra

[] dorsalmente en el cúbito, por lo que es importante taladrar con cuidado para evitar lesionar la arteria o elnervio cubital.

The screw enters the ulna dorsally, so cautious drilling is important to avoid injury to the ulnar artery or nerve.

El síndrome del túnel de Cubital es una

[] compresión delnervio cubitalen el codo.

Cubital tunnel syndrome is a

[] compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow.

Elnervio cubital-para palparlo (examinar) elnervio cubitalizquierdo coged el antebrazo izquierdo de la persona en vuestra mano izquierda; con vuestra mano derecha tocad detrás del codo izquierdo donde encontrareis elnervio cubitalen un hueco del []

codo interno.

The ulnar nerve - to palpate (examine) the left ulnar nerve, hold the person&#;s left forearm with your left hand; with your right hand feel behind the person&#;s left elbow, where you will find the ulnar nerve in a groove on the medial (inner) side.


En ingles nervio

Ataque de nervios

Psychological syndrome

Ataque de nervios (Spanish pronunciation:&#;[aˈtake ðe ˈneɾβjos]; Portuguese: ataque de nervos, Brazilian Portuguese:&#;[aˈtaki dʒi ˈneɾvʊs], EuropeanPortuguese:&#;[ɐˈtakɨ dɨ ˈneɾvuʃ], also known as "Puerto Rican syndrome"[1]) is a psychological syndrome mostly associated, in the United States, with Spanish-speaking people from the Caribbean, although commonly identified among all Iberian-descended cultures. Ataque de nervios translates into English as "attack of nerves",[2] although it is used in its common cultural form to refer to a specific pattern of symptoms, rather than being a general term for feeling nervous.[3] The condition appears in Appendix I of the revised fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) as a culture-bound syndrome.[4][5]


Despite comparisons to panic attacks, investigators have identified ataque de nervios as a separate syndrome with measured differences in anxiety sensitivity, and types of attacks. Marlene Steinberg, an Associate Research Scientist at Yale University stated that because it is similar to Multiple Personality Disorder, some Hispanics may be misdiagnosed with an ataque de nervios syndrome instead.[1][2][6]


Reported aspects of the syndrome include uncontrollable screaming or shouting, crying, trembling, sensations of heat rising in the chest and head, dissociative experiences, and verbal or physical aggression.[7][8][9] The reaction is usually associated with a stressful event relating to the family, although it is not specifically defined as arising from such occurrences.[10]


Ataque de nervios was first mentioned in Puerto Rico by US military psychiatrists who observed a young Puerto Rican experiencing unusual illness.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ abSteinberg, Marlene () Transcultural issues in psychiatry: The Ataque and multiple personality disorder; Dissociation 3(1)
  2. ^ abRazzouk D, Nogueira B, Mari Jde J (May ). "The contribution of Latin American and Caribbean countries on culture bound syndromes studies for the ICD revision: key findings from a working in progress". Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 33 Suppl 1: S5– doi/S PMID&#;
  3. ^Liebowitz, M. R.; Salmán, E.; Jusino, C. M.; Garfinkel, R.; Street, L.; Cárdenas, D. L.; Silvestre, J.; Fyer, A. J.; Carrasco, J. L.; Davies, S. (). "Ataque de nervios and panic disorder". American Journal of Psychiatry. (6): – doi/ajp PMID&#;
  4. ^American Psychiatric Association (1 January ). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition: DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Pub. p.&#;xxxiv. ISBN&#;.
  5. ^Yo Jackson (18 August ). Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology. SAGE Publications. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  6. ^Keough M. E., Timpano K. R., Schmidt N. B. (). "Ataques de nervios: culturally bound and distinct from panic attacks?". Depress. Anxiety. 26 (1): 16– doi/da PMID&#;CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^Lewis-Fernandez, R., Guarnaccia, P. J., Patel, S., Lizardi, D., & Diaz, N. (). Ataque de Nervios: Anthropological, epidemiological, and clinical dimensions of a cultural syndrome. In A. M. Georgiopoulos & J. F. Rosenbaum (Eds.), Perspectives in cross-cultural psychiatry. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  8. ^Rhoades, G., & Sar, V. (). Trauma and dissociation in a cross-cultural perspective: Not just a North American phenomenom. Binghamton, NY: The Hawthorn Press.
  9. ^Gherovici, P.; Christian, C. (). Psychoanalysis in the Barrios: Race, Class, and the Unconscious. Taylor & Francis. p.&#; ISBN&#;. Retrieved 29 August
  10. ^American Psychiatric Association (1 January ). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition: DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Pub. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
NERVE, NERVOUS, DARE - Pronunciación y frases en inglés útiles

Nervio cutáneo femoral lateral: Estudio anatómico. (Inglés)

Última actualización 19/08/05

Grothaus, Matthew C MD *; Holt, Marston MD *; Mekhail, Anis O MD *; Ebraheim, Nabil A MD *; Yeasting, Richard A PHD +


The purpose of our study was to determine the location of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and its branches at the inguinal ligament and proximal thigh. We think that further defining the location of the nerve and its branches based on certain measurements from known anatomic landmarks would enable us to determine a danger zone that could aid in preventing iatrogenic injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. The anatomic course of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was studied in 29 cadaver specimens and distances from various landmarks were recorded. In addition, the branching pattern of the nerves was recorded. We observed variability in the course and branching patterns of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was found to potentially be at risk as far as cm medial to the anterior superior iliac spine along the inguinal ligament and as much as cm distal on the sartorius muscle from the anterior superior iliac spine. As many as five branches of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve were found and in % of cases the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve branched before traversing the inguinal ligament. We used this information to describe a danger zone, which could be used as a guide to help prevent unnecessary injury during certain procedures.

Clinical Orthopaedics &#; Related Research. (), August


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